Species diversity and spatial distribution of amphibian fauna along the altitudinal gradients in Jigme Dorji National Park, western Bhutan

Main Article Content

Bal Krishna Koirala
Karma Cheda
Tshering Penjor

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a study conducted on the diversity and spatial distribution of amphibian fauna in two different habitat types along the elevation gradients of Mochu River valley in Jigme Dorji National Park, Bhutan.  The survey was conducted from November 2017 to February 2019.  The study aimed to assess the diversity and distribution of amphibians using an opportunistic visual encounter survey technique.  A total of 16 species of amphibians belonging to nine genera distributed among seven families were documented during the study period. The Shannon diversity index was relatively higher in the primary forest habitat than in the agro-ecosystem, however, there was no statistically significant difference of species abundance. The decreasing trend of diversity and abundance of amphibian fauna was noticed towards higher altitudinal zones.  About 56% of species were recorded in the lower sampling sites (1200–1600m) indicating more favourable climatic conditions and habitat types for amphibian assemblages at lower elevations.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Koirala, B.K., Cheda, K. and Penjor, T. 2019. Species diversity and spatial distribution of amphibian fauna along the altitudinal gradients in Jigme Dorji National Park, western Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11, 10 (Aug. 2019), 14249–14258. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4944.11.10.14249-14258.
Section
Communications
Author Biography

Bal Krishna Koirala, Jigme Dorji National Park, Department of Forests and Park Services, P.O. Box 13001, Gasa, Bhutan.

Department of Forest and Park Services, Sr. Park Ranger

References

Ahmed, M.F., A. Das & S.K. Dutta (2009). Amphibians and Reptiles of Northeast India – A Photographic Guide. Aaranyak,Guwahati, India.

Buckley, L.B. & W. Jetz (2007). Environmental and Historical Constraints on Global patterns of Amphibian Richness. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 1167–1173. https://doi.org/10.1098%2Frspb.2006.0436 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.0436

Collins, J.P. & M.L. Crump (2009). Extinction in Our Times: Global Amphibian Decline. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.

Daniels, R.J.R. (1992). Geographical distribution patterns of amphibians in the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Biogeography 19: 521–529. https://doi.org/10.2307/2845771. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2845771

Daniel, J.C. (2002). The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians. Bombay Natural History Society. Oxford University Press, Mumbai, 238pp.

Das, I. & J. Palden (2000). Herpetological collection from Bhutan, with new country records. Herpetological Review 31(4): 256–258.

Frost, D.R. (1985). Amphibian Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press, Inc., and Associations of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, (iv)+v+732pp.

Frost, D.R. (2019). Amphibian Species of the World: and Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Downloaded on 14 July 2019.

Halverson, M.A., D.K. Swelly, J.M. Kiesecker & L.K. Freidenburg (2003). Forest mediated light regime linked to amphibian distribution and performance. Oecologia 134: 360– 364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-1136-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-1136-9

Heyer, W.R., M.A. Donnelly, R.W. Mcdiarmid, L.C. Hayek & M.S. Foster (1994). Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, 364pp.

Hof, C., M.B. Araújo, W. Jetz & C. Rahbek (2011). Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity. Nature 480(7378): 516–519.

Hoffmann, M., C. Hilton-Taylor, A. Angulo, M. Böhm, T.M. Brooks, S.H.M. Butchart, K.E. Carpenter, J. Chanson, B. Collen & N.A. Cox (2010). The impact of conservation on the status of the world’s vertebrates. Science 330: 1503–1509.

IUCN (2019). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-2. <https://www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 12 August 2019.

IUCN, Conservation International & Nature Serve (2010). An Analysis of Amphibians on the 2008 IUCN Red List< https://www.iucnredlist.org/amphibians> Downloaded on 2 June 2018.

IUCN Red List (2013). https://www.iucnredlist.org/amphibians. Accessed on 23 July 2018.

IUCN Red List (2009). https://www.iucnredlist.org/amphibians. Accessed on 28 June 2019.

Krishnamurthy, S.V. (2003). Amphibian assemblages in undisturbed and disturbed areas of Kudremukh National Park, central Western Ghats, India. Environmental Conservation 30: 274–282. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892903000274 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892903000274

Ochoa-Ochoa, L.M., P. Rodriguez, F. Mora, O. Flores-Villela & R.J Whittaker (2012). Climate change and amphibian diversity patterns in Mexico. Biological Conservation 150(1): 94–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.03.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.03.010

Rödel, M.O. & R. Ernst (2004). Measuring and monitoring amphibian diversity in tropical forests. An evaluation of methods with recommendations for standardization. Ecotropica 10: 1–14.

Royal Government of Bhutan (2018). Statistical Yearbook of Bhutan. National Statistics Bureau. Thimphu, Bhutan, 345pp.

Saber, S., W. Tito, R. Said, S. Mengistou & A. Alqahtani (2017). Amphibians as bioindicators of the health of some wetlands in Ethiopia. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine 66: 66–73. https://doi.org/10.12816/0034635 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12816/0034635

Skelly, D.K. & J. Golon (2003). Digestive assimilation in tad-poles: the role of forest canopy cover. Herpetologica 59: 37–42. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2015-0022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2015-0022

Skelly, D.K., M.A. Halveson, L.K. Freidenburg & M.C. Urban (2005). Canopy closure and amphibian diversity in forested wetland. Wetland Ecology and Management 13: 261–268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-004-7520

Tenzin, J. & J.T.Wangyal (2019). New record of Blue-eyed Eastern Spadefoot Toad Leptobrachium bompu (Amphibia: Megophryidae) from Sarpang District in Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(3): 13385–13389. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4134.11.3.13385-13389 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4134.11.3.13385-13389

Vasudevan, K. & S. Sondhi (2010). Amphibians and Reptiles of Uttarakhand, India. Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani 18, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, 94pp.

Wangyal, J.T. (2014). The status of herpetofauna of Bhutan. Journal of the Bhutan Ecological Society 1: 20–25.

Wangyal, J.T. & D.B. Gurung (2012). The distribution of Himalayan Newts, Tylototriton verrucosus in the Punakha-Wangdi Valley, Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(13): 3218–3222. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3136.3218-22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3136.3218-22