Main Article Content
Activity pattern of the Golden Jackal was studied by camera trapping survey in an urban influenced protected habitat in Odisha, eastern India from January to April 2019. A total of 552 independent photos of Golden Jackals were obtained from 771 trap nights. Although Golden Jackals were active throughout the day, they showed two major peaks in activity; the first peak during late evening after sunset, and the second peak during early morning until sunrise. The reduced activity of Golden Jackal during day time in the present study area might be due to less movement of prey species, intense heat, and heavy human traffic.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27126.96.36.19953-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Barrueto, M., A.T. Ford & A.P. Clevenger (2014). Anthropogenic effects on activity patterns of wildlife at crossing structures. Ecosphere 5(3): 27. https://doi.org/10.1890/ES13-00382.1
Fox, M.W. (2009). The Wild Canids. Their Systematics, Behavioural Ecology and Evolution. Dogwise Publishing, Wenatchee, USA, 508pp.
Gaynor, K.M., C.E. Hojnowski, N.H. Carter & J.S. Brashares (2018). The influence of human disturbance on wildlife nocturnality. Science 360: 1232–1235. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar7121
Georgiev, D., A. Mechev, E. Stoeva, G. Dilovski & A. Pavlova (2015). On the activity of two medium-sized canids: the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) and the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Natural Bark “Sinite Kamani” (Bulgaria) revealed by camera traps. ZooNotes 69: 1–4.
Giannatos, G., Y. Marinos, P. Maragou & G. Catsadorakis (2005). The status of the golden jackal (Canis aureus L.) in Greece. Belgian Journal of Zoology 134: 37–42.
Gupta, S., A. Sanyal, G.K. Saha & A.K. Ghosh (2016). Diurnal activity pattern of Golden Jackal (Canis aureus Linn.) in an urban landscape of Kolkata, India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society 69: 75–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12595-014-0119-2
Ilemin, Y. & B. Gürkan (2010). Status and activity patterns of the Caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776), in Datca and Bozdurun Peninsulas, Southwestern Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 50: 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2010.10638405
Jaeger, M.M., E. Haque, P. Sultana & R.L. Bruggers (2007). Daytime cover, diet and space use of golden jackals (Canis aureus) in agro-ecosystem of Bangladesh. Mammalia 71: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1515/MAMM.2007.016
Jenks, K.E., E.O. Aikens, N. Songsasen, J. Calabrese, C. Fleming, N. Bhumpakphan, S. Wanghongsa, B. Kanchanasaka, M. Songer & P. Leimgruber (2015). Comparative movement analysis for a sympatric dhole and golden jackal in a human-dominated landscape. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 63: 546–554.
Jhala, Y.V. & P.D. Moehlman (2004). Golden jackal (Canus aureus), pp. 156–161. In: Sillero-Zubiri, C., M. Hoffmann & D.W. Macdonald (eds.). Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, UK, x+430pp.
Kachamakova, M. & D. Zlatanova (2014). Behaviour of Eurasian Lynx, Lynx lynx (L.), in captivity during the breeding Season. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 66: 365–371.
Katuwal, H.B. & S. Dahal (2013). Golden Jackals in human dominated landscapes of the Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal. Vertebrate Zoology 63: 329–334.
Majumder, A., K. Sankar, Q. Qureshi & S. Basu (2011). Food habits and temporal activity patterns of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus and the Jungle Cat Felis chaus in Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(11): 2221–2225. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2713.2221-5
Menon, V. (2014). Indian Mammals - A Field Guide. Hachette Book Publishing India Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, India, 528pp.
Mukherjee, S., S.P. Goyal, A.J.T. Johnsingh & M.R.P.L. Pitman (2004). The importance of rodents in the diet of Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Caracal (Caracal caracal) and Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Zoology 262: 405–411. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903004783
Mukherjee, A., H.N. Kumara & S. Bhupathy (2018). Golden jackal’s underground shelters: natal site selection, seasonal burrowing activity and pup rearing by a cathemeral canid. Mammal Research 63: 325–339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-018-0356-2
O’Brien, T.G., M.F. Kinnaird & H.T. Wibisono (2003). Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Animal Conservation 6: 131–139. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943003003172
Ojha, A.P., G. Sharma & L.S. Rajpurohit (2017). Ecology and conservation of golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 9: 2491–2495. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v9i4.1559
Rotem, G., H. Berger, R. King, P. Bar (Kutiel) & D. Saltz (2011). The effect of anthropogenic resources on the space-use patterns of Golden Jackals. Journal of Wildlife Management 75: 132–136. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.9
Seidensticker, J. (1976). On the ecological separation between tigers, leopards. Biotropica 8: 225–234. https://doi.org/10.2307/2989714
Servin, J., J. Rau & M. Delibes (1991). Activity pattern of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in Donana, SW Spain. Acta Theriologica 36: 369–373.
Sheldon, J.W. (1992). Wild dogs: the natural history of the no domestic Canidae. Academic press, San Diego, 240pp.
Thorsen, N.H. (2016). Anthropogenic effects on spatiotemporal activity patterns and interactions in a predator-prey assemblage. MSc Thesis. Norwegian University of Life, vi+37pp.
Wrangham, R.W. & D.I. Rubenstein (1986). Social evolution in birds and mammals, pp. 452–470. In: Rubenstein, D.I. & R.W. Wrangham (eds.). Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution - Birds and Mammals. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 551pp.