Main Article Content
The present investigation is an attempt to study the uses of ethnomedicinal plants in traditional knowledge system among the Assamese community of Dibrugarh District in Assam. All the relevant data were collected during 2017–2019 by following standard ethnobotanical methods through personal interviews as well as through focus group discussions with a total of 193 informants including 62 men and 131 women. The use value (UV) of the medicinal plants and informant consensus factors (FIC) values were determined. In the study 174 ethnomedicinal plant species were documented belonging to 147 genera and 78 families. Except for three species, the 171 species are Angiosperms mostly collected from the wild. Among the 174 species of medicinal plants, 12 species are listed under various categories by IUCN and CITES. All these plants are used to treat various diseases that are grouped under 13 ICPC (International Classification of Primary Care) disease categories, with the highest use value (0.54) recorded in Leucas aspera followed by Paederia scandens with (0.5) use value. This confirms that these plants are important traditional herbs with potent medicinal uses. The highest informant consensus factor with the highest number of species (93) being used for the digestive system (FIC= 0.76%), followed by oral and dentistry (FIC= 0.73%) category. The ethnic communities in the district are rich in traditional knowledge which is evident from the use records and high degree of consensus among the informants.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Abbas, Z., S.M. Khan, S.W. Khan & A.M. Abbasi (2017). Medicinal plants used by inhabitants of the Shigar Valley, Baltistan region of Karakorum range-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 13: 53. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-017-0172-9
Ali, A.N.M.I. & I. Das (2003). Tribal situation in north east India. Studies of Tribes and Tribals 1(2): 141–148. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972639X.2003.11886492
Asati, B.S. & D.S. Yadav (2004). Diversity of horticultural crops in north eastern regions. ENVIS Bulletin: Himalayan Ecology 12: 1–11.
Barbhuiya, A.R., G.D. Sharma, A. Arunachalam & S. Deb (2009). Diversity and conservation of medicinal plants in Barak Valley, northeast India: Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 8(2): 169–175.
Barbalho, S.M., F.M.V. Farinazzi-Machado & G.R. Alvares (2012). Psidium guajava (guava): a plant of multipurpose medicinal applications. Journal of Applied Research of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 1: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0412.1000104
Baruah, M. & D. Kalita (2007). Ethnomedicine used by Mishings tribes of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6(4): 595–598.
Bhat, P., G.R. Hedge, G. Hedge & G.S. Mulgund (2013). Ethnomedicinal plants to cure skin diseases—an account of the traditional knowledge in the coastal parts of central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151: 493–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.062
Bhattarai, S., R.P. Chaudhary, C.L. Quave & R.S.L. Tylor (2010). The use of medicinal plants in the Trans himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6: 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-14
Borah, P.K., P. Gogoi, A.C. Phukan & J. Mahanta (2006). Traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in Upper Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 5(4) : 510–512.
Barooah, C. & I. Ahmed (2014). Plant Diversity of Assam (A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms), ASTEC. Bigyan Bhawan, Guwahati, Assam.
Buragohain, J. (2008). Folk medicinal plants used in gynecological disorders in Tinsukia district, Assam.India. Fitoterapia 79 : 388–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2008.03.004
Cox, P.A. (2000). Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium? Science Ernst 287: 44–45.
Census of India (2011). <https://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/149-dibrugarh.html>.
Chekole, G. (2017). Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against human ailments in Gubalafto District, Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 13: 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-017-0182-7
Chowdhery, H. J., G.S. Giri, G.D. Pal, A. Pramanik & S.K. Das (2008). In: G.S. Giri, A. Pramanik, H.J. Chowdhery, (eds), Materials for the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh. Vol. 2. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.
Chowdhery, H.J., G.S. Giri, G.D. Pal, A. Pramanik & S.K. Das (2009). In: H.J. Chowdhery, G.S. Giri, A. Pramanik (eds), Materials for the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh Vol. 3. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.
Census of India (2011). <https://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/149-dibrugarh.html>.
Climate data (2020). Climate: Dibrugarh. <https://en.climate-data.org/asia/india/assam/dibrugarh-3672/>
Debbarma, M., N.A. Pala, M. Kumar & R.W. Bussmann (2017). Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in tribes of Tripura in Northeast, India. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines 14(4): 156–168. https://doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v14i4.19
Dhillion, S.S., H. Svarstad, C. Amundsen & H.C. Bugge (2002). Bio prospecting: effects on environment and development. Ambio 31(6): 491–493. https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-31.6.491
Dixit, S. & S. Tiwari (2020). Investigation of anti-diabetic plants used among the ethnic communities of Kanpur division, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 253: 112639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112639
Dutta, B.K. & P.K. Dutta (2005). Potential of ethnobotanical studies in northeast India: an overview. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 4(1): 7–14.
Henrich, M., A. Ankli, B. Frei, C. Weimann & O. Sticher (1998). Medicinal plants in Mexico: Healer’s consensus and Cultural importance. Social Science & Medicine 47(11): 1859–1871. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00181-6
Inta, A., P. Trisonthi & C. Trisonthi (2013). Analysis of Traditional knowledge in medicinal plants used by Yuan in Thailand. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149: 344–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.047
International Society of Ethnobiology (2006). International Society of Ethnobiology Code of Ethics (with 2008 additions). <http://ethnobiology.net/code-of-ethics/>.
Jain, S.K. (1987). A Manual of Ethnobotany. Scientific Publisher. Jodhpur, India.
Jain, S.K. & R.R. Rao (1977). A Handbook of Field & Herbarium Methods. Today and Tomorrows Publication, New Delhi.
Kagyung, R., R.P. Gajurel, P. Rethy & B. Singh (2009). Ethnomedicinal plants used for gastro-intestinal disease by Adi tribes of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9(3): 496–501.
Kalita, D. & B. Phukan (2010). Some ethnomedicine used by the Tai Ahom of Dibrugarh district, Assam, India. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 1(4): 507–511.
Kanjilal, U.N., P.C. Kanjilal, A. Das & R.N. De (1940). Flora of Assam. Government of Assam Publication.
Kayani, S., M. Ahmad, S. Sultana, Z.K. Shinwari & M. Zafar (2015). Ethnobotany of medicinal plants among the communities of alpine and sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.004
Lanusunep, A.T., A.N. Jamir, S.I. Longkumer & N.S. Jamir (2018). Traditional knowledge of herbal medicines practiced by Ao- Naga tribe in Nagaland, India. Pleione 12(1): 11–17.
Leonti, M., O. Sticher & M. Heinrich (2002). Medicinal plants of the Popoluca, México: organoleptic properties as indigenous selection criteria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 81(3): 307–315.
Leonti, M. (2011). The future is written: impact of scripts on the cognition, selection, knowledge and transmission of medicinal plant use and its implications for ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 134(3): 542–555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.017
Matu, E.N., & J.V. Staden (2003). Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of some plants used for medicinal purposes in Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 87(1): 35–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-8741(03)00107-7
Malla, B., & R.B. Chhetri (2012). Indigenous knowledge on medicinal non-Timber forest products (NTFP) in Parbat district of Nepal. Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2(2): 213–225.
Mall, B., D.P. Gauchan & R.B. Chhetri (2015). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in Parbat District of western Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 165: 13–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.12.057
Mao, A.A. & T.M. Hynniewta (2000). Floristic diversity of North East India. Journal of Assam Science Society 41(4): 255–266.
Mao, A.A., T.M. Hynniewta & M. Sanjappa (2009). Plant wealth of Northeast India with reference to ethnobotany. Indian Journal of Traditional knowledge 8(1): 96–103.
Mesfin, F., S. Demissew & T. Teklehaymanot (2000). An ethnobotanical study of plants in Wonego Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5: 28. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-28
Mittermeier, R.A., W.R. Turner, F.W. Larsen, T.M. Brooks & C. Gascon (2011). Global biodiversity conservation: the critical role of hotspots. Biodiversity Hotspots. Springer Publishers, London.
Molur, S & S. Walker (1998). Report of the Workshop “Conservation Assessment and Management Plan for selected medicinal plant species of northern, northeastern and central India” (BCPP-Endangered Species Project), Zoo Outreach Organisation and Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, India. Coimbatore, India, 62pp.
Panmei, R., P.R. Gajurel & B. Singh (2019). Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by the Zeliangrong ethnic group of Manipur, northeast India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 235: 164–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.009
Pasquini, M.W., J.S. Mendoza & C. Sanchez-Ospina (2018). Traditional Food Plant knowledge and Use in Three Afro-Descendant Communities in the Colombian Caribbean Coast: Part I Generational Differences. Economic Botany 72(3): 278–294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-018-9422-6
Phillips, O., A.H. Gentry, C. Reynel, P. Wilkin & B.C.G. Durand (1994). Quantitative ethnobotany and Amazonian conservation. Conservation Biology 8: 225–248.
Phumthum, M. & H. Balslev (2019). Use of Medicinal Plants Among Thai Ethnic Groups: A Comparison. Economic Botany 73(1): 64–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-018-9428-0
Prajapati, M.S., J.B. Patel, K. Modi & M. Shah (2010). Leucas aspera: A review. Pharmacognosy Reviews 4(7): 85–87. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.65330
Saikia, P.A., K.V. Ryakala, P. Sharma, P. Goswami & U. Bora (2006). Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106: 49–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JEP.2005.11.033
Sajem, A.L., J. Rout & M. Nath (2008). Traditional tribal knowledge and status of some rare and endemic medicinal plants of North Cachar Hills District of Assam, northeast India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 261–275.
Saxena, S. (2020). The Current Research status of Endangered Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume: A Review. Asian Journal of Research in Botany 4(2): 16–25.
Sen, K.S. & M.L. Behera (2008). Ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals of Bargah district to cure diarrhea and dysentery. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 7(3): 425–428.
Singh, G.A., A Kumar & D.D. Tewari (2012). An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8: 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-8-19
Singh, H., T. Husain, P. Agnihotri, P.C. Pande & S. Khatoon (2014). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in sacred groves of Kumaon Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 154: 98–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.03.026
Singh, N.P., A.S. Chauhan & M.S. Mondal (2000). Flora of Manipur, Series 2, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.
Sonowal, R. (2013). Indigenous knowledge on the Utilization of Medicinal Plants by the Sonowal Kachari Tribe of Dibrugarh District in Assam, North-East India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(4): 44–50.
Tabuti, J.R.S., S.S. Dhillion & K.A. Lye (2003). Traditional medicine in Bulamogi County, Uganda: its practitioners, users and viability. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 85(1): 119–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-8741(02)00378-1
Talukdar, S., P.P. Adhikari & A. Borah (2018). Ethnomedicobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used for the treatment of reproductive problems in Nalbari district, Assam, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 210: 386–407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.07.024
Teklehaymanot, T. (2009). Ethnobotanical study of knowledge and medicinal plants use by the people in Dek Island in Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124(1): 69–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.04.005
Teklehaymanot, T., & M. Giday (2007). Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 3: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-12
Tomasini, S. & I. Theilade (2019). Local Knowledge of Past and Present Uses of Medicinal Plants in Prespa National Park, Albania. Economic Botany 73(2): 217–232.
Trotter, R.T. & M.H. Logan (1986). Informant census: a new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants. In: Etkin, L.N. (Ed.). Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet. Redgrave, Bedford Hill, New York 91–112.
Umair, M., M. Altaf & A.M. Abbasi (2017). An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Hafizabad district, Punjab Pakistan. PloS One 12(6): e0177912. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177912
Qamariah, N., D.S. Mulia & D. Fakhrizal (2020). Indigenous Knowledge of Medicinal Plants by Dayak Community in Mandomai Village, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Pharmacognosy Journal 12(2): 386–390. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2020.12.60
Zenderland, J., R. Hart, R.W. Bussmann, N.Y.P. Zambrana & S. Sikharulidze (2019). The Use of “Use Value”: Quantifying Importance in Ethnobotany. Economic Botany 20(10): 1–11.