Stream macro-invertebrate diversity of the Phobjikha Valley, Bhutan

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Jigme Wangchuk
Kuenzang Dorji


Macro-invertebrates form an integral part of aquatic systems, and assessment of macro-invertebrate communities is one of the best ways to monitor the health of a stream.  Despite this, stream monitoring of macro-invertebrates has been extremely limited in Bhutan.  A study was conducted to generate baseline information on macro-invertebrate diversity in the Phobjikha valley, covering community composition and seasonal variation in diversity during post and pre-monsoon seasons.  From a total of 244 units sampled in streams, 50 families from 13 orders were recorded.  The dominant order overall was Ephemeroptera (31%), which also dominated the pre-monsoon assessment (33%), while Trichoptera (39%) dominated the post-monsoon assessment.  The pre-monsoon assessment recorded two additional orders, Caenogastropoda and Veneroida. There was no significant difference in diversity between the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon assessments (p˃0.3), but a significant difference in species diversity between seasons was observed in pools and riffles.  Physicochemical parameters indicated that pH, electrical conductivity and salinity were within favorable ranges for macro-invertebrates.  Further studies of other habitats in different seasons will produce a more comprehensive understanding of macro-invertebrate diversity. 

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How to Cite
Wangchuk, J. and Dorji, K. 2018. Stream macro-invertebrate diversity of the Phobjikha Valley, Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 10, 1 (Jan. 2018), 11126–11146. DOI:
Author Biographies

Jigme Wangchuk, Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Conservation and Environmental Research

Assistant Researcher

Center for Water, Climate and Environmental Policy

Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Conservation and Envrionmental Research

Kuenzang Dorji, Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Conservation and Environmental Research

Assistant Researcher

Center for Conservation Biology

Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Conservation and Environmental Research


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