Main Article Content
Derris trifoliata is a perennial woody climber.Â It blooms massively for about two weeks in July/August. The flowers are hermaphroditic, feebly protandrous, self-compatible and display a vector dependent mixed breeding system.Â They close back by the end of the day of anthesis.Â The forenoon anthesis and pollen and nectar as rewards attract daytime foragers.Â The nectar feeding foragers require strength to depress the keel petals in order to collect nectar; only those foragers which have the required strength to do so can collect nectar and in the process trip the floral mechanism and effect pollination. When floral explosion occurs, the pollen is somewhat exposed and the pollen feeding foragers then collect it.Â Both long- and short-tongued bees trip the flowers, collect nectar and effect pollination. Individual flowers that were not tripped by insects set fruit to negligible level.Â In open-pollination mode, fruit set rate is up to 30-31% only despite the flowers being visited by insect pollinators.Â Fruits mature quickly within a month.Â Each fruit contains 1-3 seeds against 6 linearly arranged ovules in the ovary.Â The fruits are leathery and possess air cavities, the characteristics of which enable them to float in tidal water.Â They settle at the parent plant if the site is partly or fully exposed or float for dispersal if the site is inundated with tidal water.Â Seed release occurs when fruits absorb water and the pericarp breaks.Â Seeds germinate only when they reach a suitable habitat in mangroves.Â ÂÂ
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27184.108.40.20653-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Azuma, H., M. Toyota, Y. Asakawa, T. Takaso and H. Tobe (2002). Floral scent chemistry of mangrove plants. Journal of Plant Research 115: 47-53.
Baker, H.G. & I. Baker (1983). A brief historical review of the chemistry of floral nectar. pp. 126-152. In: B. Bentley and T. Elias (eds.). The Biology of Nectaries, Columbia University Press, New York.
Chiou-Rong, S., J.W.H. Yong, & Y.P. Yang (2005). The Brugueira (Rhizophoraceae) species in the mangroves of Singapore, Especially on the new record and the rediscovery. Taiwania 50: 251-260; http://dx.doi.org/10.6165/tai.2005.50(4).251
Clarke, P. J. & P.J. Meyerscough (1991). Floral biology and reproductive phenology of Avicennia marina in south eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 39: 283-293; http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT9910283
Coupland, G, T., I. Paling Eric & A. McGuinness Keith (2006). Floral abortion and pollination in four species of tropical mangroves from northern Australia. Aquatic Botany 84: 151-157; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.09.003
Cruden, R.W. (1977). Pollen-ovule ratios: a conservative indicator of breeding systems in flowering plants. Evolution 31: 32-46.
Dafni, A., P.G. Kevan, P.G & B.C. Husband (2005). Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest Ltd., Ontario, 583pp.
Davey, J.E. (1975). Note on the mechanisms of pollen release in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. South African Journal of Botany 41: 269-272.
Davis, M.A. (1987). The role of flower visitors in the explosive pollination of Thalia geniculata (Marantaeae). A Costa Rican marsh plant. Bulletin of Torrey Botanical Club 114: 134-138.
Feehan, J. (1985). Explosive flower-opening in ornithophily: a study of pollination mechanisms in some Central African Loranthaceae. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 90: 129-144; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1985.tb02205.x
Ge, J., B. Cai & P. Lin (2003). Mating system and out crossing rates of four Bruguiera gymnorrhiza populations of mangrove, China. Nature and Science 1: 42-48.
Gori, F.G. (1983). Post-pollination phenomena and adaptive floral changes. pp. 32-45. In: C.E. Jones and R.J. Little (eds.). Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology Scientific and Academic Editions, New York.
Gottsberger, G. (1989). Floral Ecology: Report on the years 1985 (1984) to 1988. Progress in Botany 50: 352-379.
Harborne, J.B. (1973). Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall, London, 288pp.
Jonathan, K.H. (2009). Reproductive ecology of some viviparous and non-viviparous mangrove plant species. Ph.D. Thesis, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.
Jonathan, K.H. & A.J. Solomon Raju (2009). Insect pollination and self-planting seed dispersal strategy in the true viviparous mangrove tree species Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Robinson (Rhizophoraceae). Journal of Threatened Taxa 1: 133-140.
Juncosa, A. M. & P.B. Tomlinson (1987). Floral development in mangrove Rhizophoraceae. American Journal of Botany 74: 1263-1279.
Lakshmi, M., S. Rajalakshmi, M. Parani, C.S. Anuratha & A. Parida (1997). Molecular phylogeny of mangroves. I. Use of molecular markers in accessing the intraspecific genetic variability in the mangrove species Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. (Acanthaceae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 94: 1121-1127.
Marie-Victorin, F. (1942). Flore Laurentinne, Les Freres des ecoles chretiennes, Montreal, 283pp.
Meeuse, B.J.D. (1961). The Story of Pollination. The Ronald Press Co., New York, 243pp.
Mosquin, T. (1985). The explosive pollination mechanism in the pop flower, Chamaepericlymenum (Cornaceae). Canadian Field-Naturalist 99: 1-5.
Pandit, S. & B.C. Choudhury (2001). Factors effecting pollinator visitation and reproductive success in Sonneratia caseolaris and Aegiceras corniculatum in the mangrove forest in India. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 431-447.
Plitmann, U., P.H. Raven & D.E. Breedlove (1973). The systematics of Lepezieae (Onagraceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 60: 478-563.
Primack, R.B., N.C. Duke & P.B. Tomlinson (1981). Floral morphology in relation to pollination ecology in five Queensland coastal plants. Austrobaileya 4: 346-355.
Proctor, M. and P. Yeo (1972). The Pollination of Flowers. Taplinger, New York, 418pp.
Rama Mohan, S. (2009). Reproductive ecology of some true viviparous and crypto-viviparous mangrove tree species. Ph.D. Thesis, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.
Solomon Raju, A.J. (1990). Observations on the floral biology of certain mangroves. Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy B56: 367-374.
Solomon Raju, A.J. & K.H. Jonathan (2008). Reproductive ecology of mangrove trees Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou and Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Robinson (Rhizophoraceae). Acta Botanica Croatica 67: 201-208.
Solomon Raju, A.J. & S.P. Rao (2006). Explosive pollen release and pollination as a function of nectar-feeding activity of certain bees in the biodiesel plant, Pongamia pinnata (l.) Pierre (Fabaceae). Current Science 90: 960-967.
Solomon Raju, A.J., C. Subba Reddi & B. Sujatha (1994). Pollination in mangrove plants. Journal of Nature Conservation 6: 89-96.
Solomon Raju, A.J., K.H. Jonathan & A. Vijaya Lakshmi (2006). Pollination biology of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou (Rhizophoraceae), an important true viviparous mangrove tree species. Current Science 91: 1235-1238.
Subba Reddi, C. & A.J. Solomon Raju (1997). Reproductive biology of three mangrove plant species. Indian Journal of Forestry 20: 153-157.
Taylor, N. (1942). The Practical Encyclopedia of Gardening. Garden City Publ. Co., New York, 619pp.
Tomlinson, P.B. (1986). The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, New York, 419pp.
Tomlinson, P.B., R.B. Primack & J.S. Bunt (1979). Preliminary observations on floral biology in mangrove Rhizophoraceae. Biotropica 11: 256-277.