Pollination ecology and fruiting behavior of Pavetta indica L. (Rubiaceae), a keystone shrub species in the southern Eastern Ghats forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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A.J. Solomon Raju
M. Mallikarjuna Rao
K. Venkata Ramana
C. Prasada Rao
M. Sulakshana


Pavetta indica is a massive bloomer for a brief period in May.  The flowers are hermaphroditic, strikingly protandrous, self and cross-compatible, nectariferous and psychophilous.  They possess secondary pollen presentation mechanism as a device to avoid autonomous autogamy but it does not prevent geitonogamy.  The fruit set largely occurs through geitonogamy and xenogamy.  Butterflies, especially papilionids, pierids, nymphalids, and sphingid hawk moth pollinate the flowers while collecting nectar.  Honey bees and blue-banded digger bees feed on pollen and effect only accidental pollination.  The nectar is sucrose-rich and contains essential and non-essential amino acids.  Birds are seed dispersal agents. Seeds are non-dormant and germinate readily during rainy season but their continued growth and establishment is subject to the availability of soil moisture and nutrients.  The plant is not able to populate itself in its natural area.  The local uses of different parts of the plant have been found to be affecting its reproductive success and natural regeneration rate.  Therefore, regulation of the uses of this plant is recommended for its survival and restoration of its population size in the natural areas due to its role as a keystone species for bees and butterflies during dry season.


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How to Cite
Raju, A.S., Rao, M.M., Ramana, K.V., Rao, C.P. and Sulakshana, M. 2016. Pollination ecology and fruiting behavior of Pavetta indica L. (Rubiaceae), a keystone shrub species in the southern Eastern Ghats forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 8, 9 (Aug. 2016), 9155–9170. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2340.8.9.9155-9170.
Author Biographies

A.J. Solomon Raju, Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

Dr. Aluri Jacob Solomon Raju is a Professor of Environmental Sciences in Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. He was the Head of the Department during 2009-2012. He was the Visiting Professor of University of Colima, Mexico. He was a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Akron, USA for a period of two years. He has conducted extensive field work in Olympic Mountains, Colorado Rocky Mountains, Siskiyu Mountains, Yosemite National Park, Yellostone National Park and Grand Teton Mountains in connection with reproductive biology of an arctic-alpine genus Pedicularis and its conservation and management aspects. Further, he has also conducted field research in Mexico. He has published more than 300 research papers, participated and presented scores of research papers at more than 50 national and more than 30 International conferences held in India and abroad. He visited USA, Canada, UK, Brazil, Paraguay, Italy, Mexico, France, Germany, China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, Ethiopia and Tanzania. In recognition of his superior record of scholarship, he was awarded Distinguished Achievement Award by the University of Akron, USA. He is also the recipient of Best Research Award and Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Best Academician Award of Andhra University, Loyola Environmental Award from Loyola College, Chennai and Andhra Pradesh Scientist Award from Andhra Pradesh Council of Science & Technology, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. He successfully completed a number of major research projects on the Eastern Ghats Forests funded by ICAR, UGC, DST, CSIR, DBT and MoEF. He was the Expert member of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India in sanctioning the research projects. He has also worked on biodiesel plants such as Pongamia and Jatropha and work on these plants laid foundation for others to initiate work in commercial lines. He has also published ten books on various subjects published by national and international publishers. Twenty Ph.Ds and 10 M.Phils were awarded under his guidance. Further, he is currently serving as a resource person for All India Radio, TV Channels, Consultant for issues relating to conservation biology and environment. Further, he is currently operating All India Coordinated Research Project on the endangered species of Eastern Ghats funded by MoEF, on reproductive ecology of Coringa Mangrove Forest funded by MoEF and on reproductive ecology of rare plants of Eastern Ghats funded by CSIR, New Delhi. He is an expert-cum-reviewer for scores of scientific journals published by Elsevier, Springer publishers, Indian Publishers, US Publishers and African Publishers. He is the Chief Editor of Advances in Pollen-Spore Research and Guest Editor of Journal of Palynology.


M. Mallikarjuna Rao, Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

M. MALLIKARJUNA RAO is Project Fellow working in the DST Research Project under Prof. A.J. Solomon Raju, Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.  He is simultaneously doing research leading to Ph.D. degree under the same faculty member.

K. Venkata Ramana, Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

DR. K. VENKATA RAMANA is DST Post-Doctoral Research Fellow (Young Scientist Scheme) working in the Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.

C. Prasada Rao, Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

DR. CH. PRASADA RAO is doing post-doctoral research work  in the Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

M. Sulakshana, Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

M. SULAKSHANA is a Full-Time Research Scholar and Fellowship holder of Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship, University Grants Commission, New Delhi. She is working under the guidance of Dr. D. Sandhya Deepika, Associate Professor, Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.


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