Alien flora of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya: a comprehensive review

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Shikha Arora
Amit Kumar
Khima Nand Balodi
Kusum Arunachalam


Alien plant species have captured attention of the scientific community, ecologists, and environmentalists throughout the world. Like other regions, the Himalayan region is also grappling with the disrupting impacts of plant invasions. Based on an extensive review of studies conducted on alien plant species in the Indian Himalayan region, we report 728 alien plant species belonging to 450 genera under 108 families in the state of Uttarakhand, which represents 15% of the state’s flora. Fabaceae (89 species under 49 genera) followed by Asteraceae (63 species under 43 genera) and Poaceae (50 species under 35 genera) were the most diverse families amid alien species. Eucalyptus (15 species) followed by Ipomoea and Euphorbia (12 species each) and Pinus (11 species) were the most diverse genera. The maximum numbers of aliens (mostly herbs) in the state were introduced from America, followed by Europe. Owing to relatively high number of alien plant species in Uttarakhand, it is submitted that serious ecological and socio-economic consequences are likely to escalate in the future.

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