Main Article Content
For conservation breeding, the endangered Lion-tailed Macaques have been maintained in North America under SSP since 1983 and in Europe under EEP since 1989. Based on a growing interest to support the species long-term survival, the SSP population increased considerably during the first few years of the programme but due to space problems and resulting birth control measures, it has drastically declined to small numbers and a non- breeding status at present. The EEP population continually increased till 2012, but due to the lack of spaces and birth control practises, it has gradually declined since then. It is emphasised that the knowledge gained from field studies on Lion-tailed Macaques in India and its incorporation for captive management under EEP has helped develop appropriate management strategies. Captive propagation of the Lion-tailed Macaque in India, the habitat country, can profit from the successes and drawbacks of the long-term management experiences of SSP and EEP.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27220.127.116.1153-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Gledhill, L.G. (1985). Analysis of statistics submitted to the Lion-tailed Macaque studbook - North American zoos, pp. 237–238. In: Heltne, P.G. (ed.). The Lion-tailed Macaque: Status and Conservation. Alan R. Liss, New York, 411 pp.
Hill, C.A. (1971). Zoo’s help for a rare monkey. Oryx 11(1): 35–38. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003060530000942X
Kaumanns, W., E. Krebs & M. Singh (2006). An endangered species in captivity: Husbandry and management of the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus). MyScience 1: 43–71.
Kaumanns, W., M. Singh & A. Sliwa (2013). Captive propagation of threatened primates–the example of the Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(14): 4825–4839. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3625.4825-39
Kaumanns, W. & M. Singh (2015). Towards more individual-based and fitness- oriented captive mammal population management. Current Science 109(6): 1121–1129. https://doi.org/10.18520/v109/i6/1121-1129
Kaumanns, W., N. Begum & H. Hofer (2020). “Animals are designed for breeding”: Captive population management needs a new perspective. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 8(2): 76–85. https://doi.org/10.19227/jzar.v8i2.477
Krishnakumar, N. & A. Manimozhi (2000). What ails captive breeding programmes in India -Lion-tailed Macaque (LTM) - A case study. Zoos’ Print 15(5): 3–4.
Krishnamani, R. & A. Kumar (2000). Phyto-ecology of the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) habitats in Karnataka, India: Floristic structure and density of food trees. Primate Report 58: 27–56.
Kumar, A. (1987). The ecology and population dynamics of the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in South India. PhD Thesis. University of Cambridge, 174pp.
Kumar, M.A., M. Singh, H.N. Kumara, A.K. Sharma & C. Bertsch (2001). Male migration in Lion-tailed Macaques. Primate Report 59: 5–18.
Lindburg, D.G., A.M. Lyles & N.M. Czekala (1989). Status and reproductive potential of Lion-tailed Macaques in captivity. Zoo Biology Supplement 1: 5–16.
Lindburg, D.G. & L.G. Gledhill (1992). Captive breeding and conservation of Lion- tailed Macaques. Endangered Species Update 10: 1–4.
Lindburg, D.G. & N.C. Harvey (1996). Reproductive biology of captive Lion-tailed Macaques, pp. 318–341. In: Fa, J.E. & D.G. Lindburg (eds.). Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 597pp.
Lindburg, D.G., J. Iaderosa & L. Gledhill (1997). Steady-state propagation of captive Lion-tailed Macaques in North American zoos: A conservation strategy, pp. 131–150. In: Walli, J (ed.). Primate Conservation: The Role of Zoological Parks. American Society of Primatologists, Vol.1., Chicago, 252 pp.
Lindburg, D.G. (2001). A century of involvement with Lion-tailed Macaques in North America. Primate Report 59: 51–64.
Macdonald, A.A. & H. Hofer (2011). Editorial: Research in zoos. International Zoo Yearbook 45: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1090.2011.00145.x
Ness, T. (2011). North American Studbook for Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus). Minnesota Zoological Gardens, Minnesota, 131 pp.
Ness, T. (2013). North American Studbook for Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus). Minnesota Zoological Gardens, Minnesota, 136 pp.
Penfold, L.M., D. Powell, K. Traylor-Holzer & C.S. Asa (2014). ‘Use it or lose it’: characterization, implications, and mitigation of female infertility in captive wildlife. Zoo Biology 33(1): 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21104
Powell, D.M., C.L. Dorsey & L.J. Faust (2019). Advancing the science behind animal program sustainability: An overview of the special issue. Zoo Biology 38(1): 5–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21474
Sarno, A. (2018). North American Studbook for Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus). Kansas City Zoo, Kansas City, 175 pp.
Schwibbe, M., M. Singh, W. Kaumanns & C. Knogge (Eds.) (2000). Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Lion-tailed Macaque, Mysore, India, Part 1. Primate Report 58. German Primate Center, Goettingen, 95pp.
Schwibbe, M., M. Singh, W. Kaumanns & C. Knogge (Eds.) (2001). Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Lion-tailed Macaque, Mysore, India, Part 2. Primate Report 59. German Primate Center, Goettingen, 108 pp.
Sharma, A.K. (2002). A study of reproductive behaviour of Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in the rainforests of Western Ghats. PhD Thesis. Department of Zoology, University of Mysore, 102 pp.
Singh, M., A.K. Sharma, E. Krebs & W. Kaumanns (2006). Reproductive biology of Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus): An important key to the conservation of an endangered species. Current Science 90(6): 804–811.
Singh, M., W. Kaumanns, M. Singh, H.S. Sushma & S. Molur (2009). The Lion- tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopihecidae): conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(3): 151–157. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2000.151-7
Singh, M., W. Kaumanns & G. Umapathy (2012). Conservation-oriented captive breeding of primates in India: Is there a perspective? Current Science 103(12): 1399–1400. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24089343
Singh, M., A. Kumar & H.N. Kumara (2020). Macaca silenus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T12559A17951402. Downloaded on 21 August 2021. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T12559A17951402.en
Sliwa, A., K. Schad & E. Fienieg (2016). Long-term management plan for the Lion- tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) European Endangered Species Programme (EEP). Zoologischer Garten Köln, Köln, Germany and European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), Amsterdam, Netherlands, 60 pp.
Sliwa, A. & N. Begum (2019). International Studbook 2018 for the Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus Linnaeus, 1758, edition 2018, Vol. 9. Zoologischer Garten Köln, Cologne, v+188 pp.
Sushma, H.S. (2004). Resource utilization and niche separation in sympatric rainforest arboreal mammals. PhD Thesis. University of Mysore, 150 pp.
Umapathy, G. & A. Kumar (2000). Impacts of the habitat fragmentation on time budget and feeding ecology of Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus) in rainforest fragments of Anamalai Hills, South India. Primate Report 58: 67–82.