A history of primatology in India (In memory of Professor Sheo Dan Singh)

Main Article Content

Mewa Singh
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9198-0192
Mridula Singh
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1072-602X
Honnavalli N. Kumara
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7958-6395
Dilip Chetry
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0590-7352
Santanu Mahato
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4453-4859

Abstract

India harbors a wide diversity of primates with 24 species that include lorises, macaques, langurs and gibbons.  Systematic research on the primates in India started about 60 years ago.  In order to develop a historical perspective, we recognize three broad phases of primate research: largely natural history and base line research, primarily behavioral ecology research, and increasingly question and hypothesis-driven research.  We describe the old and the recent primate research in the country and suggest research areas for the future.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Mewa Singh, Mridula Singh, Honnavalli N. Kumara, Dilip Chetry and Santanu Mahato 2020. A history of primatology in India (In memory of Professor Sheo Dan Singh). Journal of Threatened Taxa. 12, 13 (Sep. 2020), 16715–16735. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6524.12.13.16715-16735.
Section
Reviews

References

Agoramoorthy, G. (1987). Reproductive behaviour in Hanuman Langur, Presbytis entellus. PhD Thesis. University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur.

Alfred, J.R.B., A. Murmu, P.C. Majumder & S. Chaudhuri (2004). A note on the primates of Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 102: 1–5.

Alfred, J.R.B. & J.P. Sati (1990). Survey and census of the Hoolock gibbon in West Garo Hills, Northeast India. Primates 31: 299–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02380951 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02380951

Ali, R. (1981). The ecology and social behaviour of the Agastyamalai Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata diluta). PhD Thesis. University of Bristol, Bristol.

Anand, S. (2019). Patterns and determinants of Human-Rhesus macaque conflict. PhD Thesis. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal.

Anand, S. & S. Radhakrishna (2020). Is Human–Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) conflict in India a case of human–human conflict? Ambio 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01324-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01324-w

Ashalakshmi, N.C., K.S.C. Nag & K.P. Karanth (2015). Molecules support morphology: species status of south Indian populations of the widely distributed Hanuman langur. Conservation Genetic 16: 43–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-014-0638-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-014-0638-4

Bala, M. (2013). Study on the ecology and behaviour of Hanuman Langur in Morni range Panchkula, Haryana. PhD Thesis. Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra.

Bhan, S. (1983). Development of social behavior in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants in free ranging habitats. PhD Thesis. Meerut University, Meerut.

Bishop, N.H. (1975). Social behaviour of langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus) in high altitude environment. PhD Thesis. University of California, Berkeley.

Biswas, J. (2004). Ecology and social behaviour of Golden Langur, Trachypithecus geei (Khajuria, 1956), in Assam, India. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Borah, D.K. (2010). Ecology and social behaviour of Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileatus (Blyth, 1843) and its conservation perspectives in Assam. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati

Borah, M. (2016). Feeding behaviour and analysis of food plant diversity of Hoolock hoolock in a tropical forest of Assam, India. PhD Thesis. Tezpur University, Tezpur.

Borries, C. (1989). Konkurrenz unter freilebenden Langurenweibchen (Presbytis entellus) – [Competition in wild female langurs (Presbytis entellus)]. PhD Thesis. Georg-August University, Gottingen.

Borries, C., V. Sommer & A. Srivastava (1991). Dominance, age, and reproductive success in free-ranging female Hanuman Langurs (Presbytis entellus). International Journal of Primatology 12: 231–257. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02547586 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02547586

Bose, J. (2005). An ecobehavioural study of Phayre’s Leaf Monkey Trachypithecus phayrei (Blyth, 1847). PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Chandel, N.K. (1981). Affiliation, attention and spacng mechanisms among free-reanging Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). PhD Thesis, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.

Chatterjee, M. (2013). An uncommon performing monkey: behavioural flexibility and social diversity in the Northern Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata radiata. PhD Thesis. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal.

Chauhan, A. (2009). A cognitive and behavioural study of human and monkey agonistic interactions. PhD Thesis. Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla.

Chhangani, A.K. (2000). Eco-behavioural diversity of langurs (Presbytis entellus) living in different eco systems. PhD Thesis. Jai Narayan Vyas University, Jodhpur.

Chetry, D. (2002). Socioecology of Stump-tailed Macaque, Macaca arctoides (I. Geoffroy, 1831). PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Choudhury, A. (1989). Primates of Assam: their distribution, habitat and status. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Cooper, M. (1998). Social tolerance in Assamese macaques. PhD Thesis. University of Georgia, Athens.

Cooper, M.A., F. Aureli & M. Singh (2004a). Between-group encounters among Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56: 217–227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-004-0779-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-004-0779-4

Cooper, M.A., M.S. Chaitra & M. Singh (2004b). Effect of dominance, reproductive state, and group size on body mass in Macaca radiata. International Journal of Primatology 25: 165–178. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000014648.12402.b6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000014648.12402.b6

Das, J. (2002). Socioecology of Hoolock Gibbon: Hylobates hoolock hoolock (Harlan, 1836) in response to habitat change. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Das, N. (2013). Ecology and behaviour of Bengal Slow Loris Nycticebus bengalensis (Lepecede, 1800) in Assam, India. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Das, R. (2012). Nutritional ecology of Golden Langur Trachypithecus geei (Khajuria, 1956) in Chirang reserve forest, Assam, India. PhD Thesis. North Orissa University, Baripada.

Deb, P. (2015). Habitat evaluation and status of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock Harlan, 1834) in some distributional ranges in Assam and Mizoram. PhD Thesis. Mizoram University, Aizawl.

Dolhinow, P.J. & D.G. Lindburg (1978). A population survey of forest-dwelling Rhesus monkeys (Primates: Cercopithecidae) in North India. Records of Zoological Survey of India 76: 207–219.

Dutta, A.N. (1992). Some aspects of ecobiology of Golden Langur Presbytis geei Khajuria of Assam. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Erinjery, J.J. (2016). A comparative study of life history traits, social systems and individual behavior of Lion-tailed macaques and Bonnet Macaques. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, Mysuru.

Erinjery, J.J., S. Kumar, H.N. Kumara, K. Mohan, T. Dhananjaya, P. Sundararaj & M. Singh (2017a). Losing its ground: A case study of fast declining populations of a ‘least-concern’ species, the Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata). PLoS One 12: e0182140. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182140 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182140

Erinjery, J.J., T.S. Kavana & M. Singh (2017b). Behavioural Variability in macaques and langurs of the Western Ghats, India. Folia Primatologica 88: 293-306. https://doi.org/10.1159/000480010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000480010

Erinjery, J.J., H.N. Kumara, T.S. Kavana & M. Singh (2015). Are interspecific associations of primates in the Western Ghats a matter of chance? A case study of the Lion-tailed Macaque. Journal of Tropical Ecology 32: 41-49. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467415000528 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467415000528

Green, S. & K. Minkowski (1977). The Lion-tailed monkey and its south Indian rain forest habitat, pp.289-337. In: Prince Rainier III, H. S. H. and G. H. Bourne (Eds.). Primate Conservation. Academic Press, New York, 658pp.

Gupta, A.K. (1997). Conservation ecology of primates and human impact in North East India. PhD Thesis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge.

Gupta, S. (2016). Other voices: gestural communication of wild Bonnet Macaques Macaca radiata in the Bandipur National Park, Southern India. PhD Thesis. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal.

Hrdy, S.B. (1975). Male and female strategies of reproduction among the langurs of Abu. PhD Thesis. Harvard University, Cambridge.

Hussain, S., M.S. Ram, A. Kumar, S. Shivaji & G. Umapathy (2013). Human presence increases parasitic load in endangered Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus) in its fragmented rainforest habitats in southern India. PLoS One 8: e63685. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063685 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063685

Imam, E. (2000). A study on some behavioural aspects of Rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta in Aligarh and adjoining districts. PhD Thesis. Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.

Imam, E., H.S.A. Yahya & I. Malik (2000). A successful mass translocation of commensal Rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta in Vrindaban, India. Oryx 36: 87–93. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605302000133 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605302000133

Islam, M. (2015). Status survey of Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) with special reference to habitat analysis, food analysis and anthropogenic pressure in the Inner Line Reserve Forest and its adjoining areas of Cachar District, Assam. PhD Thesis. Assam University, Silchar.

Jay, P. (1965). The common langur of North India, pp.197–249. In: I. DeVore (Eds.), Holt, Rinehart and Winston (eds.), Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes. New York, 654pp.

Joseph, G. (1999a). Ecology of Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in tropical forests of southern Western Ghats. PhD Thesis. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun.

Joseph, P. (1999b). Resource utilization by arboreal mammals with special reference to the Nilgiri Langur Presbytis johnii in the high ranges of Kerala. PhD Thesis. University of Calicut, Malappuram.

Kakati, K. (2005). Impact of forest fragmentation on the Hoolock Gibbon in Assam, India. PhD Thesis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge.

Karanth, K.U. (1985). Ecological status of the Lion-tailed Macaque and its rainforest habitats in Karnataka. Primate Conservation 6: 73–84.

Karr, J.A. (1973). Ecological and behavioural notes on the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in South India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 70: 191–193.

Kaumanns, W., N. Begum & H. Hofer (2020). “Animals are designed for breeding”: captive population management needs a new perspective. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 8: 76–85. https://doi.org/10.19227/jzar.v8i2.477

Kaumanns, W., E. Krebs & M. Singh (2005). An endangered species in captivity: Husbandry and management of the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus). My Science 1: 43–71.

Kaumanns, W., M. Singh & A. Sliwa (2013). Captive propagation of threatened primates-the example of the Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5: 4825–4839. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3625.4825-39 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3625.4825-39

Kavana, T.S. (2015). A comparative study of life history traits, social systems and individual behaviour of Hanuman Langurs and Nilgiri Langurs. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, Mysuru.

Kavana, T.S., J.J. Erinjery & M. Singh (2015). Folivory as a constraint on social behaviour of langurs in south India. Folia Primatologica 86: 420–431. https://doi.org/10.1159/000438990 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000438990

Khaleel, M. (2020). Distribution, activity budget and feeding ecology of Himalayan Gray Langur in Kashmir Himalayas. PhD Thesis. Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru.

Khan, W. (1980). Effect of urban environment on social, emotional and curiosity behaviors in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at different age levels. PhD Thesis. Meerut University, Meerut.

Krishna, B.A. (2007). Social hierarchy and parental investment pattern in female Lion-tailed Macaques. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, Mysuru.

Krishna, B.A., M. Singh, M. Singh & W. Kaumanns (2008). Infant development and weaning in Macaca silenus in the natural habitats of the Western Ghats, India. Current Science 94: 347–355.

Krishnamani, R. (2002). Phyto-ecology of the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) habitats in Southern India. PhD Thesis. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.

Kumar, A. (1987). The ecology and population dynamics of the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in South India. PhD Thesis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge.

Kumar, A. (2006). Studies on ecological and behavioural aspects of Capped Langur, Trachypithecus pileatus (Blyth, 1843) in Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India. PhD Thesis. North Eastern Hill University, Shillong.

Kumar, A., S. Molur & S. Walker (1995). Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (P.H.V.A.) Workshop for Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus), Madras, 1993. Zoo Outreach Organisation/CBSG, India, Coimbatore, India, 110pp.

Kumar, P. (1992). Ecology and behaviour of Rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta and Hanuman langurs Presbytis entellus in Shimla. PhD Thesis. Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla.

Kumar, R. (2012). Distribution, demography and behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops of Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata) and Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in peninsular India. PhD Thesis. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal.

Kumar, S. (2019). Population status and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in selected primates of India: A special emphasis on Bonnet macaque Macaca radiata. PhD Thesis. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.

Kumar, R., S. Radhakrishna & A. Sinha (2011). Of least concern? Range extension by Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) threatens long-term survival of Bonnet Macaques (M. radiata) in peninsular India. International Journal of Primatology 32: 945–959. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-011-9514-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-011-9514-y

Kumar, R., A. Sinha & S. Radhakrishna (2013). Comparative demography of two commensal macaques in India: implications for population status and conservation. Folia Primatologica 84: 384–393. https://doi.org/10.1159/000351935 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000351935

Kumara, H.N. & A. Singh (2020). Population status of Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) in Himachal Pradesh. Technical Report, Salimali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore.

Kumara, H.N. & M. Singh (2004). Distribution and abundance of primates in rain forests of the Western Ghats, Karnataka, India and the conservation of Macaca silenus. International Journal of Primatology 25: 1001–1018. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000043348.06255.7f DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000043348.06255.7f

Kumara, H.N., M. Singh & S. Kumar (2006). Distribution, habitat correlates, and conservation of Loris lydekkerianus in Karnataka, India. International Journal of Primatology 27: 941–969. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-006-9054-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-006-9054-z

Kurup, G.U. (1984). Nonhuman primate census surveys in southern India, pp57–65. In: Roonwal, M.L., S.M. Mohnot, S.M. & N.S. Rathore (eds.). Current Primate Researches. Department of Zoology, University of Jodhpur, 627pp.

Lata, K. (1981). Impact of urban environment on the development of cognitive behavior in Rhesus monkeys. PhD Thesis. Meerut University, Meerut.

Lindburg, D.G. (1971). The Rhesus Monkey in North India: An ecological and behavioral study, pp. 1–106. In: Rosenblum, L.A. (eds.), Primate Behavior: Developments in Field and Laboratory Research. Volume 2. Academic Press, New York, 267pp.

Makwana, S.C. (1979a). Infanticide and social change in two groups of the Hanuman Langur, Presbytis entellus, at Jodhpur. Primates 20: 293–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02373381 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02373381

Makwana, S.C. (1979b). (Field) ecology and behaviour of the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmerman, 1780). PhD Thesis. University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur.

Malik, I. (1989). Population growth and stabilizing age structure of the Tughlaqabad rhesus. Primates 30: 117–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381218 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381218

Malik, I., P.K. Seth & C.H. Southwick (1984). Population growth of free‐ranging Rhesus monkeys at Tughlaqabad. American Journal of Primatology 7: 311–321. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350070402 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350070402

Mallapur, A. (2005). The welfare of captive Lion-tailed Macaques housed in Indian zoos. PhD Thesis. University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Mallapur, A., N. Waran & A. Sinha (2005). Use of enclosure space by captive Lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) housed in Indian zoos. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 8: 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327604jaws0803_2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327604jaws0803_2

Mangalam, M., N. Desai & M. Singh (2014). Division of labor in hand usage in free‐ranging Bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata. American Journal of Primatology 76: 576–585. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22250 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22250

Mangalam, M., N. Desai & M. Singh (2016). Division of labour: a democratic approach towards understanding manual asymmetries in non-human primates. Current Science 110: 1630–1638.

Mathur, R. & B.R. Manohar (1990). Splitting in Presbytis entellus groups. Behavioural Processes 22: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-6357(90)90002-W DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-6357(90)90002-W

Mathur, R. & M.B. Ram (1992). Rate of takeovers in groups of Hanuman Langurs (Presbytis entellus) at Jaipur. Folia Primatologica 58: 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1159/000156610 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000156610

McCann, C. (1933). Observations on some of the Indian langurs. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 36: 618–628.

Medhi, R. (2004). Behaviour of Golden langur, Trachypithecus geei (Khajuria, 1956) in a riverine island. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Menon, S. (1993). Ecology and conservation of the endangered Lion-tailed macaque in the landscape mosaic of the Western Ghats. PhD Thesis. The Ohio State University, Ohio.

Mishra, P.S. (2020). A atudy on the aggression and post-conflict affiliation in Nicobar Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis umbrosa). PhD Thesis. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.

Mishra, P.S., A. Pal, A.D. Velankar, H.N. Kumara & M. Singh (2020a). Do males bond? A study of male-male relationships in Nicobar long-tailed macaques Macaca fascicularis umbrosus. Journal of Biosciences 45: 22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12038-020-9995-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12038-020-9995-y

Mishra, P.S., A. Pal, A.D. Velankar, H.N. Kumara, M. Singh & M. Cooper (2020b). Does rank rule? Rank-related grooming patterns in Nicobar long-tailed macaques Macaca fascicularis umbrosus. Primates 61: 443–453. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-020-00807-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-020-00807-4

Mitra, S. (2000). Eco behavioural study of the Assamese macaque. PhD Thesis. The University of Burdwan, Bardhaman.

Mohnot, S.M. (1971). Some aspects of social changes and infant-killing in the Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus (Primates: Cercopithecidae), in western India. Mammalia 35: 175–198. https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.1971.35.2.175 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.1971.35.2.175

Mohnot, S.M. (1974). Ecology and behaviour of the common Indian langur Presbytis entellus. PhD Thesis. University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur.

Mohnot, S.M. (1984). Research potential of Jodhpur langurs (Presbytis entellus), pp.47-55. In: Roonwal, M.L., S.M. Mohnot & N.S. Rathore (eds.), Current Primate Researches. Department of Zoology, University of Jodhpur, 627pp.

Molur, S., D. Brandon-Jones, W. Dittus, A. Eudey, A. Kumar, M. Singh, M.M. Feeroz, M. Chalise, P. Priya & S. Walker (2003). Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Management (C.A.M.P.) Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organisation / CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India, viii+432pp.

Molur, S., S. Walker, A. Islam, P. Miller, C. Srinivasuly, P.O. Nameer, B.A. Daniel & L. Ravikumar (Eds.) (2005). Conservation of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock hoolock) in India and Bangladesh. Zoo Outreach Organisation/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India, 132pp.

Mukherjee, R.P. & C.D. Mukherjee (1972). Group composition and population density of Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann)) in northern India. Primates 13: 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01757937 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01757937

Nekaris K.A.I. (2000). The socioecology of the Mysore slender loris in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, South India. PhD Thesis. Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (MO).

Newton, P.N. (1984). The ecology and social organization of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus Dufresne, 1797) in Kanha Tiger Reserve, central Indian highlands. PhD Thesis. University of Oxford, Oxford.

Nolte, A. (1955). Field observations on the daily routine and social behavior of common Indian monkeys with special reference to the Bonnet Monkey (Macaca radiata Geoffroy). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 53: 177–184.

Oates, J.F. (1979). Comments on the geographical distribution and status of the South Indian Black Leaf-monkey (Presbytis johnii). Mammalia 43: 485–494. https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.1979.43.4.485 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.1979.43.4.485

Oates, J.F., P.G. Waterman & G.M. Choo (1980). Food selection by the south Indian Leaf-monkey, Presbytis johnii, in relation to leaf chemistry. Oecologia 45: 45–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00346706 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00346706

Ojha, P.R. (1979). Ethology and ecology of the Rhesus Monkey, Mucaca mulatta. PhD Thesis. University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur.

Pal, A. (2018). A study on the reproductive behavior of Nicobar long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis umbrosus) in Great Nicobar Island, India. PhD Thesis. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal.

Pal, A., H.N. Kumara, A.D. Velankar, P.S. Mishra & M. Singh (2018a). Demography and birth seasonality in the Nicobar long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis umbrosus). Current Science 114: 1732–1737. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18520/cs/v114/i08/1732-1737

Pal, A., H.N. Kumara, P.S. Mishra, A.D. Velankar & M. Singh (2018b). Extractive foraging and tool-aided behaviors in the wild Nicobar long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis umbrosus). Primates 59: 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-017-0635-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-017-0635-6

Patil, S.N. (2019). Studies on present status and invasion of Hanuman langur Seminopithecus entellus into human habitation in Bidar district of Karnataka. PhD Thesis. Gulbarga University, Kalaburagi.

Pirta, R.S. (1983). Cooperative behaviour in Rhesus monkeys living in urban and forest areas. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Sciences) 92: 199–205. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03186187 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03186187

Pirta, R.S. (1984). Maintenance of cooperative life in forest and urban Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Sciences) 93: 83–89. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03186064 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03186064

Poirier, F.E. (1970). The Nilgiri langur (Presbytis johnii) of South India, pp251–383. In: L.A. Rosenblum (eds.), Primate Behavior: Developments in Field and Laboratory Research. Volume 1. Academic Press, New York, 400pp.

Radhakrishna, S. (2001). Reproductive and social behaviour of the Slender Loris (Loris tardigradus) in its natural habitat. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, Mysuru.

Radhakrishna, S. (2018). Primate tales: using literature to understand changes in human–primate relations. International Journal of Primatology 39: 878–894. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-018-0035-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-018-0035-9

Radhakrishna, S., A. Datta-Roy, N. Swapna & A. Sinha (2010). Population survey of the Bengal slow loris, Nycticebus bengalensis, in Meghalaya, Northeast India. Primate Conservation 105–110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1896/052.025.0102

Radhakrishna, S. & M. Singh (2002). Social behaviour of the Slender loris (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus). Folia Primatologica73: 181–196. https://doi.org/10.1159/000065426 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000065426

Radhakrishna, S. & M. Singh (2004). Reproductive biology of the Slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus). Folia Primatologica 75: 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1159/000073424 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000073424

Radhakrishna, S., H.N. Kumara & R. Sasi (2011). Distribution patterns of Slender loris subspecies (Loris lydekkerianus) in Kerala, southern India. International Journal of Primatology 32: 1007–1019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-011-9518-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-011-9518-7

Rajpurohit, D.S. (2005). Study the dominance hierarchy and its role in social organisation in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus entellus (Dufresne, 1797) Rajasthan, India. PhD Thesis. Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur.

Rajpurohit, L.S. (1987). Male social organisation in Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus). PhD Thesis. University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur.

Ram, M.S. (2018).Studies on reproductive and genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation on endangered Lion-tailed Macaque populations in the fragmented rainforests of Western Ghats. PhD Thesis. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

Ram, M.S., M. Marne, A. Gaur, H.N. Kumara, M. Singh, A. Kumar & G. Umapathy (2015). Pre-historic and recent vicariance events shape genetic structure and diversity in endangered Lion-tailed Macaque in the Western Ghats: Implications for Conservation. PLoS One 10: e0142597. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142597 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142597

Ramakrishnan, U. (1999). The ontogeny of anti-predator behavior in Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata). PhD Thesis. University of California, Davis.

Ratnam, J. (2002). Ecological and social correlates of foraging decisions in a social forager, the Bonnet macaque, Macaca radiata diluta. PhD Thesis. Syracuse University, New York.

Roonwal, M.L. & S.M. Mohnot (1977). Primates of South Asia: Ecology, Sociobiology, and Behavior. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 448pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674432215

Roonwal, M.L., S.M. Mohnot & N.S. Rathore (1984). Current Primate Researches. Department of Zoology, University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur, India, 627pp.

Ross, C., A. Srivastava & R.S. Pirta (1993). Human influences on the population density of Hanuman langurs Presbytis entellus and Rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Shimla, India. Biological Conservation 65: 159–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(93)90445-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(93)90445-7

Roy, K. (2011). Resource partitioning in three sympatric primates in the rainforests of the Northern Western Ghats. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, Mysuru.

Roy, K., H. Nautiyal & S. Dasgupta (2015). A preliminary study of activity budget of post released Eastern Hoolock gibbon Hoolock leuconedys (Mammalia: Primates: Hylobatidae) in Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7: 7862–7869. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3869.7862-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3869.7862-9

Sahoo, S.K. (1993). Agonistic behavior of Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in Shimla. PhD Thesis. Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla.

Santhosh, K. (2017). Study of the population, ecology and conservation of Lion-tailed macaque Macaca silenus in Sirsi-Honnavara, Western Ghats, Karnataka. PhD Thesis. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.

Santhosh, K., H.N. Kumara, A.D. Velankar & A. Sinha (2015). Ranging behavior and resource use by Lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in selectively logged forests. International Journal of Primatology 36: 288-310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-015-9824-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-015-9824-6

Sarkar, P. (2000). Ecology and dynamics of social relationships of Assamese macaque: Macaca assamensis (McClelland, 1839). PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.

Sarma, K. (2015). Studies on population status, behavioural and habitat ecology of Eastern Hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) in Arunachal Pradesh, India. PhD Thesis. North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), Nirjuli.

Sasi, R. (2018). Geographical mapping and ecological impact of lion-tailed macaque and slender loris in Southern India. PhD Thesis. University of Madras, Chennai.

Schlotterhausen, L. (2000). Town monkeys, country monkeys: A socioecological comparison of a human commensal and wild group of Bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). PhD Thesis. New York University, New York.

Sekhsaria, P. (2015). KMTR’s one-mile corridor. Sanctuary Asia 45–49.

Sengupta, A. (2015). Seed dispersal by Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). PhD Thesis. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal.

Seth, P.K. & S. Seth. (1983a). Brief report: Population dynamics of free‐ranging rhesus monkeys in different ecological conditions in India. American Journal of Primatology 5: 61–67. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350050107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350050107

Seth, P.K. & S. Seth. (1983b). Perspectives in Primate Biology Volume I. Today & Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, 242pp.

Seth, P.K. & S. Seth. (1989a). Perspectives in Primate Biology Volume II. Today & Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, 208pp.

Seth, P.K. & S. Seth. (1989b). Perspectives in Primate Biology Volume III. Today & Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, 260pp.

Sharma, A.B.A. (2002). A study of reproductive behaviour of Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in the rain forests of Western Ghats. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, Mysuru.

Sharma, A.K., M. Singh, W. Kaumanns, E. Krebs, M. Singh, M.A. Kumar & H.N. Kumara (2006). Birth patterns in wild and captive Lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). International Journal of Primatology 27: 1429–1439. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-006-9077-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-006-9077-5

Sharma, G. (2007). Paternal care in Hanuman Langur Semnopithecus entellus in and around Jodhpur. PhD Thesis. Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur.

Sharma, N. (2013). Primates on the edge: Ecology and conservation of primate assemblages in the fragmented lowland rainforests of the Upper Brahmaputra Valley, Northeastern India. PhD Thesis. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal.

Sharma, R.K. (2009). Ecology and behaviour of the Rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta in the Aravali ranges. PhD Thesis. Maharaja Ganga Singh University, Bikaner.

Simonds, P.E. (1965). The Bonnet macaque in South India, pp175–196. In: I. DeVore (Eds.), Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 654pp.

Singh, M. (2019). Management of forest-dwelling and urban species: Case studies of the Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) and the Bonnet macaque (M. radiata). International Journal of Primatology 40: 613–629. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-019-00122-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-019-00122-w

Singh, M., W. Kaumanns, M. Singh, H.S. Sushma & S. Molur (2009). The Lion-tailed macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae): conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 1: 151–157. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2000.151-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2000.151-7

Singh, M., B.A. Krishna & M. Singh (2007). Maternal parental investment in the Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus): Dominant females are biased towards sons. Psychological Studies 52: 348–356.

Singh, M., M.A. Kumar, H.N. Kumara & S.M. Mohnot (2000). Distribution and conservation of Slender lorises (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus) in southern Andhra Pradesh, South India. International Journal of Primatology 21: 721–730. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005573506489 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005573506489

Singh, M., K. Roy & M. Singh (2011). Resource partitioning in sympatric langurs and macaques in tropical rainforests of the central Western Ghats, South India. American Journal of Primatology 73: 335–346. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20900 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20900

Singh, M., A. Udhayan, M.A. Kumar, H.N. Kumara & D.G. Lindburg (1999). Status survey of Slender loris Loristardigradus lydekkerianus in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India. Oryx 33: 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3008.1999.00033.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3008.1999.00033.x

Singh, P. (2017). Parental investment patterns in relation to dominance status in Bonnet macaque Macaca Radiata. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, Mysuru.

Singh, R. (1981). Study of behavioral patterns of age sex classes during transitional periods in free ranging Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta). PhD Thesis. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.

Singh, S.D. (1968). Effect of urban environment on visual curiosity behavior in Rhesus monkeys. Psychonomic Science 11: 83–84.

Singh, S.D. (1969). Urban monkeys. Scientific American 221: 108–115.

Singh, S.D. (1977). Effects of infant-infant separation of young monkeys in a free-ranging natural environment. Primates 18: 205–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02382959 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02382959

Singh, S.D. (1980). Xenophobic reactions of free-ranging Rhesus infant groups raised in natural habitat. Primates 21: 492–497. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02373837 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02373837

Singh, S.D. & S.N. Manocha (1966). Reactions of the Rhesus Monkey and the langur in novel situations. Primates 7: 259–262. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730791 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730791

Sinha, A. (2001). Report on the Monkey in the Town’s Commons: A Natural History of the Indian Bonnet Macaque. Report to National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru.

Sinha, A., A. Datta, M.D. Madhusudan & A. Mishra (2005). Macaca munzala: A new species from Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern India. International Journal of Primatology 26: 977-989. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-005-5333-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-005-5333-3

Sinha, A. & K. Mukhopadhyay (2013). The monkey in the town’s commons, Revisited: An anthropogenic history of the Indian Bonnet Macaque, pp187–208. In: Radhakrishna, S., M.A. Huffman & A. Sinha (Eds.), The Macaque Connection: Cooperation and Conflict Between Humans and Macaques. Springer, xii+256pp.

Sinha, A., K. Mukhopadhyay, A. Datta-Roy & S. Ram (2005). Ecology proposes, behaviour disposes: ecological variability in social organization and male behavioural strategies among wild Bonnet macaques. Current Science 89: 1166–1179.

Solanki, G.S. (1987). Ecology and behavoiur of Capped Langur in Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary, India. PhD Thesis. Saurashtra University, Rajkot.

Sommer, V. (1985). Weibliche und männliche reproduktionssstrategien der Hanuman-Languren (Presbytis entellus) von Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. PhD Thesis. University of Göttingen, Gottingen.

Sommer, V. & S.M. Mohnot (1985). New observations on infanticides among Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) near Jodhpur (Rajasthan/India). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 16: 245–248. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00310987 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00310987

Southwick, C.H., M.A. Beg & M.R. Siddiqi (1961a). A population survey of Rhesus monkeys in villages, towns and temples of northern India. Ecology 42: 538–547. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1932240

Southwick, C.H., M.A. Beg & M.R. Siddiqi (1961b). A population survey of Rhesus monkeys in northern India: II. Transportation routes and forest areas. Ecology 42: 698–710. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1933499

Southwick, C.H., M.A. Beg & M.R. Siddiqi (1965). Rhesus monkeys in North India, pp111–159. In: I. DeVore (Eds.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston (eds.). Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes, New York, 654pp.

Southwick, C.H. & M.R. Siddiqi (1966). Population changes of Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in India, 1959 to 1965. Primates 7: 303–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730644 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730644

Southwick, C.H. & M.F. Siddiqi (1977). Population dynamics of Rhesus monkeys in northern India, pp. 339–362. In: Bourne Rainier III (eds.). Primate Conservation. Academic Press, New York, 658pp.

Southwick, C.H. & M.F. Siddiqi (1988). Partial recovery and a new population estimate of Rhesus monkey populations in India. American Journal of Primatology 16: 187–197. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350160302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350160302

Southwick, C.H. & M.F. Siddiqi (2001). Status, conservation and management of primates in India. ENVIS Bulletin 81–91.

Srivastava, A. (1989). Feeding ecology and behaviour of Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus. PhD Thesis. University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur.

Srivastava, A. (1999). Primates of Northeast India. Megadiversity Press, New Delhi, 208pp.

Suganthasakthivel, R. (2011). Ecology and behavior of selected arboreal mammals in the southern Western Ghats, India. PhD Thesis. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun.

Sugiyama, Y. (1964). Group composition, population density and some sociological observations of Hanuman langurs. Primates 5: 7–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01791642 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01791642

Sugiyama, Y. (1965). On the social change of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in their natural condition. Primates 6: 381–418. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730356 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730356

Sugiyama, Y. (1966). An artificial social change in a Hanuman langur troop (Presbytis entellus). Primates 7: 41–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730557 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730557

Sugiyama, Y. (1968). The ecology of the Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus (Linnaeus)): A pilot study. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 65: 283–292.

Sugiyama, Y. (1971). Characteristics of the social life of Bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Primates 12: 247-266. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730414 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730414

Sugiyama, Y. (1976). Characteristics of the ecology of the Himalayan langurs. Journal of Human Evolution 5: 249–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/0047-2484(76)90029-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0047-2484(76)90029-4

Sugiyama, Y. (1984). Some aspects of infanticide and intermale competition among langurs, Presbytis entellus, at Dharwar, India. Primates 25: 423–432. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381665 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381665

Sushma, M.S. (2004). Resource utilization and niche separation in sympatric rainforest arboreal mammals. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, Mysuru.

Sushma, H.S. & M. Singh (2006). Resource partitioning and interspecific interactions among sympatric rain forest arboreal mammals of the Western Ghats, India. Behavioral Ecology 17: 479–490. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arj058 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arj058

Swapna, N., A. Gupta & S. Radhakrishna (2008). Distribution survey of Bengal Slow loris Nycticebus bengalensis in Tripura, northeastern India. Asian Primates Journal 1: 37–40.

Thierry, B., M. Singh & W. Kaumanns (Eds.). (2004). Macaque Societies: A Model for the Study of Social Organization. Cambridge University Press, 418pp.

Tiwari, S., M. Reddy, M. Pradheeps, G.S. Sreenivasamurthy & G. Umapathy (2017). Prevalence and co-occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in Nilgiri Langurs (Trachypithecus johnii) of fragmented landscape in Anamalai Hills., Western Ghats, India. Current Science 113: 2194–2200.

Umapathy, G. (1998). Impacts of habitat fragmentation on the arboreal mammals in the wet evergreen forests of the Anamalai Hills in the Western Ghats, South India. PhD Thesis. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.

Umapathy, G. & A. Kumar (2000). The occurrence of arboreal mammals in the rain forest fragments in the Anamalai Hills, south India. Biological Conservation 92: 311–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00097-X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00097-X

Umapathy, G., M. Singh & S.M. Mohnot (2003). Status and distribution of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa in the Nicobar Islands, India. International Journal of Primatology 24: 281–293. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023045132009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023045132009

Velankar, A.D., H.N. Kumara, A. Pal, P.S. Mishra & M. Singh (2016). Population recovery of Nicobar Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India. PLoS One 11: e0148205. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148205

Vogel, C. (1988). Sociobiology of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus): Introduction into the Jodhpur field project. Human Evolution 3: 217. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02435854 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02435854

Winkler, P. (1981). Zur oko-ethologie freilebender Hanuman Languren (Presbytis entellus entellus Dufresne, 1797) in Jodhpur (Rajasthan), India. PhD Thesis. University of Gottingen, Gottingen.

Winkler, P., H. Loch & C. Vogel (1984). Life history of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Folia Primatologica 43: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1159/000156167 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000156167

Wolfe, L.D. (1992). Feeding habits of the Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of Jaipur and Galta, India. Human evolution 7: 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02437477 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02437477

Zothansiama (2013). Socio-ecology and breeding behaviours of Stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) in Mizoram. PhD Thesis. Mizoram University, Aizawl.

Most read articles by the same author(s)