Group size, crowding, and age class composition of the threatened Sambar Rusa unicolor (Kerr, 1792) (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) in the semi-arid regions of northeastern Rajasthan, India

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Deepak Rai


Grouping characteristics and population growth dynamics of Sambar were studied in Bir Jhunjhunu Conservation Reserve (BJCR) and Bairasar Johad (BJ) in Rajasthan, India from July 2018 to June 2019. Following the scan sampling method, a total of 117 sightings of Sambar (N= 488 individuals) were recorded in BJCR, and 106 in BJ (N= 389 individuals), during 24 fortnightly visits. The data revealed that besides solitary sightings of Sambar, groups ranging from 2–11 and 2–12 individuals were observed in BJCR and BJ, respectively. The overall mean group size and mean crowding of Sambar were 4.2±0.2 S.E. and 5.3 respectively in BJCR, and 3.7±0.2 S.E. and 5.0 respectively in BJ. The sex ratio was skewed towards females. The overall adult male: adult female: fawn ratio was 74.4: 100: 47.1 (N= 488 individuals) in BJCR while the ratio was 92.6: 100: 41.1 (N= 389 individuals) in BJ. As far as the social organization of Sambar is concerned, six types of herds were recorded in the present study.  It is urged that sambar populations outside protected area also need simultaneous strategies for conservation attention.

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Rai, D. and Kalpana 2021. Group size, crowding, and age class composition of the threatened Sambar Rusa unicolor (Kerr, 1792) (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) in the semi-arid regions of northeastern Rajasthan, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 13, 8 (Jul. 2021), 18975–18985. DOI:


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