Main Article Content
Freshwater turtles symbolize a key component of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems.Â Of the 356 living species of turtles and tortoises in the world, 34 species are recorded from India.Â The number of freshwater turtle and tortoise species found in the state of Goa, however, is debatable.Â No study specific to the Goa region has been carried out on freshwater turtles.Â Therefore, baseline data on diversity and distribution of freshwater turtles is scanty.Â The present study was conducted to address this lacuna in knowledge, which will further aid in identifying threats to the population of freshwater turtles and in devising appropriate methods for their conservation.Â The diversity and distribution of freshwater turtles was investigated in 186 sites in Goa from June 2012 to May 2015.Â A total of 337 specimens of two native and one introduced species of freshwater turtles belonging to three familiesâ€”Trionychidae (Indian Flap-shell Turtle Lissemys puncata), Geomydidae (Indian Black Turtle Melanochelys trijuga) and Emydidae (Red-eared Slider Trachemys scripta elegans)â€” were identified.Â Melanochelys trijuga (52.23%) was the most widely and abundantly distributed species, and was recorded from 132 sites.Â L. punctata (46.88%) was recorded from 113 sites, while T. scripta elegans (0.89%) was rare and was recorded from only two sites. While Melanochelys trijuga is generalized in habitat selection, making it the widely distributed species in the State of Goa, L. punctata is more specific in habitat selection thus restricting its range to coastal, middle-level plateau and the foothills of Western Ghats.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27126.96.36.19953-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Akbar, M., M. Mushtaq-ul-Hassan & Z. Nisa (2006). Distribution of freshwater turtles in Punjab, Pakistan. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science 4(2): 142â€“146.
Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Government of India Press, New Delhi, xxvii+404pp.
Congdon, J.D. & J.W. Gibbons (1989). Biomass productivity of turtles in freshwater wetlands: a geographic comparison, pp. 583â€“591. In: Sharitz, R.R. & J.W. Gibbons (eds.). Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife. U.S. Department of Energy Symposium Series 61, Oak Ridge, 1265pp.
Das, I. (1985). Indian Turtles: A Field Guide. World Wide Fund for Nature-India, Calcutta, 119pp.
Das, I. (2008). A Photographic Guide to Snakes and other Reptiles of India. Om Books International, New Delhi, 144pp.
Deepak, V. & K. Vasudevan (2009). Endemic turtles of India, pp. 25â€“42. In: Vasudevan, K. (ed.). Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises of India. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas Vol. 12(1). Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, 177pp.
Fritz, U. & P. Havas (2007). Checklist of Chelonians of the world. Vertebrate Zoology 57(2): 149â€“368.
Heatwole, H. (1982). A review of structuring in herpetofaunal assemblages, pp. 1â€“19. In: Scott, N.J., Jr. (ed.). Herpetological Communities: A Symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologistsâ€™ League. Fish and wildlife service, United States, 239pp.
Hossain, L., S.U. Sarker & N.J. Sarker (2008). Ecology of Spotted Flapshell Turtle, Lissemys punctata (Lacepede, 1788) in Bangladesh. Ecoprint 15: 59â€“67.
Iverson, J.B. (1982). Biomass in turtle populations: A neglected subject. Oecologia 55(1): 69â€“76.
Iverson, J.B. (1992). A Revised Checklist with Distribution Maps of The Turtles of The World. Privately Printed, Richmond, Indiana, 363pp.
Lin, Y., S. Wu, T. Lin, J. Mao & T. Chen (2010). Population status and distribution of the Endangered Yellow-margined Box Turtle Cuora flavomarginata in Taiwan. Oryx 44(4): 581â€“587; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605310000797
Litzgus, J.D. & T.A. Mousseau (2004). Demography of a southern population of the Spotted Turtle (Clemmys guttata). Southeastern Naturalist 3(3): 391â€“400.
Murthy, B.H.C. & I. Das (2009). The turtle collection of the Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India, pp. 15â€“24. In: Vasudevan, K. (ed.). Freshwater turtles and tortoises of India. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas vol. 12(1). Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, 177pp.
Pendlebury, P. (2006). Trachemys scripta elegans (reptile). Invasive Species Specialist Group. http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=71&fr=1&sts
Pradhan, M.S. (2008). Reptilia, pp. 281â€“364. In: Director (ed.). Fauna of Goa, State Fauna Series 16. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 531pp.
Pupins, M. (2007). First report on recording of the invasive species Trachemys scripta elegans, a potential competitor of Emys orbicularis in Latvia. Acta Universitatis Latviensis 723: 37â€“46.
Rao, R.S. (1985â€“86). Flora of Goa, Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagarhaveli, Vol. 1 & 2. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 546pp.
Rhodin, A.G.J., J.B. Iverson, R. Bour, U. Fritz, A. Georges, H.B. Shaffer & P.P. van Dijk (2017). Turtles of the world: Annotated checklist and atlas of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution, and conservation status (8th Ed.), pp. 1â€“292. In:
Rhodin, A.G.J., J.B. Iverson, P.P. van Dijk, R.A. Saumure, K.A. Buhlmann, P.C.H. Pritchard & R.A. Mittermeier (eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 7.;
Rubin, E.S., W.M. Boyce, M.C. Jorgensen, S.G. Torres, C.L. Hayes, C.S. Oâ€™Brien & D.A. Jessup (1998). Distribution and abundance of Bighorn sheep in the Peninsular Ranges. California Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(3): 539â€“551.
Sawant, N.S., T.D. Jadhav & S.K. Shyama (2010). Distribution and abundance of pit vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae) along the Western Ghats of Goa, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(10): 1199â€“1204; https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2489.1199-204
Smith, M.A. (1931). The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma: Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 1. Loricata, Testudines. Taylor and Francis, London (Reprinted 1974, 1995 by Today and Tomorrowâ€™s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi), xxviii+185pp.
Spinks, P.Q., G.B. Pauly, J.J. Crayon & H.B. Shaffer (2003). Survival of the Western Pond Turtle (Emys marmorata) in an urban California environment. Biological Conservation 113: 257â€“267.
Srivastav, A. & P. Nigam (2009). Freshwater turtles of India: Status and management in captivity, pp. 133â€“141. In: Vasudevan, K. (ed.). Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises of India. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas vol. 12(1).
Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, 177pp.
Stanford, C.B., A.G.J. Rhodin, P.P. van Dijk, B.D. Horne, T. Blanck, E.V. Goode, R. Hudson, R.A. Mittermeier, A. Currylow, C. Eisemberg, M. Frankel, A. Georges, P.M. Gibbons, J.O. Juvik, G. Kuchling, L. Luiselli, H. Shi, S. Singh & A.
Walde (eds.) (2018). Turtles in Trouble: The Worldâ€™s 25+ Most Endangered Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles. Turtle Conservation Coalition, Ojai, 79pp.
Tikader, B.K. & R.C. Sharma (1985). Handbook of Indian Testudines. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 156pp.