First record of interspecies grooming between Raffles’ Banded Langur and Long-tailed Macaque

Main Article Content

Zan Hui Lee
Andie Ang
Nadine Ruppert


In primates, observations of interspecies grooming are not uncommon, especially between species of the same genus. However, little is reported about grooming between different genera and less is discussed about its ecological significance. Here, we report the first sighting of Long-tailed Macaques grooming the Critically Endangered and rare Raffles’ Banded Langur during two independent events at Gunung Lambak Recreational Forest in Kluang, Malaysia.

Article Details

How to Cite
Lee, Z.H., Ang, A. and Ruppert, N. 2021. First record of interspecies grooming between Raffles’ Banded Langur and Long-tailed Macaque. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 13, 9 (Aug. 2021), 19246–19253. DOI:


Ang, A., A. Srivasthan, B.M. Md-Zain, M.R.B. Ismail & R. Meier (2012). Low genetic variability in the recovering urban banded leaf monkey population of Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60(2): 589–594.

Ang, A., V. D’Rozario, S.L. Jayasri, C.M. Lees, T.J. Li & S. Luz (2016). Species Action Plan for the Conservation of Raffles’ Banded Langur (Presbytis femoralis femoralis) in Malaysia and Singapore. IUCN SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN, USA.

Ang, A., D.I. Roesma, V. Nijman, R. Meier, A. Srivathsan & Rizaldi (2020). Faecal DNA to the rescue: Shotgun sequencing of non-invasive samples reveals two subspecies of Southeast Asian primates to be Critically Endangered species. Scientific Report 10: 9396.

Aureli, F. (1992). Post-conflict behaviour among wild Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 31: 329–337.

Baker, R.P. & D.G. Preston (1973). The effects of interspecies infant interaction upon social behavior of Macaca irus and Erythrocebus patas. Primates 14(4): 383–392.

Balasubramaniam, K.N., C. Sueur, M.A. Huffman & A.J.J. MacIntosh (2020a). Primate Infectious Disease Ecology: Insight and Future Directions at the Human-Macaque Interface, pp. 249–284. In: Li, J.H., L. Sun. & P.P. Kappeler (eds.). The Behavioral Ecology of the Tibetan Macaque. Springer, Switzerland, 302pp.

Balasubramaniam, K.N., P.R. Marty, S. Samartino, A. Sobrino, G. Taniya, M. Ismail, R. Saha, B.A. Beisner, S.S.K. Kaburu, E. Bliss-Moreau, M.E. Arlet, N. Ruppert, A. Ismail, S.A.M. Sah, L. Mohan, S.K. Rattan, U. Kodandaramaiah & B. McCowan (2020b). Impact of individual demographic and social factors on human-wildlife interactions: a comparative study of three macaque species. Scientific Reports 10: 21991.

Barrett, L. & S.P. Henzi (2001). The utility of grooming in baboon troops, pp. 119–145. In: Noë, R., J.A.R.A.M. van Hooff & P. Hammerstein (eds.). Economics in nature: social dilemmas, mate choice and biological markets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 276 pp.

Bernstein, I.S. (1967). Intertaxa Interactions in a Malayan Primate Community. Folia Primatol. 7: 198–207.

Bicca-Marques, J.C. (2017). Urbanization (and primate conservation). pp. 1–5. In: Fuentes, A., M. Bezanson, C.J. Campbell, A.F. Di Fiore, S. Elton., A. Estrada & J. Yamagiwa (eds.). The International Encyclopedia of Primatology – 3 Volumes. Wiley-Blackwell, 1608 pp.

Borries, C. (1992). Grooming site preferences in female Langurs (Presbytis entellus). International Journal of Primatology 13(1): 19–32.

Call, J., F. Aureli & F.B.M. de Waal (2002). Postconflict third-party affiliation in stump-tailed macaques. Animal Behaviour 63(2): 209–216.

Chua, L.S.L., M. Suhaida, M. Hamidah & L.G. Saw (2010). Malaysia Plant Red List: Peninsular Malaysian Dipterocarpaceae. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Malaysia, 210 pp.

Cords, M. (1992). Post-conflict reunions and reconciliation in long-tailed macaque. Animal Behaviour 44(1): 57–61.

Dunbar, R.I.M. (1991). Functional Significance of Social Grooming in Primates. Folia Primatologica 57: 121–131.

Dunbar, R.I.M. (2010). The social role of touch in humans and primates: behavioural function and neurobiological mechanisms. Neurosicence & Biobehavioral Reviews 34: 260–268.

Dunbar, R.I.M. (2011). Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language. Clays Ltd, St Ives Plc, England, 230 pp.

Dunbar, R.I.M. & J. Lehman (2013). Grooming and social cohension in primates: a comment on Grueter et al. Evolution and Human Behaviour 34: 453–455.

Fraser, O.N., S.E. Koski, R.M. Witting & F. Aureli (2009). Why are bystanders friendly to recipients of aggression? Communicative & Integrative Biology 2(3): 285–291.

Gathua, M. (2000). Social interactions between two sympatric forest guenons, Cercopithecus ascanius and Cercopithecus mitis¸ in Kenya. Folia Primatologica 71: 353–355.

Gilhooly, L.J. & I.C. Colquhoun (2018). Variations in aggressive encounters between tourists and a hybrid macaque group (Macaca fascicularis x M. nemestrina) in Sabah, Malaysia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 165: 98–99, Conference Abstract.

Gillespie, T.R., C.L. Nunn & F.H. Leendertz (2008). Integrative approaches to the study of primate infectious disease: implications for biodiversity conservation and global health. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137(S47): 53–69.

Goosen, C. (1981). On the function of allogrooming in Old-World Monkey, pp. 110–120. In: Chiarelli, A.B. & R.S. Corruccini (eds.). Primate Behavior and Sociobiology. Proceedings in Life Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 140 pp.

Grueter, C.C., A. Bissonette., K. Isler. & C.P. van Schaik (2013). Grooming and group cohesion in primates: implications for the evolution of language. Evolution and Human Behaviour 34: 61–68.

Gumert, M.D. (2007). Grooming and infant handling interchange in Macaca fascicularis; The relationship between infant supply and grooming payment. International Journal of Primatology 28: 1059–1074.

Johnson, P.T.J., A. Dobson., K.D. Lafferty, D.J. Marcogliese, J. Memmott, S.A. Orlofske, R. Poulin. & D.W. Thieltges (2010). When parasites become prey: ecological and epidemiological significance of eating parasites. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25(6): 362–371.

Kazem, A.J.N. & F. Aureli (2005). Redirection of aggression: multiparty signalling within a network, pp. 191–218. In: McGregor, P.J. (ed.). Animal Communication Networks. Cambridge University Press, 444 p.

Lazaro-Perea, C., M.D.F. Arruda & C.R. Snowdon (2004). Grooming as a reward? Social function of grooming between females in cooperatively breeding marmosets. Animal Behaviour 67: 627–636.

Lehman, J., A.H. Korsthens & R.I.M. Dunbar (2007). Group size, grooming and social cohesion in primates. Animal Behaviour 74: 1617–629.

Maple, T. & B. Westlund (1975). The integration of social interactions between cebus and spider monkeys in captivity. Applied Animal Ethology 1(3): 305–308.

McFarland R. & B. Majolo (2011). Grooming coercion and the post-conflict trading of social services in Wild Barbary Macaques. PLOS ONE 6(10): e26893.

Matsuda, I., K. Fukaya, C. Pasquaretta & C. Sueur (2015). Factors Influencing Grooming Social Networks: Insights from Comparisons of Colobines with Different Dispersal Patterns, pp. 231–254. In: Furuichi, T., J. Yamagiwa & F. Aureli (eds.). Dispersing Primate Females: Life History and Social Strategies in Male-Philopatric Species. Springer Japan, 299pp.

Nerlekar, A. (2012). An instance of inter species interaction between Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) and Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta). Zoo’s Print XXII(8): 27–28.

Rushmore, J., D. Bisanzio & T.R. Gillespie (2017). Making new connections: insights from primate-parasite networks. Trends in Parasitology 33(7): 547–560.

Russell, Y.I. & S. Phelps (2013). How do you measure pleasure? A discussion about intrinsic costs and benefits in primate allogrooming. Biology & Philosophy 28: 1005–1020.

Schino, G. (2001). Grooming, competition and social rank among female primate: a meta-analysis. Animal Behaviour 62: 265–271.

Schino, G. & F. Aureli (2008a). Trade-offs in primate grooming reciprocation: testing behavioural flexibility and correlated evolution. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 95: 439–446.

Schino, G. & F. Aureli (2008b). Grooming reciprocation among female primates: a meta-analysis. Biology Letters 4: 9–11.

Schino, G. & F. Aureli (2010). The relative roles of kinship and reciprocity in explaining primate altruism. Ecology Letters 13: 45–50.

Seyfarth, R.M. (1977). A model of social grooming among adult female monkeys. Journal of Theoretical Biology 65: 671–698.

Sha, J.C.M. & G. Hanya (2013). Diet, activity, habitat use, and ranging of two neighboring groups of food-enhanced long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology 75: 581–592.

Silva, N. (2017). Interspecies animal “Friendships”. MSc Thesis, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 54pp.

Sugiyama, Y. (2015). Influence of provisioning on primate behavior and primate studies. Mammalia 75(3): 255–265.

Tiddi, B., F. Aureli & G. Schino (2012). Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a New World primate. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36641.

Tsuji, Y., M. Shimoda-Ishiguro, N. Ohnishi & S. Takatsuki (2007). A friend in need is a friend indeed: feeding association between Japanese Macaques and Sika Deer. Acta Theriologica 52(4): 427–434.

Vasava, A.G. & S. Mahato (2013). Grooming of Sambar (Rusa unicolor) by Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Current Science 104(3): 296–298.

Veá, J.J., A.P. Pérez, M. Baldellou & V. Alea (1999). Cost-benefit analysis of allogrooming behaviour in Cercocebus Torquatus lunulatus. Behaviour 136(2): 243­–256.

Wooddell, L.J., S.S.K. Kaburu, K.L. Rosenberg, J.S. Meyer, S.J. Suomi, A.M. Dettmer (2016). Matrilineal behavioral and physiological changes following the removal of a non-alpha matriarch in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta). PLoS ONE 11(11): e0167739.