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The main objectives of the Nepal National Bird Red Data Book were to provide comprehensive and up-to-date accounts of all the bird species found in Nepal, assess their status applying the IUCN Guidelines at Regional Levels, identify threats to all bird species and recommend the most practical measures for their conservation.Â It is hoped that the Bird RDB will help Nepal achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity target of preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status.Â As population changes of Nepalâ€™s birds have been studied for only a few species, assessments of speciesâ€™ national status were mainly made by assessing changes in distribution.Â Species distribution maps were produced for all of Nepalâ€™s bird species except vagrants and compared to maps that were produced in 1991 using the same mapping system.Â Of the 878 bird species recorded, 168 species (19%) were assessed as nationally threatened. These comprise 68 (40%) Critically Endangered species, 38 (23%) Endangered species and 62 (37%) Vulnerable species.Â A total of 62 species was considered Near Threatened and 22 species Data Deficient.Â Over 55% of the threatened birds are lowland grassland specialists, 25% are wetland birds and 24% tropical and sub-tropical broadleaved forest birds.Â Larger birds appear to be more threatened than smaller birds with 98 (25%) non-passerine species threatened and 67 (14%) passerine species.Â Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are the most important threats.Â Other threats include chemical poisoning, over-exploitation, climate change, hydropower, invasive species, intensification of agriculture, disturbance, and limited conservation measures and research.Â Measures to address these threats are described.Â It was also concluded that re-assessments of the status of certain bird groups carried out every five years and the setting up of a national online system for storing and reporting bird sightings would be useful.
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