Main Article Content
Sheikh Jamal Inani National Park (Inani) is a wildlife habitat in Bangladesh located under the Cox’s Bazar South Forest Division, Cox’s Bazar. It constitutes significant habitat for the charismatic and globally ‘Endangered’ Western Hoolock Gibbon Hoolock hoolock in Bangladesh. Here, we show that Inani is a poorly-known gibbon habitat with a population of seven groups, comprising a total of 18 individuals. Among them, 77.8% were adults (males and females), and 11.1%, 5.6%, and 5.6% were sub-adults, juveniles, and infants, respectively, indicating low reproductive output. Five of seven groups had no offspring present in the group, and the mean group size of 2.57 individuals/group is low compared to other habitats in Bangladesh. Beside Western Hoolock Gibbon, Inani is home to many threatened wildlife species. The first record of the Slaty-backed Flycatcher Ficedula erithacus in Bangladesh occurred in Inani, adding this new species to the national bird checklist of Bangladesh. The presence of the globally ‘Endangered’ Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Phayre’s Langur Trachypithecus phayrei, & Elongated Tortoise Indotestudo elongata and the globally ‘Vulnerable’ Northern Pig-tailed Macaque Macaca leonina, Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileatus, Indian Leopard Panthera pardus, & Asiatic Softshell Turtle Amyda cartilaginea highlight the importance of Inani as a conservation area in Bangladesh. The Western Hoolock Gibbon and other threatened wildlife of Inani are now on the verge of local extinction due to a sharp increase in forest resource extraction resulting from the recent influx of large numbers of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, many of whom have settled around Inani. Through stakeholder interviews in the area, we have identified feasible and measurable conservation actions at Inani that are urgently needed to prevent further loss of wildlife and to protect this important gibbon habitat.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27184.108.40.20653-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
ADB (2019). Assessment Report on Ecological Assessment of Some Selected Sites in UKhia and Teknaf, Cox’ Bazar, Bangladesh, Prepared by M. Monirul H. Khan, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 66pp.
Ahmed, A., M.K. Hossain & A.T.M.R. Hoque (2011). People’s perception on depletion of forest resources in Ukhia and Teknaf by Rohingya Refugees. Green University Review 2(2): 185-199.
Ahsan, M.F. (1994). Behavioural ecology of the Hoolock Gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) in Bangladesh. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, xxiv+446 pp.
Ahsan, M.F. (2001). Socio-ecology of the Hoolock Gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) in two forests of Bangladesh, pp. 286–299. In: Chicago Zoological Society (ed.). The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century. Brookfield Zoo, May 10–13, 2000, Conference Proceedings. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois, U.S.A., viii+376pp.
Akhter, M.S., S.I. Sohel & M.P.R.M. Alamgir (2009). Impact of forest and non-forest villagers on Ukhia and Inani forest Range under Cox’s Bazar (South) Forest Division, Bangladesh. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences 46(1): 13–22.
Alam, S., K. Misbahuzzaman, M.A. Rahman & M.H. Kabir (2014). Threats to the Teknaf Wildlife Sanctuary of Bangladesh. Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources 7(1): 233–239.
BirdLife International (2016). Ficedula erithacus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22709334A94203430. Downloaded on 07 January 2019. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22709334A94203430.en
BOBLME (2013). Marine Protected Areas in Bangladesh - a framework for establishment and management. Dhaka, Bangladesh, 181pp.
Brockelman, W.Y. & R. Ali (1987). Methods of surveying and sampling forest primate populations, pp. 23-62. In: C.W. Marsh & R.A. Mittermeier (eds.). Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest, New York, xviii+365pp.
Brockelman, W.Y., H. Naing, C. Saw, A. Moe, Z. Linn, T.K. Moe, & Z. Win (2009). Census of Eastern Hoolock Gibbons (Hoolock leuconedys) in Mahamyaing Wildlife Sanctuary, Sagaing Division, Myanmar, pp. 435–451. In: Lappan, S. & D. Whittaker. The Gibbons. Springer, New York, NY, XVIII+526pp.
Brockelman, W., S. Molur & T. Geissmann (2019). Hoolock hoolock. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T39876A17968083. Downloaded on 23 August 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T39876A17968083.en
Cheyne, S.M., C.J.H. Thompson, A.C. Phillips R.M.C. Hill & S.H. Limin (2007). Density and population estimate of gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis) in the Sabangau Catchment, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Primates 49: 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-007-0063-0
Chiarello, A.G. & F.R. de Melo (2001). Primate population densities and sizes in Atlantic forest remnants of northern Espirito Santo, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 22(3): 379–396. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010751527749
Estrada, A. & R. Coates-Estrada (1996). Tropical rain forest fragmentation and wild populations of primates at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. International Journal of Primatology 17(5): 759–783. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02735263
Feeroz, M.M. & M.A. Islam (1992). Ecology and behaviour of Hoolock Gibbons of Bangladesh, MARC (Multidisciplinary Action Research Centre), Dhaka, Bangladesh, 76pp.
Geissmann, T., M.E. Grindley, Ngwe Lwin, Saw Soe Aung, Thet Naing Aung, Saw Blaw Htoo & F. Momberg (2013). The Conservation Status of Hoolock Gibbons in Myanmar. Gibbon Conservation Alliance, Zürich, 157pp.
Haidar, I.K.A., M.F. Ahsan, S. Abbas & M.T. Kabir (2017). Species diversity and habitat preference of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) in Inani Reserve Forest of Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. Journal of Insect Biodiversity and Systematics 3(1): 47–67.
Hossain, M.K., M.K. Alam & M.D. Miah (2008). Forest restoration and rehabilitation in Bangladesh. Keep Asia Green 3: 21–66.
Irfanullah, H.M. (2018). Elephant conservation in Bangladesh-bringing conservation efforts and humanitarian responses together. Gajah 49: 33–35.
Islam, M.A., M.M. Feeroz, S.B. Muzaffar, M.M. Kabir & S. Begum (2006). Conservation of the Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock): population estimates, habitat suitability and management options. Report to United States, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C. Mimeograph, 48pp.
IUCN Bangladesh (2015). Red List of Bangladesh Volume 2: Mammals. IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh, xvi+232pp.
IUCN Bangladesh (2018). Survey report on Elephant Movement, Human-Elephant Conflict Situation, and Possible Intervention Sites in and around Kutupalong Camp, Cox’s Bazar. IUCN Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 27pp.
IUCN Bangladesh (2019). Assessment report on Impact of LPG Distribution among the Rohingya and Host communities of Cox’s Bazar South Forest Division on Forest Resources. IUCN Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 38pp.
Johns, A.D. & J.P. Skorupa (1987). Responses of rain-forest primates to habitat disturbance: a review. International Journal of Primatology 8(2): 157–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02735162
Kabir, M.T. (2012). Primates of Cox’s Bazar District of Bangladesh with Special Reference to Ecology of the Dwindling Long-tailed Macaque. MPhil Thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, xv+94pp.
Kabir, M.T., B.K. Das, M.F. Ahsan & A. Khatoon (2014). Status, distribution and conservation of elongated tortoise (Indotestudo elongata Blyth, 1853) at Cox’s Bazar South Forest Division of Cox’s Bazar District of Bangladesh. Journal of Taxonomy and Biodiversity Research 6: 1–4.
Kabir, M.T., M.F. Ahsan, B.K. Das & A. Khatoon (2015). Range extension of the Asiatic Softshell Turtle (Amyda cartilaginea Boddaert, 1770) in Bangladesh. Hamadryad 37: 111–113.
Kabir, M.T., M.F. Ahsan & A. Khatoon (2017). Occurrence and conservation of the Indian leopard (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae: Panthera pardus) in Cox’s Bazar District of Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(6): 10320–10324. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.18220.127.116.1120-10324
Kakati, K., R. Raghavan, R. Chellam, Q. Qureshi & D.J. Chivers (2009). Status of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) populations in fragmented forests of eastern Assam. Primate Conservation 24(1): 127–137. https://doi.org/10.1896/052.024.0111
Rahman, M.A. & A. Mannan (2011). Challenge of forest law enforcement in Bangladesh with special reference to proposed Inani National Park. Proceedings of the First Bangladesh Forestry Congress 84–87pp.
Ray, P.C., A. Kumar, A. Devi, M.C. Krishna, M.L. Khan & W.Y. Brockelman (2015). Habitat characteristics and their effects on the density of groups of western hoolock gibbon (Hoolockhoolock) in Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Primatology 36(3): 445–459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-015-9834-4
UNDP Bangladesh and UN WOMEN Bangladesh (2018). Report on Environmental Impact of Rohingya Influx. Dhaka, Bangladesh, 106pp.
https://www.unhcr.org/rohingya-emergency.html, accessed on 18 February 2021
https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/myanmar_refugees, accessed on 18 February 2021