Main Article Content
The main objectives of the Nepal National Mammal Red Data Book (RDB) were to provide comprehensive and up-to-date accounts of 212 mammal species recorded in Nepal, assess their status applying the IUCN Guidelines at Regional Levels, identify threats and recommend the most practical measures for their conservation.Â It is hoped that the Mammal RDB will help Nepal achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity target of preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status.Â Of the 212 mammal species assessed, 49 species (23%) were listed as nationally threatened.Â These comprise nine (18%) Critically Endangered species, 26 (53%) Endangered species and 14 (29%) Vulnerable species.Â One species was considered regionally Extinct.Â A total of seven species (3%) were considered Near Threatened and 83 species (39%) were Data Deficient.Â Over sixty percent of Nepalâ€™s ungulates are threatened and almost half of Nepalâ€™s carnivores face extinction (45% threatened).Â Bats and small mammals are the least known groups with 60 species being Data Deficient.Â Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are the most significant threats.Â Other significant threats include illegal hunting, small and fragmented populations, reduction of prey base, human wildlife conflict and persecution, climate change, invasive species, disease and inadequate knowledge and research.Â Adequate measures to address these threats are described.Â It was also concluded that re-assessments of the status of certain mammal groups be carried out every five years and the setting up of a national online species database and mapping system would also greatly help in land-use planning and policies.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Acharya, K.P., P.K. Paudel, P.R. Neupane & M. KÃ¶hl (2016). Human-wildlife conflicts in Nepal: patterns of human fatalities and injuries caused by large mammals. PLoS ONE 11(9): e0161717; http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161717
Adhikari, T. R. (1999). Grassland management impacts on small mammals, pp. 92â€“97 In: Richard, C., K. Basnet, J. P. Sah, & Y. Raut (eds.). Grassland Ecology and Management in Protected Areas of Nepal. Vol 2: Technical and Status Papers on Grasslands of Terai Protected Areas.
Baral, H.S. (2001). Community structure and habitat associations of lowland grassland birds in Nepal. PhD thesis. University of Amsterdam.
Bird Conservation Nepal & Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (in prep.). Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas of Nepal. Bird Conservation Nepal and Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu.
CBS (2009). Central bureau of statistics. Available at: http://www.cbs.gov.np/statis_2009_content.html.
Chetri, M., M. Odden, T. McCarthy & P. Wegge (2014). First record of Steppe Polecat Mustela eversmanii in Nepal. Small Carnivore Conservation 51: 79â€“81.
Department of Forest, DoF (2015). Protected Forest Program notice updated on 12 February 2015.
GÃ¤rdenfors, U., C. Hiltonâ€Taylor, G.M. Mace & J.P. RodrÃguez (2001). The application of IUCN Red List criteria at regional levels. Conservation Biology 15(5): 1206â€“1212.
Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp & T. Inskipp (2009). Birds of Nepal. Om Books International. New Delhi.
IUCN (2003). Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels: Version 3.0. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
IUCN (2015).Â TheÂ IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-1.Â
Jnawali, S.R., H.S. Baral, S. Lee, K.P. Acharya, G.P. Upadhyay, M. Pandey, R. Shrestha, D. Joshi, B.R. Laminchhane, J. Griffiths, A.P. Khatiwada, N. Subedi & R. Amin (compilers) (2011). The Status of Nepal Mammals. The National Red List Series, Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Jnawali, S. R. & P. Wegge (1999). Importance of tall grasslands in megaherbivore conservation, pp. 84â€“91. In: Richard, C., K. Basnet, J.P. Sah & Y. Raut (eds.). Grassland Ecology and Management in Protected Areas of Nepal. Vol 2: Technical and Status Papers on Grasslands of Terai Protected Areas.
Karanth, K.U. & B.M. Stith (1999). Prey depletion as a critical determinant of tiger population viability. Riding The Tiger: Tiger Conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Available at: http://www.savethetigerfund.org/Content/NavigationMenu2/Learn/LessonsinConservation/RidingTheTigerBook/default.htm;100â€“114pp
Lamichhane, B.R., R. Kadariya, N. Subedi, B.K. Dhakal, M. Dhakal, K. Thapa & K.P. Acharya (2016). Rusty-spotted Cat: 12th cat species discovered in Western Terai of Nepal. Cat News 60: 24â€“25.
Lamichhane, B.R., C.B. Pokheral, S. Poudel, D. Adhikari, S.R. Giri, S. Bhattarai, T.R. Bhatta, R. Pickles, R. Amin, K.P. Acharya, M. Dhakal, U.R. Regmi, A.K. Ram & N. Subedi (2017). Immigration-driven rapid recovery of Tigers Panthera tigris in Parsa Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Oryx 52(1): 16â€“24; http://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605317000886
Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, MoFSC (2014). Nepal National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014â€“2020. Kathmandu.
Murphy, S.T., N. Subedi, S.R. Jnawali, B.R. Lamichhane, G.P. Upadhyay, R. Kock & R. Amin (2013). Invasive mikania in Chitwan National Park, Nepal: the threat to the Greater One-horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis and factors driving the invasion. Oryx 47(3): 361â€“368.
Nepal Forum for Justice (2006). Governmental and Public Awareness-raising on POPs. International POPs Elimination Project. Available online 20 May 2016: http://www.ipen.org/ipepweb1/library/ipep_pdf_reports/4nep%20gov%20and%20public%20awareness%20raising%20on%20pops.pdf
Palikhe, B.R. (2005). Pesticide management in Nepal. In view of Code of Conduct. Paper presented at the Regional Workshop on International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides: Implementation, Monitoring and Observance, Bangkok, Thailand, 26â€“28 July 2005.
Pant, B.D. (2010). Malaria resurgence in Nepal: an overview. Malaria in South East Asia. Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research 1: 77â€“86.
Peet, N. (1997). Biodiversity and management of tall grasslands in Nepal. PhD Thesis. University of East Anglia.
Peet, N., A.J. Watkinson, D.J. Bell & U.R. Sharma (1999). The conservation management of Imperata cylindrica grassland in Nepal with fire and cutting: an experimental approach. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 374â€“387.
Purvis, A., P.M. Agapow, J.L. Gittleman & G. Mace (2000). Non-random extinction and the loss of evolutionary History. Science 288(5464): 328â€“330.
Shrestha, B., S. Ale, R. Jackson, N. Thapa, L.P. Gurung, S. Adhikari, L. Dangol, B. Basnet, N. Subedi & M Dhakal (2014). Nepalâ€™s first Pallasâ€™s Cat. Cat News 60: 24â€“25.
Subba, S.A., S. Malla, M. Dhakal, B.B. Thapa, L.B. Bhandari, K. Ojha, P. Bajracharya & G. Gurung (2014). Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii: a new species for Nepal. Small Carnivore Conservation 51: 88â€“89.
United Nations Development Programme, UNDP (2014). Human Development Report 2013. Available online 19 May 2016: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/NPL.pdf
World Bank (2008). Nepal - Country Environmental Analysis: Strengthening Institutions and Management Systems for Enhanced Environmental Governance. The World Bank, Washington, DC. Available online 19 May 2016: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/7996