Bat diversity in the Banpale forest, Pokhara, Nepal during spring season

Main Article Content

Prabhat Kiran Bhattarai
Basant Sharma
Anisha Neupane
Sunita Kunwar
Pratyush Dhungana


Bat research in Nepal is limited and most areas remain to be explored.  Sparse research has been conducted in the Banpale forest and to improve the understanding of bat diversity, an updated species checklist was prepared.  Trapping surveys using mist nets were conducted at four different locations in the forest from March to May 2018.  This survey identified 55 individuals belonging to eight species within eight genera and four families.  Trapping locations near less disturbed forest edges and water resources were found to have higher bat diversity compared to highly disturbed areas (e.g., landslides and logging areas).  With information from survey and secondary source, we conclude that Banpale forest harbours 10 of the 53 bat species found in Nepal.  We recommend adopting practices to conserve the forest from landslides and minimizing illegal logging to conserve bat forest habitats. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Bhattarai, P.K., Sharma, B. , Neupane, A., Kunwar, S. and Dhungana, P. 2021. Bat diversity in the Banpale forest, Pokhara, Nepal during spring season. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 13, 6 (May 2021), 18479–18489. DOI:

Funding data


Abe, H. (1971). Small Mammals of Central Nepal. Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan 55: 191–265.

Acharya, P.R. (2006). Distribution of Roosting and Survival Threats of Bat in Pokhara Valley with Reference to Species and Population Survey at Chamere Gupha. MSc Thesis. Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu.

Acharya, P.R. & L.A. Ruedas (2007). The bat fauna of Nepal: A current conspectus. Bat Net Newsletter 8(1–2): 16–19.

Acharya, P.R., H. Adhikari, S. Dahal, A. Thapa & S.Thapa (2010). Bats of Nepal: A Field Guide. Small Mammals Conservation and Research Foundation (SMCRF), Kantimarga, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal, 116pp.

Adhikari, H. (2008). Bat Species Richness and Their Distribution in Pokhara Valley of Nepal. The Initiation 2(1): 43–48.

Adhikari, H. (2009). Bats of Nepal. Small Mammal Mail 1(2): 9–16.

Avery, M.I. 1991. Pipistrelle Pipistrellus pipistrellus. In: The Handbook of British Mammals (Ed. by G.B. Corbet & S. Harris): 124–128. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Baniya, S. (2018). Roost preference and colony monitoring of the Great Himalayan leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros armiger Hodgson , 1835: Family Hipposideridae) - a case study in bat cave and Mahendra cave, Pokhara, Nepal. B Sc Thesis. Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Tribhuvan University, vi+24pp.

Baniya, S., B. Sharma, C. Khanal, N. Raut & P.R. Acharya (2019). Record of Great Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus luctus Temmick, 1834) in western Nepal. Journal of Bat Research and Conservation 12(1): 27–32.

Baral, H.S. & K.B. Shah (2008). Wild Mammals of Nepal. Himalayan Nature, Kathmandu, 158pp.

Bates, P.J.J. & D.L. Harrison (1997). Bats of the Indian sub-continent. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK, 288pp.

Bhatta, J.P. (2011). Species diversity and composition of Forest vegetation of Banpale danda forest, Kaski, Nepal. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 64pp.

Bhattarai, P.K. (2019). Workshop on Climate Change and Wildlife at Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal. Zoo’s Print 34(5): 32–34.

Bista, M. (2011). Status of Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus) in Pokhara valley. B Sc Thesis. Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Tribhuvan University.

Brosset, A., P. Charles-Dominique, A. Cockle, J.F. Cosson & D. Masson (1996). Bat communities and deforestation in French Guiana. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74(11): 1974–1982.

Clarke, F.M., D.V. Pio & P.A. Racey (2005). A comparison of logging systems and bat diversity in the Neotropics. Conservation Biology 19(4): 1194–1204.

Csorba, G., S.V. Kruskop & A.V. Borissenko (1999). Recent records of bats (Chiroptera) from Nepal, with remarks on their natural history. Mammalia 63(1): 61–78.

Csorba, G., P. Ujhelyi & N. Thomas (2003). Horseshoe Bats of the World (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae). Alana Books, 192pp.

Daniel, B.A. (2007a). Training in Field Techniques for Survey and Conservation of Bats, held in Nepal. BAT NET 8(1–2): 5–9.

Daniel, B.A. (2007b). Training in Field Techniques for survey of Volant and Non-volant Small Mammals Conservation Workshop. ZOO’S PRINT XXII(8): 19.

Danielsen, F. & M. Heegaard (1995). Impact of logging and plantation development on species diversity: a case study from Sumatra, pp. 73–92. In: Sandbukt, O. (ed.). Management of Tropical Forests: Towards an Integrated Perspective. Centre for Development and the Environment, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Deshpande, K. (2012). Assessing diversity and distribution of bats in relation to land-use and anthropogenic threats in the southern Western Ghats, India. Final Report submitted to the Rufford Small Grants for Nature Conservation, 30pp.

Fleming, T.H. & P. Eby (2003). Ecology of bat migration, pp. 156–208. In: Kunz T.H. & M.B. Fenton (eds.). Bat Ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Furmankiewicz, J. & M. Kucharska (2009). Migration of bats along a Large River Valley in southwestern Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 90(6): 1310–1317.

Fujita, M.S. & M.D. Tuttle (1991). Flying Foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): threatened animals of key ecological and economic importance. Conservation Biology 5(4): 455–463.

Giri, B.K. (2009). Habitat Suitability Mapping & Species Identification of Chiroptera: A case study from Kaski District. BSc Thesis. Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Tribhuvan University, ix+67pp.

Görföl, T., S.V. Kruskop, V.T. Tu, P. Estók, N.T. Son & G. Csorba (2020). A new genus of vespertilionid bat: the end of a long journey for Joffre’s pipistrelle (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Journal of Mammalogy 101(2): 331–348.

Hutson, A.M., S.P. Mickleburgh & P.A. Racey (2001). Microchiropteran Bats: Global Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Chiroptera Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Hutson, A.M., F. Spitzenberger, S. Aulagnier, I. Coroiu, A. Karataş, J. Juste, M. Paunovic, J. Palmeirim & P. Benda (2008). Pipistrellus pipistrellus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T17317A6968203. Downloaded on 25 May 2020.

Jenkins, E.V., T. Laine, S.E. Morgan, K.R. Cole & J.R. Speakman (1998). Roost selection in the pipistrelle bat, Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in northeast Scotland. Animal behaviour 56(4): 909–917.

Jnawali, S.R., H.S. Baral, S. Lee, N. Subedi, K.P. Acharya, G. Upadhyay, M. Pandey, R. Shrestha, D. Joshi, B.R. Lamichhane, J. Griffiths, A. Khatiwada & R. Amin (compilers) (2011). The Status of Nepal’s Mammals: The National Red List Series. Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC), Kathmandu, Nepal, viii+266pp.

de Jong, J. & I. Ahle´n (1991). Factors affecting the distribution pattern of bats in Uppland, central Sweden. Ecography 14(2): 92–96.

Kansakar, S.R., D.M. Hannah, J. Gerrad & G. Rees (2004). Spatial pattern in the precipitation regime of Nepal. International Journal of Climatology 24(13): 1645–1659.

Khanal, N.R. (1995). The 1993 Extreme Event in Nepal and its consequences. Paper Presented at International Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau Paleoclimate Workshop, 2–7 April, Kathmandu.

Khanal, C. & S. Baniya (2018). Deukhuri valley: a wildlife haven in the Shiwalik hills, Nepal. The Himalayan Naturalist 1(1): 8–10.

Koju, N.P. & M.K. Chalise (2012). A brief study on bats of Pokhara Valley. Journal of Science and Engineering 1: 33–37.

Korad, V.S. (2014). Studies on diversity, distribution, and conservation of the bat fauna in Maharashtra State, India. Taprobanica 6(01): 32–45.

Korad, V.S., K. Yardi & R. Raut (2007). Diversity and distribution of bats in the Western Ghats of India. Zoos’ Print Journal 22(7): 2752–2758.

Korad, V.S. (2018). Diversity of bat fauna in states of northeast and around western ghats of india with reference to Its conservation. Indian Hotspots: Vertebrate Faunal Diversity, Conservation and Management 1: 209–227.

Kunz, T.H., E.B. de Torrez, D. Bauer, T. Lobova & T.H. Fleming (2011). Ecosystem services provided by bats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1223: 1–38.

Kunz, T.H. & S. Parsons (eds.) (2009). Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats. 2nd Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 556pp.

Lama, S.T., R.P. Lama, B. Adhikari, N.B. Bhatta, A. Adhikari, H. Saud, S. Dhungana, D. Karki, D.B. Thapa, G. Gahatraj & D. Kshetri (2013). Wildlife Conservation Action Plan for Banpale Forest. Project Paper Submitted to Institute of Forestry Pokhara, Kaski, Nepal, 38pp.

Loayza, A.P. & B.A. Loiselle (2009). Composition and Distribution of a Bat Assemblage during the Dry Season in a Naturally Fragmented Landscape in Bolivia. Journal of Mammalogy 90(3): 732–742.

Marimuthu, G., K.E. RajanA, J.A. Koilraj, S.S. Isaac & J. Balasingh (1998). Observations on the foraging behaviour of a tent roosting Megachiropteran bat Cynopterus sphinx. Biotropica 30: 321–324.

Menon, V. (2014). Indian Mammals: A Field Guide. Delhi: Hachette Book Publishing India Pvt. Ltd., 528pp.

Meyer, C.F., M.J. Struebig & M.R. Willig (2016). Responses of tropical bats to habitat fragmentation, logging, and deforestation, pp. 63–103. In: Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Springer, Cham.

Mickleburgh, S.P., A.M. Hutson & P.A. Racey (2002). A review of the global conservation status of bats Major threats. Oryx 36(1): 18–34.

Molur, S., G. Marimuthu, C. Srinivasulu, S. Mistry, A.M. Hutson, P.J. J. Bates, S. Walker,K. PadmaPriya & A.R. Binupriya (2002). Status of South Asian Chiroptera: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) Workshop report. Zoo Outreach Organization, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group South Asia and Wildlife Information and Liaison Development Society, Coimbatore, India, viii+320pp.

Myers, P., J.D. Smith, H. Lama, B. Lama & K.F. Koopman (2000). A recent collection of bats from Nepal, with notes on Eptesicus dimissus. International Journal of Mammalian Biology 65(3): 149–156.

Nair, N.G., V. Elangovan, K. Sripathi, G. Marimuthu & R. Subbaraj (1999). Foraging behaviour of the Indian short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 64: 187–191.

Panthee, S., B. Subedi, P. Ghimire & A. Subedi (2018). Notes on the Spotted Royal butterfly Tajuria maculata (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in Pokhara, Nepal. BIONOTES 20(1): 30.

Panthee, S., M.S. Limbu, B. Subedi, S.R. Tamang & A. Poudel (2019). Record of Mycalesis Adamsoni (WATSON , 1897) (Lepidoptera: Nymphaliddae) from Pokhara and Godavari, Nepal. BIONOTES 21(4): 144–145.

Pearch, M.J. (2011). A review of the biological diversity and distribution of small mammal taxa in the terrestrial ecoregions and protected areas of Nepal. Zootaxa 3072: 1–286.

Phuyal, S.P. & S.P. Dhoubhadel (2006). Status and threats of bats in Pokhara valley, Nepal. Bat Net Newsletter 7(1–2): 34–36.

Pielou, E. C. (1966). The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology 13: 131–144.

Pokhrel, S. & P.B. Budha (2014). Key to Identify Insects from Droppings of Some Insectivorous Bats of Nepal. Journal of Institute of Science and Technology 19(1): 129–136.

Poudyal, L.P., B.R. Lamichhane, U. Paudel, S.R. Niraula, A. Prasai, S. Malla, N. Subedi, K. Thapa & B.R. Dahal (2019). Mammals of Shuklaphanta: An Account from Camera Trap Survey. Shuklaphanta National Park Office, Kanchanpur, Nepal, 78ppp.

Racey, P.A. & S.M. Swift (1985). Feeding ecology of Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) during pregnancy and lactation. I. Foraging behaviour. Journal of Animal Ecology 54: 205–215.

Rajchal, R. (2007). Bats of Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis. Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Tribhuvan University, v+80pp.

Russo, D. & G. Jones (2003). Use of foraging habitats by bats in a Mediterranean area determined by acoustic surveys: conservation implications. Ecography 26(2): 197–209.

Shafie, N.J., S.A.M. Sah, N.S.A. Latip, N.M. Azman & N.L. Khairuddin (2011). Diversity pattern of bats at two contrasting habitat types along Kerian River, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research 22(2): 13–22.

Shannon, C.E. & W. Weaver (1949). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 117pp.

Sharma, B. (2016). Diet Analysis of Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus Brunn. Pteropodidae) In Sub-Tropical Mid-Hills of Nepal. B Sc. Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Tribhuvan University, x+38pp.

Sharma, B. (2019). Effects of Cave visitors on production of echolocation by hibernating Hipposideros armiger (Hodgson, 1835) in Bat cave of Pokhara, Nepal. BSc Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Tribhuvan University, 52pp.

Sharma, B., S. Baniya, A. Subedi & K. Gyawali, S. Panthee, P. Ghimire, B.S. Bist & M. Budha (2018a). First record of dawn bat Eonycteris spelaea (Dobson, 1871) (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) from western Nepal. Journal of Bat Research and Conservation 11(1): 92–95.

Sharma, B., A. Subedi, K. Gyawali, P. Ghimire, B.S. Bist & S. Baniya (2018b). Can Pteropus giganteus Brünnich, 1782 co-exist in a human dominated landscape? A case study in Pokhara valley, western Nepal. Journal of Bat Research and Conservation 11(1): 1–7.

Sharma, B., A. Subedi, B. Subedi, S. Panthee & P.R. Acharya (2019). First record of the Small Bamboo Bat Tylonycteris fulvida (Peters, 1872) (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(9): 14216–14219.

Sharma, B., R. Chakravarty & P. R. Acharya (2021). The first record of European free-tailed Bat, Tadarida teniotis Rafinesque, 1814, and note on probable elevational movement from Nepal. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity Available online 11 February 2021.

Simmons, N.B. & A.L. Cirranello (2021). Bat species of the world: A taxonomic and geographic database. Available at:, Accessed 20th May 2021.

Srinivasulu, C., P.A. Racey & S. Mistry (2010). A key to the bats ( Mammalia : Chiroptera ) of South Asia. Journal of Threatened taxa 2(7): 1001–1076.

Srinivasulu, C., A. Srinivasulu, B. Srinivasulu, A. Gopi, T.H. Dar, P.J.J. Bates, S.J. Rossiter & G. Jones (2017). Recent Surveys of Bats from the Andaman Islands, India: Diversity, Distribution, and Echolocation characteristics. Acta Chiropterologica 19(2): 419–437.

Srinivasulu, B. & C. Srinivasulu (2019). Myotis sicarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T14202A22063965. Downloaded on 29 May 2020.

Srinivasulu, C., A. Srinivasulu & B. Srinivasulu (2021). Checklist of the bats of South Asia (v1.5). Date of publication: 19 May 2021

Thapa, S. (2010). An Updated Checklist of valid bat species of Nepal. Small Mammal Mail - Bi-Annual Newsletter of CCINSA & RISCINSA 2(1): 16–17.

Thapa, S., P. Subedi, N.B. Singh & M.J. Pearch (2012a). The first record of Scotozous dormeri Dobson, 1875 from Nepal with new locality records of Pipistrellus coromandra (Gray, 1838) and P. tenuis (Temminck, 1840) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(4): 2481–2491.

Thapa, S., S. Shrestha, S. Dahal, B.A. Daniel & N.B. Singh (2012b). Monitoring and conservation of bats in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology 1(1): 1–4.

Thapa, S. (2014). A checklist of mammals of Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(8): 6061–6072.

Tshering, S., D.B. Gurung , K. Sherub, S. Dookia, K. Dorji & P. Choephyel (2020). Bat (Mammalia: Chiroptera) diversity, dominance, and richness in the southwestern region of Bhutan with three new records for the country. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(1): 15114–15128.

Vanlalnghaka, C. (2013). Study on bat diversity in and around Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Mizoram, India. Science vision 13(2): 70–75.

Voigt, C.C. & T. Kingston (2016). Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Springer, Cham, ix606pp.

Zubaid, A. (1988). Food habits of Hipposideros armiger (Chiroptera : Rhinolophidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Mammalia 52(4): 585–588.

Most read articles by the same author(s)