Main Article Content
Trichopus zeylanicus ssp. travancoricus is locally known in Tamil Nadu as Arogyapachai, meaning a plant that provides good health and vitality. The unripe fruits of the plant are highly rejuvenating and are used by the Kani Tribe to ameliorate fatigue. This subspecies is also known for its pharmacological and medicinal utility and possesses choleretic, aphrodisiac, hepatoprotective, mast cell stabilizing, adaptogenic, and cardioprotective properties. A study was attempted to understand the population status and floral biology of T. zeylanicus ssp. travancoricus in its natural habitat. The population of this herb was found to be severely fragmented and settled in shaded banks of streams and rivulets in Agasthyamalai Hills. Being a rhizomatous herb, its flowers are concealed by its broad leaves, thus preventing exposure to pollinators. The number of pollinating agents in the flowers was reported as meager. The fruits are capsules with two to six seeds, each having a hard seed coat with a projected endosperm. Therefore, the conventional propagation of the subspecies is not so successful due to its poor seed set and prolonged maturation time. In addition, the fruits are damaged by rodents, livestock, and collection for medicinal usage, which severely affect the population status of the plant. Sustainable use of this wonder herb is important for its conservation in its natural habitat.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2718.104.22.16853-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998). An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85(4): 531â€“553.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classiï¬cation for the orders and families of ï¬‚owering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399â€“436.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105â€“121.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1â€“20.
Anilkumar, E.S., M. Dan, M. Navas, S. Rajasekharan & P. Pushpangadan (2002). Pharmacognostic studies on Trichopus zeylanicus ssp. travancoricus. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants 3(2): 239â€“246.
Ayensu, E.S. (1966). Taxonomic status of Trichopus: anatomical evidence. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 59(380): 425â€“430.
Bentham, G. & J.D. Hooker (1883). Dioscoreaceae: Genera Plantarum, Vol. III. Reeve & Co., London, 741pp.
Burkill, I.H. (1951). Dioscoreaceae, pp. 293â€“335. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.). Flora Malesiana Series 1.4.(3). Noordhoff-Kolff Ltd., Djakarta.
Caddick, L.R., P. William, P.J. Rudall, T.A.J. Hedderson & M.W. Chare (2002). Yams reclassified: a recircumscription of Dioscoreaceae and Dioscoreales. Taxon 51: 103â€“114.
Dafni, A., P.G. Kevan & B.C. Husb (eds.) (2005). Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest Ltd., Cambridge, Otntario, Canada, 600pp.
Dahlgren, R.M.T., H.T. Clifford & P.F. Yeo (1985). The Families of the Monocotyledons. Structure, Evolution, and Taxonomy. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, xi+503pp..
Hutchinson, J. (1934). The Families of Flowering Plants II: Monocotyledons. Macmillan & Co., London, xiii+243pp.
IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1, Gland and Cambridge, 13pp.
Kale, N.N. & R.M. Pai (1979). The floral anatomy of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science - Section B. Part 2, Plant Sciences 88(1): 63â€“67.
Lindley, J. (ed.) (1832). Aristolochiaceae, p. 18. In: Edwardsâ€™s Botanical Register. James Ridgway & Sons, London.
Pushpangadan, P., S. Rajasekharan, P.K. Ratheshkumar, C.R. Jawahar, V.V. Nair, N. Lakshmi & L.S. Amma (1988). Arogyappacha (Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn.), the â€˜ginsengâ€™ of Kani tribes of Agashyar Hills (Kerala) for ever green health and vitality. Ancient Science of Life 8(1): 13â€“16.
Ramachandran, K. (1968). Cytological studies in Dioscoreaceae. Cytologia 33: 401â€“410.
Ramasubbu, R., G. Manikandan & N. Sasikala (2016). In vitro propagation of Garcinia travancorica â€“ an endemic and endangered tree species of Western Ghats, India. Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity 24: 64â€“69.
Rao, A.N. (1955). Embryology of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn. The Journal of Indian Botanical Society 34: 213â€“221.
Rishikesh, S.B. & R. Sambathkumar (2016). Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn. on experimental animals. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 78(1): 161â€“166.
Sharma, A.K., P. Pushpangandan, C.L. Chopra & S. Rajasekharan (1989). Adaptogenic activity of seeds of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn., the ginseng of Kerala. Ancient Science of Life 8(3&4): 212â€“219.
Singh, B., B.K. Chandan, N. Sharma, S. Singh, A. Khajuria & D.K. Gupta (2005). Adaptogenic activity of glyco-peptido-lipid fraction from the alcoholic extract of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaerten (part II). Phytomedicine 12(6â€“7): 468â€“481.
Sivarajan, V.V., P. Pushpangadan & P.K.R. Kumar (1990). A Revision of Trichopus (Trichopodaceae). Kew Bulletin 45(2): 353â€“360.
Subramoniam, A., D.A. Evans, S. Rajasekharan & P. Pushpangadan (1998). Hepatoprotective activity of Trichopus zeylanicus extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 36(4): 385â€“389.
Subramoniam, A., D.A. Evans, S. Rajasekharan & P. Pushpangadan (1999). Inhibition of antigen-induced degranulation of sensitized mast cells by Trichopus zeylanicus in mice and rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 68(1â€“3): 137â€“143.
Subramoniam, A., V. Madhavachandran, S. Rajasekharan & P. Pushpangadan (1997). Aphrodisiac property of Trichopus zeylanicus extract in male mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 57(1): 21â€“27.
Takhtajan, A. (1980). Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). Botanical Review 46(3): 225â€“359.
Thwaites, G.H.K. (1861). Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae. Part 4.
TNFD (2016). Tamil Nadu Forest Department Report. https://www.forests.tn.gov.in/img/document/CIRCLES/KMTR.pdf.
Velavan, S., S. Selvarani & A. Adhithan (2009). Cardioprotective effect of Trichopus zeylanicus against myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol in rats. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 4: 88â€“91.
Wilkin, P., P. Schols, M.W. Chase, K. Chayamarit, C.A. Furness, S. Huysmans, F. Rakotonsolo, E. Smets & C. Thapyai (2005). A plastid gene phylogeny of the yam genus, Dioscorea: roots, fruits and Madagascar. Systematic Botany 30: 736â€“749.