On the inadequacy of environment impact assessments for projects in Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park of Goa, India: a peer review

Main Article Content

Girish Punjabi
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5910-2421
Anisha Jayadevan
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4030-4661
Abhishek Jamalabad
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4186-8282
Nandini Velho
Madhura Niphadkar-Bandekar
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2279-7121
Pronoy Baidya
Ravi Jambhekar
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8587-4767
Parag Rangnekar
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5051-8033
Omkar Dharwadkar
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4475-3982
Rhea Lopez
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6116-7715
Marishia Rodrigues
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7403-2158
Farai Divan Patel
H.S. Sathya Chandra Sagar
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1183-6845
Sayan Banerjee
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2292-0567
Manish Chandi
Nandini Mehrotra
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4432-6104
Shashank Srinivasan
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5819-3226
Sneha Shahi
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3512-0101
Vidyadhar Atkore
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8404-630X
Nirmal Kulkarni
Gowri Mallapur
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5282-1458
Hanuman Gawas
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2591-7213
Atul Borker
Rahul Prabhukhanolkar
Harshada S. Gauns
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0027-8390
Dheeraj Halali
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3702-5175
Vighnesh D. Shinde
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4840-494X
Katrina Fernandez
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2712-7338
Esme Purdie
Manoj R. Borkar
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0582-1978

Abstract

The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is a regulatory framework adopted since 1994 in India to evaluate the impact and mitigation measures of projects, however, even after 25 years of adoption, EIAs continue to be of inferior quality with respect to biodiversity documentation and assessment of impacts and their mitigation measures.  This questions the credibility of the exercise, as deficient EIAs are habitually used as a basis for project clearances in ecologically sensitive and irreplaceable regions.  The authors reiterate this point by analysing impact assessment documents for three projects: the doubling of the National Highway-4A, doubling of the railway-line from Castlerock to Kulem, and laying of a 400-kV transmission line through the Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park in the state of Goa.  Two of these projects were recently granted ‘Wildlife Clearance’ during a virtual meeting of the Standing Committee of the National Board of Wildlife (NBWL) without a thorough assessment of the project impacts.  Assessment reports for the road and railway expansion were found to be deficient on multiple fronts regarding biodiversity assessment and projected impacts, whereas no impact assessment report was available in the public domain for the 400-kV transmission line project.  This paper highlights the biodiversity significance of this protected area complex in the Western Ghats, and highlights the lacunae in biodiversity documentation and inadequacy of mitigation measures in assessment documents for all three diversion projects.  The EIA process needs to improve substantially if India is to protect its natural resources and adhere to environmental protection policies and regulations nationally and globally.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Punjabi, G., Jayadevan, A. , Jamalabad, A. , Velho, N. , Niphadkar-Bandekar, M. , Baidya , P. , Jambhekar, R. , Rangnekar , P. , Dharwadkar, O. , Lopez, R. , Rodrigues, M. , Patel, F.D., Chandra Sagar, H.S. , Banerjee, S., Chandi, M. , Mehrotra, N., Srinivasan, S. , Shahi, S. , Atkore, V., Kulkarni, N. , Mallapur, G. , Gawas, H. , Borker, A. , Prabhukhanolkar, R. , Gauns , H.S., Halali, D. , Shinde, V.D., Fernandez, K., Purdie, E. and Borkar, M.R. 2020. On the inadequacy of environment impact assessments for projects in Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park of Goa, India: a peer review. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 12, 18 (Dec. 2020), 17387–17454. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6650.12.18.17387-17454.
Section
Monograph
Author Biography

Girish Punjabi, Wildlife Conservation Trust, 11th Floor, Mafatlal Centre, Nariman Point, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400021, India.

Wildlife Conservation Trust, 11th Floor, Mafatlal Centre, Nariman Point, Mumbai - 400021, Maharashtra, India

References

Abdel-Latif, N.M. & I.A. Saleh (2012). Heavy metals contamination in roadside dust along major roads and correlation with urbanization activities in Cairo, Egypt. Journal of American Science 8(6): 379–389.

Aengals, R., V.M. Sathish Kumar, M.J. Palot & S.R. Ganesh (2018). A checklist of reptiles of India (Version 3.0). Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India, 35pp.

Alamgir, M., M.J. Campbell, S. Sloan, M. Goosem, G.R. Clements, M.I. Mahmoud & W.F. Laurance (2017). Economic, socio-political and environmental risks of road development in the tropics. Current Biology 27: 1130–1140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.08.067

Annandale, N. (1919). The fauna of certain small streams in the Bombay presidency. Records of Indian Museum 16: 109–161.

Atkore, V. (2017). Drivers of fish diversity and turnover across multiple spatial scales: Implications for conservation in the Western Ghats, India. PhD Thesis. Manipal University, Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), xvii+168pp.

Atkore, V., N. Kelkar, S. Badiger, K. Shanker & J. Krishnaswamy (2020). Multiscale investigation of water chemistry effects on fish guild species richness in regulated and nonregulated rivers of India’s Western Ghats: implications for restoration. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 149(3): 298–319. https://doi.org/10.1002/tafs.10230

Baidya, P. (2020). A preliminary checklist of ants from Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park, Goa (submitted to the Goa Forest Department). Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Sciences, Bengaluru, India, 3pp.

Balaguru, B., S.J. Britto, N. Nagamurugan, D. Natarajan, S. Soosairaj, S. Ravipaul & D.I. Arockiasamy (2003). Vegetation mapping and slope characteristics in Shervaryan Hills, Eastern Ghats using remote sensing and GIS. Current Science 85(5): 645–653. https://doi.org/10.2307/24109105

Bastawade, D.B. & M. Borkar (2008). Arachnida: (Orders Scorpiones, Uropygi, Amblypygi, Aranae and Phalangida), pp. 211–242. In: Fauna of Goa. [State Fauna Series 16.] Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 531pp.

Bank, F.G., C.L. Irwin, G.L. Evink, M.E. Gray, S. Hagood, J.R. Kinar, A. Levy, D. Paulson, B. Ruediger, R.M. Sauvajot, D.J. Scott & P. White (2002). Wildlife Habitat Connectivity Across European Highway (Vol. 2). US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of International Programs, Washington, DC, USA, 47pp.

Barea-Azcón, J.M., E. Virgós, E. Ballesteros-Duperón, M. Moleón & M. Chirosa (2007). Surveying carnivores at large spatial scales: a comparison of four broad-applied methods. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 1213–1230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-006-9114-x

Baskaran, N. & D. Boominathan (2010). Road kill of animals by highway traffic in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(3): 753–759. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2101.753-9

Beevers, L., W. Douven, H. Lazuardi & H. Verheij (2012). Cumulative impacts of road developments in floodplains. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 17(5): 398–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2012.02.005

Bennett, V.J. (2017). Effects of road density and pattern on the conservation of species and biodiversity. Current Landscape Ecology Reports 2: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40823-017-0020-6

Biasotto, L.D. & A. Kindel (2018). Power lines and impacts on biodiversity: A systematic review. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 71: 110–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2018.04.010

Biju, S.D., S. Garg, K.V. Gururaja, Y.S. Shouche & S.A. Walujkar (2014a). DNA barcoding reveals unprecedented diversity in dancing frogs of India (Micrixalidae, Micrixalus): a taxonomic revision with description of 14 new species. Ceylon Journal of Sciences (Biological Sciences) 43(1): 1–87. https://doi.org/10.4038/cjsbs.v43i1.6850

Biju, S.D., S. Garg, S. Mahony, N. Wijayathilaka, G. Senevirathne & M. Meegaskumbura (2014b). DNA barcoding, phylogeny and systematics of golden-backed frogs (Hylarana, Ranidae) of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, with the description of seven new species. Contributions to Zoology 83(4): 269–335. https://doi.org/10.1163/18759866-08304004

Bureau of Indian Standards (2012). Indian Standard Drinking Water - Specification (Second Revision). Bureau of Indian Standards, Drinking Water Sectional Committee - Food and Agriculture Division Council. New Delhi, India, 11pp. http://cgwb.gov.in/Documents/WQ-standards.pdf. Downloaded on 30 July 2020.

Blake, S., S.L. Deem, S. Strindberg, F. Maisels, L. Momont, I.-B. Isia, I. Douglas-Hamilton, W.B. Karesh & M.D. Kock (2008). Roadless wilderness area determines forest elephant movements in the Congo Basin. PloS One 3(10): e3546. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546

Borda-de-Água L., R. Barrientos, P. Beja & H.M. Pereira (Eds.) (2017). Railway Ecology. Springer Nature, Cham, xxx+318pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57496-7

Borkar, M.R. (2018). First definitive record of a whip scorpion Labochirus tauricornis (Pocock, 1900) from Goa, India: with notes on its morphometry and pedipalp micro-morphology. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(7): 11955–11962. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4084.10.7.11955-11962

Borkar, M.R., N. Komarpant & D.B. Bastawade (2006). First report of Whip Spider Phrynicus phipsoni Pocock from the human habitations and protected areas of Goa state, India; with notes on its habits and habitat. Records of the Zoological Survey of India: 106(Part 4): 33–38.

Braid, R.B., M. Schweitzer, S.A. Carnes & E.J. Soderstrom (1985). The importance of cumulative impacts for socioeconomic impact assessment and mitigation. Energy 10(5): 643–652. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-5442(85)90096-9

Burton, A.C., E. Neilson, D. Moreira, A. Ladle, R. Steenweg, J.T. Fisher, E. Bayne & S. Boutin (2015). Wildlife camera trapping: a review and recommendations for linking surveys to ecological processes. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 675–685. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12432

Cain, A.T., V.R. Tuovila, D.G. Hewitt & M.E. Tewes (2003). Effects of a highway and mitigation projects on bobcats in Southern Texas. Biological Conservation 114(2): 189–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00023-5

Case, R. (1978). Interstate highway road-killed animals: A data source for biologists. Wildlife Society Bulletin 6(1): 8–13. https://doi.org/10.2307/3781058

Chen, X., X. Xia, Y. Zhao & P. Zhang (2010). Heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils and correlation with urban traffic in Beijing, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 181(1–3): 640–646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.060

Chen, Z., R. Luo, Z. Huang, W. Tu, J. Chen, W. Li, S. Chen, J. Xiao & Y. Ai (2015). Effects of different backfill soils on artificial soil quality for cut slope revegetation: Soil structure, soil erosion, moisture retention and soil C stock. Ecological Engineering 83: 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.05.048

Chouvelon, T., E. Strady, M. Harmelin-Vivien, O. Radakovitch, C. Brach-Papa, S. Crochet, J. Knoery, E. Rozuel, B. Thomas, J. Tronczynski & J. Chiffoleau (2019). Patterns of trace metal bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in a phytoplankton-zooplankton-small pelagic fish marine food web. Marine Pollution Bulletin 146: 1013–1030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.07.047

Clausen, U., C. Doll, F.J. Franklin, G.V. Franklin, H. Heinrichmeyer, J. Koshiek & W. Rothergatter (2012). Reducing railway noise pollution. Policy department B: structural and cohesion policies, European Parliament Committee on Transport and Tourism, Brussels, Belgium, 124pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2

Clevenger, A.P., B. Chruszcz & K.E. Gunson (2003). Spatial patterns and factors influencing small vertebrate fauna road-kill aggregations. Biological Conservation, 109(1): 15–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00127-1

Collins, S. (2004). Vocal fighting and flirting: the functions of birdsong, pp. 39–79. In: Marler P. & H. Slabbekoorn (eds.). Nature’s Music: The Science of Birdsong. Academic Press, 504pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012473070-0/50005-0

Comely, J.M.L. (2018). Iron ore mining and conflict in Goa: An analysis of how mining is legitimised through EIAs, CSR and resistance. MS thesis. Centre for Development and Environment, University of Oslo, xi+121pp.

Daniels, R.J.R. (2002). Freshwater Fishes of Peninsular India. Universities Press, India, 288pp.

Das, A., H. Nagendra, M. Anand & M. Bunyan (2015). Topographic and bioclimatic determinants of the occurrence of forest and grassland in tropical montane forest-grassland mosaics of the Western Ghats, India. PloS One 10(6): e0130566. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130566

Das, I. & K. Kunte (2005). New species of Nyctibatrachus (Anura: Ranidae) from Castle Rock, Karnataka State, southwest India. Journal of Herpetology 39(3): 465–470. https://doi.org/10.1670/198-04A.1

Datar, M. & P. Lakshminarasimhan (2011). Endemic plants of Bhagwan Mahaveer National Park, Goa - an analysis based on their habitat, phenology and life form types. The Indian Forester 137: 1451–1456.

Datar, M.N. & P. Lakshminarasimhan (2013). Check list of wild angiosperms of Bhagwan Mahavir (Molem) National Park, Goa, India [with erratum]. Check List 9(2): 186–207. https://doi.org/10.15560/9.2.186

Datar, M.N., S. Dongre & M. Gadgil (2019). A critical evaluation of environmental impact assessments: a case study of Goa mines, India. Current Science 117(5): 776–782. https://doi.org/10.18520/cs/v117/i5/776-782

Dinesh, K.P., C. Radhakrishnan, B.H. Channakeshavamurthy, P. Deepak & N.U. Kulkarni (2020). A checklist of amphibians of India with IUCN conservation status (Version 3.0). Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata. Downloaded on 25 May 2020. https://www.amphibians.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/2020_Indian_Amphibian_checklist.pdf

Douven, W. & J. Buurman (2013). Planning practice in support of economically and environmentally sustainable roads in floodplains: the case of the Mekong delta floodplains. Journal of Environmental Management 128: 161–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.04.048

Dover, J. & J. Settele (2009). The influences of landscape structure on butterfly distribution and movement: A review. Journal of Insect Conservation 13: 3–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-008-9135-8

Duflo, E., M. Greenstone & N. Ryan (2013). Truth-telling by third-party auditors and the response of polluting firms: experimental evidence from India. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128(4): 1499–1545. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjt024

Dunkin, S.W., F.S. Guthery, S.J. Demaso, A.D. Peoples & E.S. Parry (2009). Influence of anthropogenic structures on Northern Bobwhite space use in western Oklahoma. The Journal of Wildlife Management 73(2): 253–259. https://doi.org/10.2193/2008-212

Dutta, T., S. Sharma & R. DeFries (2018). Targeting restoration sites to improve connectivity in a tiger conservation landscape in India. PeerJ 10: e5587. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5587

eBird (2017). eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Electronic version accessed 2 June 2020.

Eldegard, K., Ø. Totland & S.R. Moe (2015). Edge effects on plant communities along power line clearings. Journal of Applied Ecology 52(4): 871–880. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12460

Fahrig, L., J.H. Pedlar, S.E. Pope, P.D. Taylor & J.F. Wegner (1995). Effect of road traffic on amphibian density. Biological Conservation 73(3): 177–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(94)00102-V

Ferreira, M.P., M. Zortea, D.C. Zanotta, Y.E. Shimabukuro & C.R. de Souza Filho (2016). Mapping tree species in tropical seasonal semi-deciduous forests with hyperspectral and multispectral Data. Remote Sensing of Environment 179 (June): 66–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.021

Ferrell, S.M. & P.T. Lautala (2010). Rail Embankment Stabilization on Permafrost – Global Experiences. Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, Michigan Technological University, 25pp.

Font, A., T. Baker, I.S. Mudway, E. Purdie, C. Dunster & G.W. Fuller (2014). Degradation in urban air quality from construction activity and increased traffic arising from a road widening scheme. Science of the Total Environment 497–498: 123–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.060

Francis, C.D., C.P. Ortega & A. Cruz (2009). Noise pollution changes avian communities and species interactions. Current Biology 19: 1415–1419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.06.052

Gad, S.D. & S.K. Shyama (2009). Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos gaurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in two protected areas of Goa. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(2): 128–130. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o1589.128-30

Garriga, N., X. Santos, A. Montori, A. Richter-Boix, M. Franch & G.A. Llorente (2012). Are protected areas truly protected? The impact of road traffic on vertebrate fauna. Biodiversity and Conservation 21: 2761–2774. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0332-0

Gillan, J.K., E.K. Strand, J.W. Karl, K.P. Reese & T. Laninga (2013). Using spatial statistics and point‐pattern simulations to assess the spatial dependency between greater sage‐grouse and anthropogenic features. Wildlife Society Bulletin 37(2): 301–310. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.272

Goosem, M. (1997). Internal fragmentation: The effects of roads, highways and powerline clearings on movements and mortality of rainforest vertebrates, pp. 241–255. In: Laurance W.F. & R.O. Bierregaard (eds.). Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 632pp.

Goosem, M. (2002). Effects of tropical rainforest roads on small mammals: Fragmentation, edge effects and traffic disturbance. Wildlife Research 29(3): 277–289. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR01058

Goosem, M. (2007). Fragmentation impacts caused by roads through rainforests. Current Science 93(11): 1587–1595.

Goosem, M., E.K. Harding, G. Chester, N. Tucker, C. Harriss & K. Oakley (2010). Roads in Rainforest: Best Practice Guidelines for Planning, Design and Management. Guidelines prepared for the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads and the Australian Government’s Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility. Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Limited, Cairns, 64pp.

Goosem, M. & H. Marsh (1997). Fragmentation of a Small-mammal Community by a Powerline Corridor through Tropical Rainforest. Wildlife Research 24(5): 613–629. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR96063

Gosavi, N., A. Bayani, A. Khandekar, P. Roy & K. Kunte (Eds.) (2020). Amphibians of India, v. 1.05. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. Electronic version accessed 08 July 2020. https://www.indianamphibians.org

Grubh, R.B. & S. Ali (1976). Birds of Goa. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 73(1): 42–53.

Gubbi, S., K. Mukherjee, M. Swaminath & H. Poornesha (2016). Providing more protected space for tigers Panthera tigris: A landscape conservation approach in the Western Ghats, southern India. Oryx 50(2): 336–343. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605314000751

Gubbi, S., H.C. Poornesha & M.D. Madhusudan (2012). Impact of vehicular traffic on the use of highway edges by large mammals in a south Indian wildlife reserve. Current Science 102(7): 1047–1051.

Hamel, S., S.T. Killengreen, J. Henden, N.E. Eide, L. Roed-eriksen, R.A. Ims & N.G. Yoccoz (2013). Towards good practice guidance in using camera-traps in ecology: influence of sampling design on validity of ecological inferences. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4(2): 105–113. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210x.2012.00262.x

Hayward, M.W., L. Boitani, N.D. Burrows, P.J. Funston, K.U. Karanth, D.I. Mackenzie, K.H. Pollock & R.W. Yarnell (2015). Ecologists need robust survey designs, sampling and analytical methods. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 286–290. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12408

Holderegger, R. & M. Di Giulio (2010). The genetic effects of roads: A review of empirical evidence. Basic and Applied Ecology 11: 522–531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2010.06.006

Hoskin, C.J. & M.W. Goosem (2010). Road Impacts on abundance, call traits, and body size of rainforest frogs in Northeast Australia. Ecology and Society 15(3): 15. [online]. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss3/art15/

Husejnovic, M. S., M. Bergant, S. Jankovic, S. Zizek, A. Smajlovic, A. Softic, O. Music & B. Antonijevic (2018). Assessment of Pb, Cd and Hg soil contamination and its potential to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human cell lines (CaCo-2 and HaCaT). Environmental Geochemistry and Health 40(4): 1557–1572. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0071-6

IARC (1989). Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts and Some Nitroarenes. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans, Vol. 105. International Agency for Research on Cancer Lyon, France, 703pp.

Jaren, V., R. Andersen, M. Ulleberg, P. Pedersen & B. Wiseth (1991). Moose-train collisions: The effects of vegetation removal with a cost-benefit analysis. Alces 27(1): 93–99.

Jayadevan, A., R. Nayak, K.K. Karanth, J. Krishnaswamy, R. DeFries, K.U. Karanth & S. Vaidyanathan (2020). Navigating paved paradise: Evaluating landscape permeability to movement for large mammals in two conservation priority landscapes in India. Biological Conservation 247: 108613. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108613

Jayamurugan, R., B. Kumaravel, S. Palanivelraja & M.P. Chockalingam (2013). Influence of Temperature, Relative Humidity and Seasonal Variability on Ambient Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area. International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. Volume 2013. Article ID 264046. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/264046

Jenkins, A.R., J.M. Shaw, J.J. Smallie, B. Gibbons, R. Visagie & P.G. Ryan (2011). Estimating the impacts of power line collisions on Ludwig’s Bustards Neotis ludwigii. Bird Conservation International 21(3): 303–310. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270911000128

Jhala, Y.V., Q. Qureshi & A.K. Nayak (Eds.) (2020). Status of tigers, copredators and prey in India, 2018. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Government of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, 650pp.

Johnson, A.J. & M. Arunachalam (2010). Habitat Use of fishes in streams of Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India. International Journal of Ecology & Development 17(3): 1–14.

Joshi, A., S. Vaidyanathan, S. Mondol, A. Edgaonkar & U. Ramakrishnan (2013). Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of central India. PloS One 8(11): e77980. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077980

Joshi, V.C. & M.K. Janarthanam (2004). The diversity of life-form type, habitat preference and phenology of the endemics in the Goa region of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Biogeography 31(8): 1227–1237. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01067.x

Karanth, K.U., A.M. Gopalaswamy, N.S. Kumar, S. Vaidyanathan, J.D. Nichols & D.I. MacKenzie (2011). Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys. Journal of Applied Ecology 48(4): 1048–1056. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02002.x

Kerkar, R.P. (2020). 4th tiger found dead in 4 days in Sattari forest. Electronic version accessed on 09 January 2020. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/goa/4th-tiger-found-dead-in-4-days-in-sattari-forest/articleshow/73163428.cms

Kerley, L.L., J.M. Goodrich, D.G. Miquelle, E.N. Smirnov, H.B. Quigley & M.G. Hornocker (2002). Effects of roads and human disturbance on Amur Tigers. Conservation Biology 16: 97–108. https://doi.org/10.2307/3061403

Khera, N. & A. Kumar (2010). Inclusion of biodiversity in environmental impact assessments (EIA): a case study of selected EIA reports in India. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 28(3): 189–200. https://doi.org/10.3152/146155110X12772982841005

Kowarik, I. & M. von der. Lippe (2011). Secondary wind dispersal enhances long-distance dispersal of an invasive species in urban road corridors. NeoBiota 9: 49–70.

Krupa, H., A. Borker & A. Gopal (2017). Photographic record of sympatry between Asian Small-Clawed Otter and Smooth-Coated Otter in the northern Western Ghats, India. IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin 34(1): 51–57.

Kulkarni, N., K.P. Dinesh, P. Prashanth, G. Bhatta & C. Radhakrishnan (2013). Checklist of Amphibians of Goa. Frog leg 19: 7–12.

Kumar, A. & R.K. Somashekar (2008). Environmental Science and Technology in India. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, 500pp.

Kumar, R. & K.R. Devi (2013). Conservation of freshwater habitats and fishes in the Western Ghats of India. International Zoo Yearbook 47(1): 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/izy.12009

Lama, A.K. & H. Job (2014). Protected Areas and Road development: Sustainable development discourses in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Erdkunde 68(4): 229–250. https://doi.org/10.3112/erdkunde.2014.04.01

Lampe, U., K. Reinhold & T. Schmoll (2014). How grasshoppers respond to road noise: Developmental plasticity and population differentiation in acoustic signalling. Functional Ecology 28(3): 660–668. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12215

Lampila, P., M. Mönkkönen & A. Desrochers (2005). Demographic Responses by Birds to Forest Fragmentation. Conservation Biology 19(5): 1537–1546. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00201.x

Larsen, M.C. & J.E. Parks (1998). How wide is a road? The association of roads and mass‐wasting in a forested montane environment. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 22(9): 835–848. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199709)22:9<835::AID-ESP782>3.0.CO;2-C

Larsen, M.C. & A.J. Torres-Sánchez (1998). The frequency and distribution of recent landslides in three montane tropical regions of Puerto Rico. Geomorphology 24(4): 309–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(98)00023-3

Laurance, W.F., M. Goosem & S.G.W. Laurance (2009). Impacts of roads and linear clearings on tropical forests. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24: 659–669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.06.009

Laurance, W.F. (2015). Wildlife struggle in an increasingly noisy world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(39): 11995–11996. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1516050112

Levengood, J.M., E.J. Heske, P.M. Wilkins & J.W. Scott (2015). Polyaromatic hydrocarbons and elements in sediments associated with a suburban railway. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187: 534 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4757-2

Loss, S.R., T. Will & P.P. Marra (2014). Refining Estimates of Bird Collision and Electrocution Mortality at Power Lines in the United States. PloS One 9(7): e101565. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101565

Lucas, P.S., R.G. de Carvalho & C. Grilo (2017). Railway Disturbances on Wildlife: Types, Effects, and Mitigation Measures, pp. 81–99. In: Borda-de-Água, L., R. Barrientos, P. Beja & H.M. Pereira (eds.). Railway Ecology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, xxx+320pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57496-7_6

Luce, C.H. & R. Mountain (2002). Hydrological processes and pathways affected by forest roads: What do we still need to learn? Hydrological Process, 16: 2901–2904. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5061

Maelfait, J.-P. & F. Hendrickx (1998). Spiders as bio-indicators of anthropogenic stress in natural and semi-natural habitats in Flanders (Belgium): some recent developments, pp. 293–300. In: Selden, P.A. (ed.). Proceedings of the 17th European Colloquium of Arachnology. BAS, Edinburgh.

Manju, A., K. Kalaiselvi, V. Dhananjayan, G.S. Banupriya & M.H. Vidhya (2018). Spatio-seasonal variation in ambient air pollutants and influence of meteorological factors in Coimbatore, southern India. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 11: 1179–1189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-018-0617-x

Marler, P. (2004). Bird calls: A cornucopia for communication, pp. 132–177. In: Marler, P. & H. Slabbekoorn (eds.). Nature’s Music: The Science of Birdsong. Academic Press, 504pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012473070-0/50008-6

Meek, P.D., G. Ballard, A. Claridge, R. Kays, K. Moseby, T. O’Brien, A. O’Connell, J. Sanderson, D.E. Swann, M. Tobler & S. Townsend (2014). Recommended guiding principles for reporting on camera trapping research. Biodiversity and Conservation 23(9): 2321–2343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0712-8

Menon, V. (2014). Indian Mammals. A Field Guide. Hachette India, Gurgaon, 528pp.

Meunier, G. & C. Lavoie (2012). Roads as corridors for invasive plant species: New evidence from Smooth Bedstraw (Galium mollugo). Invasive Plant Science and Management 5: 92–100. https://doi.org/10.1614/IPSM-D-11-00049.1

Molur, S., K.G. Smith, B.A. Daniel & W.R.T. Darwall (2011). The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in the Western Ghats, India. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland and Zoo Outreach Organisation. Coimbatore, India, 116pp.

Mortensen, D., E. Rauschert, A. Nord & B. Jones (2009). Forest roads facilitate the spread of invasive plants. Invasive Plant Science and Management 2: 191–199. https://doi.org/10.1614/IPSM-08-125.1

Mundahl, N.D., A.G. Bilyeu & L. Maas (2013). Bald Eagle nesting habitats in the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 4(2): 362–376. https://doi.org/10.3996/012012-jfwm-009

Muñoz, P.T., F.P. Torres & A.G. Megías (2015). Effects of roads on insects: a review. Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 659–682. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0831-2

Nayak, R., K.K. Karanth, T. Dutta, R. Defries, K.U. Karanth & S. Vaidyanathan (2020). Bits and pieces: Forest fragmentation by linear intrusions in India. Land Use Policy: 104619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104619

O’Connell, A.F., J.D. Nichols & K.U. Karanth (Eds.). (2011). Camera Traps in Animal Ecology. Springer, Japan, 271pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-99495-4

Padhye, A.D., N. Modak & N. Dahanukar (2014). Indirana chiravasi, a new species of leaping frog (Anura: Ranixalidae) from Western Ghats of India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(10): 6293–6312. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o4068.6293-312

Paliwal, R. (2006). EIA practice in India and its evaluation using SWOT analysis. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 26: 492–510.

Pereira, P., A. Gimeìnez-Morera, A. Novara, S. Keesstra, A. Jordán, R.E. Masto, E. Brevik, C. Azorin-Molina & A. Cerdà (2015). The impact of road and railway embankments on runoff and soil erosion in eastern Spain. Hydrology & Earth System Sciences 12: 12947–12985. https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-12-12947-2015

Phaipasith, S. & J.-C. Castella (2017). Expansion of road networks in upland production areas: Impacts on landscapes and livelihoods in Huaphan Province, Lao PDR. EFICAS Project, CIRAD and DALAM, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Lao PDR, 84pp.

Pollom, R. (2016). Microphis cuncalus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T166639A60595076. Downloaded on 22 August 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T166639A60595076.en

Poor, E.E., V.I.M. Jati, M.A. Imron & M.J. Kelly (2019). The road to deforestation: Edge effects in an endemic ecosystem in Sumatra, Indonesia. PloS One 14(7): e0217540. https://doi.org/10.7294/w4-j92h-ka06

Prasad, M. & R.K. Varshney (1995). A check-list to the Odonata of India including data on larval studies. Oriental Insects 29(1): 385–428. https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.1995.10433748

Punjabi, G.A., A.S. Borker, F. Mhetar, D. Joshi, R. Kulkarni, S.K. Alave & M.K. Rao (2014). Recent records of Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis and Asian Small-clawed Otter Aonyx cinereus from the north Western Ghats, India. Small Carnivore Conservation 51: 51–55.

Putman, R.J. (1997). Deer and road traffic accidents: Options for management. Journal of Environmental Management 51(1): 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.1997.0135

Qin, Z., X. Wei & Y. Qing (2014). Study on environmental protection of highway construction on Birds Nature Reserve. Nature Environment and Pollution 13(4): 831–834.

Radhakrishna, S. & M. Singh (2002). Conserving the Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus), pp. 227–231. In: Proceedings of the National Seminar on Conservation of Eastern Ghats. Environment Protection Training Research Institute, Hyderabad.

Rahmani, A.R., M.Z. Islam & R. Kasambe (eds.) (2016). Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas in India - Priority Sites for Conservation (Revised and updated), 2nd edition, Vol. I. Bombay Natural History Society, Indian Bird Conservation Network, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and BirdLife International (U.K.), pp.i-xii+1992.

Rajaram, T. & A. Das (2011). Screening for EIA in India: Enhancing effectiveness through ecological carrying capacity approach. Journal of Environmental Management 92(1): 140–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.08.024

Raman, T.R.S. (2011). Framing ecologically sound policy on linear intrusions affecting wildlife habitats. Background paper for the National Board for Wildlife. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore, 43pp.

Rangnekar, P. & O. Dharwadkar (2009). Three additions to the known butterfly (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera and Grypocera) fauna of Goa, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(5): 298–299. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.o2140.298-9

Rangnekar, P. & R. Naik (2014). Further additions to the Odonata (Insecta) fauna of Goa, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(3): 5585–5589. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3641.5585-9

Rangnekar, P., M. Borkar & O. Dharwadkar (2010). Additions to the Odonata (Insecta) of Goa. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(4): 805–814. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2286.805-14

Rangnekar, P., O. Dharwadkar, K. Sadasivan & K.A. Subramanian (2019). New species of Cyclogomphus Selys, 1854 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae) from the Western Ghats, India with comments on the status of Cyclogomphus vesiculosus Selys, 1873. Zootaxa 4656(3): 515–524.

Rasmussen, P.C. & J.C. Anderton (2012). Birds of South Asia - The Ripley Guide, Vol.1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, 1067pp.

Ratner, B.D., D.B. Rahut, M. Käkönen, H. Navy, M. Keskinen, S. Yim, L. Suong & R. Chuenpagdee (2007). Influence of built structures on local livelihoods: case studies of road development, irrigation and fishing lots. Report submitted to Kingdom of Cambodia, 50pp.

Ries, L. & D.M. Debinski (2001). Butterfly responses to habitat edges in the highly fragmented prairies of Central Iowa. Journal of Animal Ecology 70(5): 840–852. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-8790.2001.00546.x

Rioux, S., J.-P. Savard & A.A. Gerick (2013). Avian mortalities due to transmission line collisions: a review of current estimates and field methods with an emphasis on applications to the Canadian electric network. Avian Conservation and Ecology 8(2): 7. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ACE-00614-080207

Roberts, P.T., S.B. Reid, D.S. Eisinger, D.L. Vaughn, E.K. Pollard, J.L. DeWinter, Y. Du, A.E. Ray & S.G. Brown (2010). Construction activity, emissions, and air quality impacts: real-world observations from an Arizona road-widening case study. Sonoma Technology Inc., Arizona Department of Transportation, 195pp.

Roy, P.S., M.D. Behera, M.S.R. Murthy, A. Roy, S. Singh, S.P.S. Kushwaha, C.S. Jha, S. Sudhakar, P.K. Joshi, C.S. Reddy, S. Gupta & R.M. Ramachandran (2015). New vegetation type map of India prepared using satellite remote sensing: Comparison with global vegetation maps and utilities. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 39: 142–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2015.03.003

Santhoshkumar, S., P. Kannan, A. Veeramani, A. Samson, S. Karthick & J. Leonaprincy (2017). A preliminary report on the impact of road kills on the herpetofauna species in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(3): 10004–10010. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3001.9.3.10004-10010

Sengupta, A. & S. Radhakrishna (2013). Of concern yet? Distribution and conservation status of the Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata) in Goa, India. Primate Conservation 27: 109–114.

Seshadri, K. & T. Ganesh (2011). Faunal mortality on roads due to religious tourism across time and space in protected areas: A case study from south India. Forest Ecology and Management 262: 1713–1721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.07.017

Sharma, R.C. (1976). Records of the reptiles of Goa. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 71: 149–167.

Sheth, C., M.F. Ahmed, S. Banerjee, N. Dahanukar, S. Dalvi, A. Datta, A.D. Roy, K. Gogoi, M. Gogoi, S. Joshi, A. Kamdar, J. Krishnaswamy, M. Kumar, R.K. Menzies, S. Molur, S. Mukherjee, R. Naniwadekar, S. Nijhawan, R. Raghavan, M. Rao, J.K. Roy, N. Sharma, A. Sinha, U. Srinivasan, K. Tamma, C. Umbrey, N. Velho, A Vishwanathan & R. Yumnam (2020). ‘The devil is in the detail’: Peer-review of the Wildlife Conservation Plan by the Wildlife Institute of India for the Etalin Hydropower Project, Dibang Valley. Zoo’s Print 35(5): 1–78. https://zoosprint.zooreach.org/index.php/zp/article/view/5686/5103

Shubhalaxmi, V., R.C. Kendrick, A. Vaidya, N. Kalagi & A. Bhagwat (2011). Inventory of moth fauna (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of the northern western Ghats, Maharashtra, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 108(3): 183–205.

Sidle, R.C. & A.D. Ziegler (2012). The dilemma of mountain roads. Nature Geoscience 5: 437–438.

Sidle, R.C., A.D. Ziegler, J.N. Negishi, A.R. Nik, R. Siew & F. Turkelboom (2006). Erosion processes in steep terrain—Truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia. Forest Ecology and Management 224(1–2): 199–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.12.019

Simaika, J.P., M.J. Samways & P.P. Frenzel (2016). Artificial ponds increase local dragonfly diversity in a global biodiversity hotspot. Biodiversity and Conservation 25: 1921–1935. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1168-9

Slabbekoorn, H. & W. Halfwerk (2009). Behavioural ecology: noise annoys at community level. Current Biology 19: 693–695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.002

Sollmann, R., A. Mohamed, H. Samejima & A. Wilting (2013). Risky business or simple solution – Relative abundance indices from camera-trapping. Biological Conservation 159: 405–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.12.025

Sreekantha, M.D. Subash Chandran, D.K. Mesta, G.R. Rao, K.V. Gururaja & T.V. Ramachandra (2007). Fish diversity in relation to landscape and vegetation in central Western Ghats, India. Current Science 92(11): 1592–1603.

Subramanian, K.A., P. Rangnekar & R. Naik (2013). Idionyx (Odonata: Corduliidae) of the Western Ghats with a description of a new species. Zootaxa 3652(2): 277–288. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3652.2.5

Świetlik, R., M. Strzelecka & M. Trojanowska (2013). Evaluation of traffic-related heavy metals emissions using noise barrier road dust analysis. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 22(2): 561–567.

Talwar, P.K. & A.G. Jhingran (Eds.) (1991). Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries, Vol 1 & 2. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, xxxiv+1158pp.

Thatte, P., A. Joshi, S. Vaidyanathan, E. Landguth & U. Ramakrishnan (2018). Maintaining tiger connectivity and minimizing extinction into the next century: Insights from landscape genetics and spatially-explicit simulations. Biological Conservation 218: 181–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.12.022

The Goan Everyday (2019). Camera trap captures tiger’s presence in Mollem. Electronic version accessed 27 December 2020. https://www.thegoan.net//camera-trap-captures-tiger%E2%80%99s-presence-in-mollem/51600.html

Trombulak, S.C. & C.A. Frissell (2000). Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities. Conservation Biology 14(1): 18–30. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99084.x

Uddin, M. 2017. Assessing threats to birds from power-lines in Thar with special emphasis on Great Indian Bustard. MSc Thesis. Department of Wildlife Science, University of Kota, Rajasthan.

Walelign, S.Z., M.R. Nielsen & J.B. Jacobsen (2019). Roads and livelihood activity choices in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania. PloS One 14(3): e0213089. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213089

Wendling, Z.A., J.W. Emerson, A. de Sherbinin, D.C. Esty et al. (2020). 2020 Environmental Performance Index. Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, New Haven, CT. Electronic version accessed 25 July 2020. https://epi.yale.edu/

Wikipedia contributors (2020). Flora and fauna of Goa. In: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 4 May 2020. Downloaded on 23 June 2020.

Wiłkomirski, B., B. Sudnik-Wójcikowska, H. Galera, M. Wierzbicka & M. Malawska (2011). Railway transportation as a serious source of organic and inorganic pollution. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 218: 333–345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-010-0645-0

Wiłkomirski, B., H. Galera, B. Sudnik-Wójcikowska, T. Staszewski & M. Malawska (2012). Railway Tracks - Habitat Conditions, Contamination, Floristic Settlement - A Review. Environment and Natural Resources Research 2(1): 86–95. https://doi.org/10.5539/enrr.v2n1p86

WII (2016). Eco-friendly measures to mitigate the impacts of linear infrastructure on wildlife. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India, 151pp.

Xue, X., H. Hong & A.T. Charles (2004). Cumulative environmental impacts and integrated coastal management: The case of Xiamen, China. Journal of Environmental Management 71(3): 271–283. https://doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.03.006.

Zhang, X., H. Yang & Z. Cui (2018). Evaluation and analysis of soil migration and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in iron tailings. Journal of Cleaner Production 172: 475–480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.277