Main Article Content
The cause for rapid decline of the South Asian vulture population in 1990s was unknown for many years until diclofenac was proved to be the main reason for such decline in 2004.Â The vulture populations from Nepal has also undergone rapid decline that causes low awareness among people about its ecological importance.Â For declining species that have large range and are mostly associated with humans, peopleâ€™s attitudes can have direct effects on their survival because of the multiple linkages and potential for both positive and negative impacts of human behaviour for these large scavengers.Â However, little is known about vultures in the eastern mid-hills of Nepal.Â Therefore, we conducted a study in Ramechhap, a district in the eastern mid-hills of Nepal, to assess the vulturesâ€™ status and human relations using transect and questionnaire surveys respectively.Â Himalayan Griffons Gyps himalayensis and Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus were found in the area, and the majority of respondents interviewed had a positive attitude towards vultures (58.8%) and their conservation (47.3%).Â Although neglected in previous studies, a neutral attitude (20% towards vultures and 15.8% towards vulture conservation) can be significant (largely related to ignorance) and can be readily turned to negative due to the vultureâ€™s carcass consuming behaviour and lack of conventional appeal to many people, with implications for the success of a conservation programme.Â In our study, carcass scarcity appeared to be an increasing concern with about 90% of the respondents reporting burying cattle carcasses, and that this practice has recently increased.Â In the course of the study period, however, two (unburied) carcasses were observed.Â Our study found that nimesulide, a potentially toxic NSAID for vultures, was used for veterinary purpose in the study area, which could be a serious threat to vultures.Â Other human activities such as carcass poisoning pose threats to vultures in the study area.Â Therefore, for long term vulture conservation, local attitudes and behaviour should be considered along with ecological aspects of vultures.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Acharya, K.P. (2004). Does community forests management supports biodiversity conservation? evidences from two community forests from the mid hills of Nepal. Journal of forest and livelihood 4(1): 44â€“54.
Acharya, R. (2006). Status of Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis Hume, 1869 and ethno-vulture relationship in Upper Mustang, Nepal. MSc Thesis. School of Environmental Management and Sustainable Management (ScHEMS), Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Acharya, R., R. Cuthbert, H.S. Baral & K.B. Shah (2009). Rapid population declines of Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis in Upper Mustang, Nepal. Bird Conservation International 19(1): 99â€“107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908007417
Acharya, R., R. Cuthbert, H.S. Baral & A. Chaudhary (2010). Rapid decline of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in Upper Mustang, Nepal. Forktail 26: 117â€“120.
BCN (2011). Annual report 2010/11. Bird Conservation Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Baral, H.S., J.B. Giri & M.Z. Virani (2004). On the decline of Oriental White-backed Vultures Gyps bengalensis in lowland, Nepal, pp. 215â€“219. In: Chancellor, R.D. & B.U. Meyburg (eds.). Raptors Worldwide. Proceedings of the 6th World Conference of Birds of Prey and Owls, Berlin and Budapest: WWGBP and MME/BirdLife Hungary.
Baral, N., R. Gautam & B. Tamang (2005). Population status and breeding ecology of White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Rampur valley, Nepal. Forktail 21: 87â€“91.
Baral, N. & R. Gautam (2007). Socio-economic perspectives on the conservation of critically endangered vultures in South Asia: an empirical study from Nepal. Bird Conservation International 17(2): 131â€“139; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270907000688
Baral, N., R. Gautam, N. Timilsina & M.G. Bhat (2007). Conservation implications of contingent valuation of Critically Endangered White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis in South Asia. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 3(3): 145â€“156; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17451590709618169
Barnes, P. (2013). Battitude: an assessment of human attitude and behaviour towards the Critically Endangered Pteropus rodricensis. MSc Thesis. Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London, the UK.
Bhusal, K.P. (2011). Population status and breeding success of Himalayan Griffon, Egyptian Vulture and Lammergeier in Gherabhir Arghakhanchi, Nepal. MSc Thesis. Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Bjerke, T., T.S. Ã˜degÃ¥rdstuen & B.P. Kaltenborn (1998). Attitudes toward animals among Norwegian adolescents. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People & Animals 11(2): 79â€“86; http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/089279398787000742
Chaudhary, A., T.R. Subedi, J.B. Giri, H.S. Baral, B. Bidari, H. Subedi, B. Chaudhary, I. Chaudhary, K. Paudel & R.J. Cuthbert (2012). Population trends of Critically Endangered Gyps vultures in the lowlands of Nepal. Bird Conservation International 22(3): 270â€“278; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270911000426
Clements, T., M. Gilbert, H.J. Rainey, R. Cuthbert, J.C. Eames, P. Bunnat, S. Teak, S. Chansocheat & T. Setha (2013). Vultures in Cambodia: population, threats and conservation. Bird Conservation International 23(1): 7â€“24; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270912000093
Cuthbert, R.J., M.A. Taggart, M. Saini, A. Sharma, A. Das, M.D. Kulkarni, D. Deori, S. Ranade, R.N. Shringarpure, T.H. Galligan & R.E. Green (2016). Â Continuing mortality of vultures in India associated with illegal veterinary use of diclofenac and a potential threat from nimesulide.Â OryxÂ 50(1): 104â€“112; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003060531500037X
DDC Ramechhap (2004). District Profile of Ramechhap (Nepali version). District Development Committee of Ramechhap District, Nepal.
http://www.ddcramechhap.gov.np/userfiles/ramechhap%20district%20profile%202061.pdf. Accessed on 28 May 2014.
DNPWC/MoFSC/GoN (2009). Vulture Conservation Action Plan for Nepal (2009â€“2013), Kathmandu. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Nepal. http://www.save-vultures.org/Documents/09%20Nepal%205%20Yr%20Vulture%20Action%20Plan%20Final.pdf. Accessed on 28 May 2014.
DonÃ¡zar, J.A., C.J. Palacios, L. Gangoso, O. Ceballos, M.J. GonzÃ¡lez & F. Hiraldo (2002). Conservation status and limiting factors in the endangered population of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands. Biological Conservation 107(1): 89â€“97; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00049-6
Ericsson, G. & T.A. Heberlein (2003). Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back. Biological conservation 111(2): 149â€“159; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00258-6
Galligan, T.H., T. Amano, V.M. Prakash, M. Kulkarni, R. Shringarpure, N. Prakash, S. Ranade, R.E. Green & R.J. Cuthbert (2014). Have population declines in Egyptian Vulture and Red-headed Vulture in India slowed since the 2006 ban on veterinary diclofenac?Â Bird Conservation InternationalÂ 24(03): 272â€“281; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270913000580
Ghimire, H.R., S. Phuyal & K.B. Shah (2014). Protected species outside the protected areas: peopleâ€™s attitude, threats and conservation of the Yellow Monitor (Varanus flavescens) in the far-western lowlands of Nepal. Journal for Nature ConservationÂ 22(6): 497â€“503; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2014.08.003
Gilbert, M., R.T. Watson, S. Ahmed, M. Asim & J.A. Johnson (2007). Vulture restaurant and their role in reducing diclofenac exposure in Asian vultures. Bird Conservation International 17(1): 63â€“77; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270906000621
Green, R.E., I. Newton, S. Shultz, A.A. Cunningham, M. Gilbert, D.J. Pain & V. Prakash (2004). Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian Subcontinent. Journal of Applied ecology 41(5): 793â€“800; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00954.x
Green, R.E., M.A. Taggart, K.R. Senacha, B. Raghavan, D.J. Pain, Y. Jhala & R. Cuthbert (2007). Rate of decline of the Oriental White-backed Vulture population in India estimated from a survey of diclofenac residues in carcasses of ungulates. PLoS ONE 2(8): e686; http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000686
Gregory, R., D.W. Gibbons & P.F. Donald (2004). Birds census and survey techniques, pp. 7â€“56. In: Newton, W.J.I. & R.F. Green (eds.). Bird Ecology and Conservation, A Handbook of Techniques. Sutherland. Oxford University Press, New York.
Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp, T. Inskipp & H.S. Baral (2003). Nepalka Charaharu (Birds of Nepal, Nepali version). Oxford University Press, Delhi.
HMGN/MFSC (2002). Nepal biodiversity strategy. His Majestyâ€™s Government of Nepal / Ministry of Forests & Soil Conservation, Nepal. https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/np/np-nbsap-01-en.pdf. Accessed on 28 May 2014.
Harris, R.J. (2013). The conservation of Accipitridae vultures of Nepal: a review.Â Journal of Threatened TaxaÂ 5(2): 3603â€“3619; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2816.3603-19
Heberlein, T.A. (2012). Navigating environmental attitudes. New York: Oxford University Press.
HernÃ¡ndez, M. & A. Margalida (2009). Poison-related mortality effects in the endangered Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) population in Spain. European Journal of Wildlife Research 55(4): 415â€“423; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10344-009-0255-6
Hla, H., N.M. Shwe, T.W. Htun, S.M. Zaw, S. Mahood, J.C. Eames & J.D. Pilgrim (2010). Historical and current status of vultures in Myanmar. Bird Conservation International 21(4): 376â€“387; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270910000560
Houston, D.C. & J.E. Cooper (1975). The digestive tract of the Whiteback Griffon Vulture and its role in disease transmission among wild ungulates. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 11(3): 306â€“313; http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-11.3.306
Huntington, H.P. (2000). Using traditional ecological knowledge in science: methods and applications. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1270â€“1274; http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1270:UTEKIS]2.0.CO;2
Joshi, M.K., M.K. Chalise, A. Chaudhary & H.B. KatuwalÂ (2015).Â Himalayan Vultures in Khodpe, far-west Nepal: is there any threat?Â Journal of Threatened TaxaÂ 7(14):Â 8128â€“8133; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2427. 7.14.8128-8133
Karmacharya, D.K. (2011). Population status, breeding success and conservation approaches of vultures with special reference to Himalayan Griffon (Gyps himalayensis Hume, 1969) in Khodpe, Baitadi, Nepal. MSc Thesis. Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
MartÃn-LÃ³pez, B.M., C. Montes & J. Benayas (2007). The non-economic motives behind the willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 139(1): 67â€“82; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.005
MoEF (2006). Action plan for vulture conservation in India. Ministry of Environment and Forest, India. http://www.save-vultures.org/Documents/06%20MoEF%20Indian%20vulture%20Recov%20Plan%20Apr%2006.pdf. Accessed on 28 May 2014.
Monadjem, A., M.D. Anderson, S.E. Piper & A.F. Boshoff (eds.) (2004). The vultures of southern Africa- quo vadis?. Proceedings of a workshop on vulture research and conservation in southern Africa, Birds of Prey Working Group, Endangered Wildlife Group, Johannesburg, 1â€“11pp.
Naidoo, V., K. Wolter, D. Cromarty, M. Diekmann, N. Duncan, A.A. Meharg, M.A. Taggart, L. Venter & R. Cuthbert (2009). Toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Gyps vultures: A new threat from ketoprofen. Biology Letter 6(3): 339â€“341; http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0818
Naidoo, V., L. Venter, K. Wolter, M. Taggart & R. Cuthbert (2010). The toxicokinetics of ketoprofen in Gyps coprotheres: toxicity due to zero-order metabolism. Archives of Toxicology 84(10): 761â€“766; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-010-0521-0
Oaks, J.L., M. Gilbert, M.Z. Virani, R.T. Watson, C.U. Meteyer, B.A. Rideout, H.L. Shivaprasad, S. Ahmed, M.J.I. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, A. Ali & A.A. Khan (2004). Diclofenac residues as the cause of population decline of vultures in Pakistan. Nature 427: 630â€“633; http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature02317
Paudel, K., T. Amano, R. Acharya, A. Chaudhary, H.S. Baral, K.P. Bhusal, I.P. Chaudhary, R.E. Green, R.J. Cuthbert & T.H. Galligan (2016). Population trends in Himalayan Griffon in Upper Mustang, Nepal, before and after the ban on diclofenac.Â Bird Conservation International 26(3): 286â€“292; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270915000192
Paudel, S. (2008). Vanishing vultures and diclofenac prevalence in Lumbini IBA. Danphe - Bird Conservation Nepal Newsletter 17(2): 1â€“3.
Phuyal, S. (2012). Status of the vultures and conservation attitude of the people towards vultures in Ramechhap District. MSc Thesis. Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Prakash V., M.C. Bishwakarma, A. Chaudhary, R. Cuthbert, R. Dave, M. Kulkarni, S. Kumar, K. Paudel, S. Ranade, R. Shringarpure & R.E. Green (2012). The population decline ofÂ GypsÂ vultures in India and Nepal has slowed since veterinary use of diclofenac was banned. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49118; http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049118
RamÃrez, I., J.C. Atienza, C. Bowden & J. Tavares (2014). Diclofenac in Europe-current situation, legal aspects, potential impacts and required actions. Executive summary of Vulture Conservation Foundation, SEO, RSPB and IUCN Vulture Specialist Group. http://www.4vultures.org/app/download/8151606085/Diclofenac_Techical_Dossier.pdf?t=1400105721. Accessed on 29 May 2014.
Reimer, A., A. Mase, K. Mulvaney, N. Mullendore, R. Perryâ€Hill & L. Prokopy (2013). The impact of information and familiarity on public attitudes toward the eastern hellbender. Animal Conservation 17(3): 235â€“143; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acv.12085
Republica (2011) 15 vultures die after eating poisoned carcass. Republica National Daily Newspaper, Nepal. http://archives.myrepublica.com/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=29398. Accessed on 29 May 2014.
Serpell, J.A. (2004). Factors influencing human attitudes to animals and their welfare. Animal Welfare 13(supplement 1): 145â€“151.
Shultz, S., H.S. Baral, S. Charman, A.A. Cunningham, D. Das, G.R. Ghalsasi, M.S. Goudar, R.E. Green, A. Jones, P. Nighot, D.J. Pain & V. Prakash (2004). Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian Subcontinent. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 271 (supplement 6): S458â€“S460; http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2004.0223
Subedi, P. (2008). Monitoring of Gyps species vultures in Nawalparasi District, Nepal. Banko Jankari 18(2): 35â€“43.
Subedi, T.R. & R. DeCandido (2014). Population and breeding success of Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus and Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in central west Nepal, Vulture News 67(2): 21â€“32; http://www.iucn-vulturenews.org/Vol67/VN67%20complete.pdf#page=21. Accessed on 20 October 2016.
Swan, G., R. Cuthbert, M. Quevedo, R.E. Green, D.J. Pain, P. Bartels, A.A. Cunningham, N. Duncan, A.A. Meharg, J.L. Oaks, J. Parry-Jones, S. Shultz, M.A. Taggart, G. Verdoorn & K. Wolter (2006). Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures. Biology Letters 2(2): 279â€“282; http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2005.0425
The Himalayan Times (2014). 11 vultures of rare species found dead in Nawalparasi. The Himalayan Times National Daily Newspaper, Nepal.
http://www.thehimalayantimes.com/fullNews.php?headline=11+ vultures+of+rare+species+found+dead+in+Nawalparasi&NewsID=404758. Accessed on 29 May 2014.
Virani, M.Z., J.B. Giri, R.T. Watson & H.S. Baral (2008). Surveys of Himalayan Vultures (Gyps himalayensis) in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Mustang, Nepal. Journal of Raptor Research 42(3): 197â€“203; http://dx.doi.org/10.3356/JRR-07-35.1