Distribution pattern, population estimation and threats to the Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Pholidota: Manidae) in and around Pir Lasura National Park, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan

Main Article Content

Faraz Akrim
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9313-0637
Tariq Mahmood
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2432-7732
Riaz Hussain
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4872-8095
Siddiqa Qasim
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2122-0646
Imad-ul-din Zangi
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0553-045X

Abstract

Baseline knowledge of distribution and abundance of a species whose population is facing decline throughout its distribution range is vital for its conservation planning. Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) is such a species which is Imperiled and lacking key biological studies in northern locale of Pakistan. We investigated distribution, abundance and threats faced by Indian pangolin in Pir Lasura National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Indian pangolin has patchy distribution in and around the Park ranging from 590m-1540m elevation. A very low population (0.77±0.34 individuals/km2) of Indian pangolin were recorded from the Park. Local perception towards Indian pangolin was to a great extent negative. Slaughtering record of 446 pangolins were gathered. We recovered 12 dead pangolins, 10 jackets of scales. Furthermore, selling of 26 kg scales, 111 live pangolin captures and 313 killings were reported during 2013-2015. Local hunters were mainly involved in capturing and killing of Indian pangolin 90%, local farmers 8% (n=22) and labor 1%. We propose more studies ought to be led to improve comprehension of species and mindfulness instruction programs both by government and private sectors, to taught local communities living in and around Pir Lasura National Park for getting support for the species and to change their demeanors.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Akrim, F., Mahmood, T., Hussain, R., Qasim, S. and Zangi, I.- ul- din 2017. Distribution pattern, population estimation and threats to the Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Pholidota: Manidae) in and around Pir Lasura National Park, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 9, 3 (Mar. 2017), 9920–9927. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2914.9.3.9920-9927.
Section
Communications
Author Biography

Faraz Akrim, Department of Wildlife Management PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

PhD Scholar

References

Aiyappan, A. (1942). Notes on the pangolin (Manis crassicaudata). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 43: 254–257.

Allen, G.M. (1938). The Mammals of China and Mongolia Part I. Natural History of Central China. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA, 620pp.

Baillie, J., D. Challender, P. Kaspal, A. Khatiwada, R. Mohapatra & H. Nash (2014). Manis crassicaudata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T12761A45221874. Downloaded on 07 January 2017; http://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20142.RLTS.T12761A45221874.en

Begon, M. (1979). Investigating Animal Abundance: Capture-Recapture for Biologists. University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 97pp.

Broad, S, R. Lusmoore, & M. Jenkins (1988). Significant trade in wildlife: a review of selected species in appendix II. Mammals. IUCN, Switzerland, 51–183pp.

Challender, D., J. Baillie, G. Ades, P. Kaspal, B. Chan, A. Khatiwada, L. Xu, S. Chin, H. Nash & H. Hsieh (2014). Manis pentadactyla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014: e.T12764A45222544. Downloaded on 13 March 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-2.RLTS.T12764A45222544.en

Challender, D.W.S. (2011). Asian Pangolins: increasing affluence driving hunting pressure. TRAFFIC Bulletin 23(3): 92–93.

Chao, J. (1989). Studies on the Conservation of the Formosan Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla). I. General Biology and Current Status. Division of Forest Biology, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. Printed by Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Taiwan.

Chao, J.T., E.H. Tsao, K. Traylor-Holzer, D. Reed & K. Leus (2005). Formosan Pangolin Population and Habitat Viability Assessment: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN, USA.

Chin, S.Y. & S. Pantel (2009). Pangolin capture and trade in Malaysia, pp. 138–157. In: Pantel, S. & S.Y. Chin (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Trade and Conservation of Pangolins Native to South and Southeast Asia, 30 June – 2 July 2008, Singapore Zoo, Singapore. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

CITES (2000). Prop. 11.13. Manis crassicaudata, Manis pentadactyla, Manis javanica. Transfer from Appendix II to Appendix I (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, United States). Available at: http://cites.org/eng/cop/11/prop/13.pdf

Colbert, E.H. (1935). Siwalik Mammals in the Amercian Museum of Natural History. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 26: 1–40.

Frick, F. (1968). Die Höhenstufenverteilung der Nepalesischen Säugetiere. Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 17: 161–173.

GoAJ&K (2014). http:// forest.ajk. gov.pk/ index.php?option = com_content &view =article & id=72&Itemid=103.

Gubbi, S. & M. Linkie (2012). Wildlife hunting patterns, techniques, and profile of hunters in and around Periyar tiger reserve. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 109(3): 165–172.

Hansell, M.H. (1993). The ecological importance of animal nests and burrows. Functional Ecology 7(1): 5–12.

Heath, M.E. (1992). Manis pentadactyla. Mammalian Species 414: 1–6.

Heath, M.E. (1995). Manis crassicaudata. Mammalian Species 513: 1–4.

Hutton, A.F. (1949). Notes on the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 48: 805–806.

Indian Wildlife Club Ezine (2004). Pangolin or scaly anteater (Manis crassicaudta). Wild bites IWC’s monthly newsletter March, 2004.

Irshad, N., T. Mahmood, R. Hussain & M.S. Nadeem (2015). Distribution, abundance and diet of the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata). Animal Biology 65 (2015) 57–71; http://doi.org/ 10.1163/15707563-00002462

Israel, S., T. Sinclair, B. Grewal & H. J. Hoefer (1987). Indian Wildlife. APA Productions (HK) Ltd. Hong Kong, 363pp.

Jentink, F.A. (1982). Revision of the Manidae in the Leyden Museum. Notes of the Leyden Museum 4: 193–209.

Khan, M.A.R. (1985). Mammals of Bangladesh. Nazma Reza, Dhaka, 92pp.

Kuehn, G. (1986). Pholidota, pp. 618–620. In: Fowler, M.E. (ed.). Zoo and Wild Animals Medicine. 2nd Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, New York, 951pp.

Mahmood, T., R. Hussain, N. Irshad, F. Akrim & M.S. Nadeem (2012). Illegal mass killing of Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in Potohar Region, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 44(5): 1457-1461.

Mahmood, T., N. Irshad & R. Hussain (2014). Habitat Preference and Population Estimates of Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in District Chakwal of Potohar Plateau, Pakistan. Russian Journal of Ecology 45(1): 70–75; http://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413614010081

Mahmood, T., S. Andleeb, M. Anwar, M. Rais, M.S. Nadeem, F. Akrim & R. Hussain (2015a). Distribution, Abundance and vegetation analysis of the Scaly Anteater (Manis crassicaudata) in Margalla Hills National Park Islamabad, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 25(5): 1311–1321.

Mahmood, T., N. Irshad, R. Hussain, F. Akrim, I. Hussain, M. Anwar, M. Rais & M.S. Nadeem (2015b). Breeding habits of the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in Potohar Plateau, Pakistan. Mammalia 80(2): 231–234; http://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2014-0153

Mishra, C., A. Datta & M.D. Madhusudan (2004). The High Altitude Wildlife of Western Arunachal Pradesh: A Survey Report. CERC Technical Report No. 8. Nature Conservation Foundation, International Snow Leopard Trust, and Wildlife Conservation Society (India Program), Mysore, India.

Mishra, N., S.D. Rout & T. Panda (2011). Ethno-zoological studies and medicinal values of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa. India. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5(1): 6–11.

Mitchell, R.M. (1975). A checklist of Nepalese mammals (excluding bats). Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 23: 152–157.

Mitra, S. (1998). On the scales of scaly anteater Manis crassicaudata. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 95(3): 495–498.

Mohanty, B. (2011). Wildlife poaching in Orissa. PhD (Life Science) Thesis, submitted to North Orissa University, Baripada, Odisha.

Molur, S. (2008). Manis crassicaudata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. . Downloaded on 27 August 2012.

Nowak, R.M. (1991). Walker’s Mammals of the World, 5th Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 642pp.

Nowak, R.M. (1999). Walker’s Mammals of the World, 6th Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2,015pp.

Pai, M. (2008). Vanishing Species-Indian Pangolin. http://mohanpais/articles.blogspot.com /2008/07/10/

Prater, S.H. (1971). The Book of Indian Animals. 3rd Edition (Revised). Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay.

Roberts, T.J. (1997). Mammals of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 525pp.

Schlitter, D.A. (2005). Order Pholidota, pp. 530–531. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Smith, A.T. & Y. Xie (2008). A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 400pp.

Sopyan, E. (2009). Malayan Pangolin Manis javanica Trade in Sumatra, Indonesia. In: Pantel, S. & S.Y. Chin (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Trade and Conservation of Pangolins Native to South and Southeast Asia, 30 June-2 July 2008, Singapore Zoo, Singapore.

Srinivasulu, C. & B. Srinivasulu (2012). South Asian Mammals. Their Diversity, Distribution, and Status. Springer, New York, xii+468pp; http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3449-8

Tikader, B.K. (1983). Threatened Animals of India. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India. WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Centre), IUCN Species Survival Commission & TRAFFIC Network (1999) Review of significant trade in animal species included in Appendix II: Detailed reviews of 37 species. Draft report to the Animals Committee, 205pp.

WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Centre), IUCN Species Survival Commission, & TRAFFIC Network (1999). Review of significant trade in animal species included in Appendix II: Detailed reviews of 37 species. Draft report to the Animals Committee, 205pp.

Zoological Survey of India (1994). The Red Data Book of Indian Animals. Part 1: Vertebrata. Government of India, Calcutta. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 534pp.