Butterflies of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India

Main Article Content

Arun P. Singh
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0981-9050
Sanjay Sondhi
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3970-6858

Abstract

Thirty percent of butterfly species that occur in India are found in the Garhwal region of the western Himalaya, which comprise six districts of Uttarakhand State with five major vegetation types lying between the catchments of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.  The annotated checklist compiled here for this region comprises 407 species and takes into account all the species recorded since 1899, when the first list of 323 species was prepared by Mackinnon & de Nicéville on the ‘butterflies of Mussoorie and its adjacent areas’.  Over a 20 year period (1986–1990; 2000–June 2015) the present authors maintained detailed notes and were able personally to record 349 species.  This information is presented in a checklist, together with details of the month, year and site of each record, relative abundance, Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (IWPA) status, as well as references of earlier records made by other authors in Garhwal for those species that the authors were not able to record themselves.  Forty-nine species recorded in the region have been placed under various schedules of IWPA; only one species, the Golden Emperor Dilipa morgiana Westwood, is listed in Schedule I Part IV, the others being mainly included under Schedule II Part II.  The paper also discusses new range extensions and significant records (past and present), identifies major biotic factors that threaten butterfly diversity in Garhwal, and suggests the scope for butterfly ecotourism in the state as an option for long term conservation. 

 

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Singh, A.P. and Sondhi, S. 2016. Butterflies of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 8, 4 (Apr. 2016), 8666–8697. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2254.8.4.8666-8697.
Section
Communications
Author Biographies

Arun P. Singh, Forest Entomology Division, Forest Research Institute, P.O. New Forest, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248006, India

Arun P. Singh, is currently working as a scientist with the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. His experience pertains to the conservation and ecology of butterflies and birds across the Himalaya, over the last two decades.  S

 

Sanjay Sondhi, Titli Trust, 49 Rajpur Road Enclave, Dhoran Khas, Near IT Park, P.O. Gujrada, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248001, India

Sanjay Sondhi, Founder Trustee Titli Trust, is a naturalist with an interest in Lepidoptera, herpetofauna and avifauna. He supports conservation research and action and conservation education programs in eastern and western Himalaya.

 

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