Main Article Content
The main objectives of the Nepal National Bird Red Data Book were to provide comprehensive and up-to-date accounts of all the bird species found in Nepal, assess their status applying the IUCN Guidelines at Regional Levels, identify threats to all bird species and recommend the most practical measures for their conservation.Â It is hoped that the Bird RDB will help Nepal achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity target of preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status.Â As population changes of Nepalâ€™s birds have been studied for only a few species, assessments of speciesâ€™ national status were mainly made by assessing changes in distribution.Â Species distribution maps were produced for all of Nepalâ€™s bird species except vagrants and compared to maps that were produced in 1991 using the same mapping system.Â Of the 878 bird species recorded, 168 species (19%) were assessed as nationally threatened. These comprise 68 (40%) Critically Endangered species, 38 (23%) Endangered species and 62 (37%) Vulnerable species.Â A total of 62 species was considered Near Threatened and 22 species Data Deficient.Â Over 55% of the threatened birds are lowland grassland specialists, 25% are wetland birds and 24% tropical and sub-tropical broadleaved forest birds.Â Larger birds appear to be more threatened than smaller birds with 98 (25%) non-passerine species threatened and 67 (14%) passerine species.Â Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are the most important threats.Â Other threats include chemical poisoning, over-exploitation, climate change, hydropower, invasive species, intensification of agriculture, disturbance, and limited conservation measures and research.Â Measures to address these threats are described.Â It was also concluded that re-assessments of the status of certain bird groups carried out every five years and the setting up of a national online system for storing and reporting bird sightings would be useful.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2718.104.22.16853-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Acharya, R. & B. Ghimire (2009). Report on owl conservation campaigns (Chitwan, Nepal). Submitted to WWF Nepal, Bird Conservation Nepal & Friends of Nature. Unpublished.
Acharya, R. & Y. Ghimirey (2013). House Crow Corvus splendens heading upwards in Nepal: possible climate change impact influencing its movement. Ibisbill 2: 180â€“183.
Baral, H.S. (2000). Notes on distribution of some grassland birds in Nepal with reference to Sukla Phanta. Danphe 9(3): 6â€“7.
Baral, H.S. (2001). Community structure and habitat associations of lowland grassland birds in Nepal. PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam.
Baral, H.S., S. Basnet, B. Chaudhary, H. Chaudhary, T. Giri & G.C. Som (2007). A new subspecies of Rufous-vented Prinia Prinia burnesii (Aves: Cisticolidae) from Nepal. Danphe 16(4): 1â€“10.
Baral, H.S., S. Basnet, B. Chaudhary, H. Chaudhary, T. Giri & G.C. Som (2008). A substitute name for Prinia burnesii nipalensis. Danphe 17(1): 1.
Baral, H.S. & C. Inskipp (2005). Important Bird Areas in Nepal: Key Sites for Conservation. Bird Conservation Nepal and BirdLife International, Kathmandu and Cambridge.
Baral, H.S., U.R. Regmi, L.P. Poudyal & R. Acharya (2012). Status and conservation of birds in Nepal, pp. 71â€“100. In: Acharya, K. P. & M. Dhakal (eds.). Biodiversity Conservation in Nepal: A Success Story. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu.
Baral, H.S., R. Tamang, T. Giri, B. Chaudhary, B. Bidari, B. Mahato, F. Chaudhary, R.G. Chaudhary, S. Tamang & R. Karmacharya (In prep.). Rediscovery of Red-faced Liocichla Liocichla phoenicea (Gould, 1837) in Nepal and notable bird records of Gadhi, Chitwan District, central Nepal.
Bird Conservation Nepal & Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (2011). The State of Nepalâ€™s Birds 2010.Bird Conservation Nepal and Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, 96pp. Available online 19 May 2016; http://www.birdlife.org/action/science/sites/asian_ibas/index.html
Bird Conservation Nepal & Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (in prep.). Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas of Nepal. Bird Conservation Nepal and Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu.
BirdLife International (2015). BirdLife International website. Available online 19 May 2016; http://www.birdlife.org
Cuthbert, R., R.E. Green, S. Ranade, S. Saravanan, D.J. Pain, V. Prakash & A.A. Cunningham (2006). Rapid population declines of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and Red-headed Vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) in India. Animal Conservation 9(3): 249â€“254; http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00041.x
Dahal, B.R. (2007). Effects of Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes on aquatic birds at Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, south-east Nepal. Danphe 16(1): 64â€“65.
Department of Forest (2015). Protected Forest Program notice updated on 12 February 2015.
Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (2015). Vulture Conservation Action Plan for Nepal (2015â€“2019).
Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu. Available online 19 May 2016; http://www.ntnc.org.np/sites/default/files/publicaations/Vulture%20Conservation%20Action%20Plan%20for%20Nepal_2015.pdf
Fleming, R.L. Sr., R.L. Jr. Fleming & L S. Bangdel (1984). Birds of Nepal. Third Edition. Avalok, Kathmandu.
Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp, T. Inskipp & H.S. Baral (2016). Birds of Nepal. Revised edition, Christopher Helm, London.
Inskipp, C. & H.S. Baral (2011). Potential impacts of agriculture on Nepalâ€™s birds. Our Nature (2010)8: 270â€“312; http://doi.org/10.3126/on.v8i1.4339
Inskipp, C. & T. Inskipp (1983). Report on a Survey of Bengal Floricans (Houbaropsis bengalensis) in Nepal and India, 1982. ICBP Study Report No. 2. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge.
Inskipp, C. & T. Inskipp (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Nepal. Second Edition. Christopher Helm, London. Available online 18 May 2016; http://archive.org/details/guidetobirdsofne85insk
Inskipp, C., H.S. Baral, S. Phuyal, T.R. Bhatt, M. Khatiwada, T. Inskipp, A. Khatiwada, S. Gurung, P.B. Singh, L. Murray, L. Poudyal & R. Amin (2016). The Status of Nepalâ€™s Birds: The National Red List Series. Zoological Society of London. Accessed online 19 May 2016; https://www.zsl.org/conservation/regions/asia/national-red-list-of-nepals-birds
Inskipp, C., T. Inskipp, R. Winspear, P. Collin, A. Robin, J. Thakuri & M. Pandey (2008). Bird survey of Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, April 2008. Bird Conservation Nepal and Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Kathmandu and Sandy. Accessed online 20 May 2016:
Inskipp, T. (2015a). Bibliography of the birds of Nepal. Unpublished.
Inskipp, T. (2015b). Nepal species by references document. Unpublished.
IUCN (2003). Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels: Version 3.0. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
Mahato, B. (2016). Rediscovery of Red-faced Liocichla in Nepal by Bird Education Society team, 22 May 2016. Facebook. Accessed online 19 May 2016: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1714959662088389&set=a.1431581960426162.1073741830.100007231143437&type=3&theater
Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation (2014). Nepal National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014â€“2020. Kathmandu.
Murphy, S.T., N. Subedi, S.R. Jnawali, B.R. Lamichhane, G.P.
Upadhyay, R. Kock & R. Amin (2013). Invasive Mikania in Chitwan National Park, Nepal: the threat to the Greater One-horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis and factors driving the invasion. Oryx 47(3): 361â€“368;
Nepal Forum for Justice (2006). Governmental and Public Awareness-raising on POPs. International POPs Elimination Project. Accessed online 20 May 2016; http://www.ipen.org/ipepweb1/library/ipep_pdf_reports/4nep%20gov%20and%20public%20awareness%20raising%20on%20pops.pdf
Oaks, J. L., M. Gilbert, M.Z. Virani, R.T. Watson, C.U. Meteyer, B. Rideout, H.L. Shivaprasad, S. Ahmed, M.J.I. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, A. Ali & A.A. Khan (2004). Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 427: 630â€“633; http://doi.org/10.1038/nature02317
Palikhe, B.R. (2005). Pesticide management in Nepal. In view of Code of Conduct. Paper presented at the Regional Workshop on International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides: Implementation, Monitoring and Observance, Bangkok, Thailand, 26â€“28 July 2005.
Paudel, M. (2016). Authorities fail to notice owl poaching, meat sale. The Kathmandu Post 27 January 2016. Available online 22 May 2016: http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2016-01-27/authorities-fail-to-notice-owl-poaching-meat-sale.html
Paudel, S. (2009a). Study on threats to Sarus Crane Grus antigone antigone in farmlands in Lumbini, an Important Bird Area of Nepal â€“ AEC/OBC Award 2007. BirdingASIA 12: 9â€“10.
Paudel, S. (2009b). Study on threats to Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in farmlands in Lumbini, an important Bird Area of Nepal. A final report submitted to Oriental Bird Club, UK. Unpublished, 37pp.
Peet, N. (1997). Biodiversity and management of tall grasslands in Nepal. PhD Thesis. University of East Anglia.
Peet, N., A.J. Watkinson, D.J. Bell & U.R. Sharma (1999). The conservation management of Imperata cylindrica grassland in Nepal with fire and cutting: an experimental approach. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 374â€“387; http://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.1999.00405.x
Poudyal, L.P., P.B. Singh & S. Maharjan (2008a). Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in Nepal: an update. BirdingAsia (10): 43â€“47.
Poudyal, L.P., P.B. Singh & S. Maharjan (2008b). The decline of Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in Nepal. Danphe (17): 4â€“6.
Shah, K.B. & H.S. Baral (2010). Recommendations for Updating the Protected Animal List for Government of Nepal. A report submitted to the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund/WWF Nepal. Himalayan Nature. Unpublished.
Shultz, S., H.S. Baral, S. Charman, A. Cunningham, D. Das, G.R. Ghalsasi, M.S. Goudar, R.E. Green, A. Jones, P. Nighot, D.J. Pain & V. Prakash (2004). Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. Proceedings of Royal Society of London B (Suppl.) 271: S458â€“S460; http://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2004
Thapa, I. & J.J. Thakuri (2009). Study of wild bird trade issues in Nepal. Unpublished report by BCN to the World Parrot Trust and WWF Nepal, Kathmandu. Unpublished.
Tucker G.M. & M.F. Heath (1994). Birds in Europe: their conservation status. BirdLife Conservation Status Series No.2. BirdLife International, Cambridge.
United Nations Development Programme (2014). Human Development Report 2013. Available online 19 May 2016: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/NPL.pdf
World Bank (2008). Nepal - Country Environmental Analysis: Strengthening Institutions and Management Systems for Enhanced Environmental Governance. The World Bank, Washington, DC. Available online 19 May 2016: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/7996