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A field survey was conducted for three consecutive years, 2015–17 to assess the diversity of freshwater molluscs (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the upper Brahmaputra Basin in Assam, India. Altogether, 18 gastropods and 27 bivalve species representing nine families were recorded from 17 sampling stations comprising small to large tributaries and wetlands in the flood-plains covering a total geographical area of approximately 3,500km2. A large fraction (15.55%) of the collected mollusc species are new records from the upper Brahmaputra Basin of Assam. Rarity in the occurrence of freshwater mollusc was confirmed with singleton and doubleton species accounting for 6.66% and unique species accounting for 35.55% of the total species recorded. It was observed that most of the mollusc species of the upper Brahmaputra Basin are either in the ‘Least Concern’ or ‘Data Deficient’ category of the IUCN Red List; except for Lymnaea ovalior (Annandale & Prashad, 1921) and Sphaerium austeni Prashad, 1921 assessed as ‘Vulnerable’ and ‘Near Threatened’, respectively. A significant trend in the diversity in terms of species richness and composition was observed across the sampling stations of the northern basin and southern basin of the river Brahmaputra.
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