First record of the early immature stages of the White Four-ring Ypthima ceylonica (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), and a note on a new host plant from India

Main Article Content

Hari Theivaprakasham
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0603-8830
Hari Ramanasaran
Appavu Pavendhan

Abstract

Documentation of the early immature stages (egg, larva, chrysalis) of the White Four-ring (Ypthima ceylonica Hewitson, 1865), including larval morphology and behaviour, is described for the first time from India.  A new host plant (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) is also reported for this butterfly.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Theivaprakasham, H., Ramanasaran, H. and Pavendhan, A. 2021. First record of the early immature stages of the White Four-ring Ypthima ceylonica (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), and a note on a new host plant from India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 13, 2 (Feb. 2021), 17722–17730. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6656.13.2.17722-17730.
Section
Communications

References

Agavekar, G., M. Bhakare, T. Karmakar, K. Kunte, H. Ogale, N. Vijayan & H. Theivaprakasham (2020). Ypthima striata Hampson, [1889] – Striated Five-ring. In: Kunte, K., S. Sondhi & P. Roy (chief editors). Butterflies of India, v. 2.90. Indian Foundation for Butterflies https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/sp/2115/Ypthima-striata

Bingham, C.T. (1905). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies 1(1): 142–144.

Braby, M.F. (1994). Morphology of the Early Stages of Mycalesis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from North-eastern Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 33: 289–294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.1994.tb01231.x

Chandra, K., R.M. Sharma, A. Singh & R.K. Singh (2007). A checklist of butterflies of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh States, India. Zoo’s Print Journal 22(8): 2790–2798. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.zpj.1708.2790-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.1708.2790-8

Elwes, H.J. & J. Edwards (1893). A revision of the genus Ypthima, with especial reference to the characters afforded by the male genitalia. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 41(1): 1–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1893.tb02051.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1893.tb02051.x

Esperk, T., T. Tammaru & S. Nylin (2007). Intraspecific Variability in Number of Larval Instars in Insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 100(3): 627–645. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/100.3.627 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/100.3.627

Green, E.E. (1910). Life-history of a common Ceylon butterfly. Spolia Zeylanica 7(25): 51–53.

Hampson, G.F. (1888). The butterflies of the Nilgiri District, South India. The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 57(2): 346–368.

Hewitson, W.C. (1864). XIII.: A Monograph of the Genus Yphthima [sic]; with Descriptions of two new Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 12(4): 281–294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1864.tb00107.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1864.tb00107.x

Hübner, J. & C. Geyer (1818). Zuträge zur sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge: bestehend in Bekundigung einzelner Fliegmuster neuer oder rarer nichteuropäischer Gattungen. Vol. 1 (Vol.1). https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.58974 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12439

Jayasinghe, H. & S. Rajapakshe (2020). Early stages of Ypthima ceylonica Hewitson, 1864. In. H. Jayasinghe, S. Rajapakshe, & C. de Alwis (eds.). The story of Sri Lankan Butterflies, v.2.0. Butterfly Conservation Society of Sri Lanka. http://slbutterflies.lk/explore/butterfly/Ypthima%20ceylonica#child

Kalesh, S. & S.K. Prakash (2015). Additions to larval host plants of butterflies of the Western Ghats, Kerala, Southern India (Rhopalocera, Lepidoptera): Part 2. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 112(2): 111–114. https://doi.org/10.17087/jbnhs/2015/v112i2/104948 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17087/jbnhs/2015/v112i2/104948

Marshall, G.F.L. & L. de Nicéville (1882). The Butterflies of India, Burmah[sic] and Ceylon. A Descriptive Handbook of All the Known Species of Rhopalocerous Lepidoptera Inhabiting that Region, with Notices of Allied Species Occurring in the Neighbouring Countries Along the Border, with Numerous Illustrations. Vol. I, Part II. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10618

Moore, F. (1880). The Lepidoptera of Ceylon v.1. L. Reeve & co., London, https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8801 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8801

Moore, F. (1893). Lepidoptera Indica. Rhopalocera. Family Nymphalidae. Sub-families Satyrinae (continued), Elymniinae, Amathusiinae, Nymphalinae (Group Charaxina). 2(3).

Nitin, R., V.C. Balakrishnan, P.V. Churi, S. Kalesh, S. Prakash & K. Kunte (2018). Larval host plants of the butterflies of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(4): 11495–11550. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3104.10.4.11495-11550 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3104.10.4.11495-11550

Saji, K. & R.P. Das (2020). Ypthima huebneri Kirby, 1871 – Common Four-ring. Kunte, K., S. Sondhi & P. Roy (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.90. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. URL: http://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/sp/756/Ypthima-huebneri, accessed 09 September 2020.

Sawant, D. (2020). Plants — Cynodon-dactylon. In: Kunte, K., S. Sondhi & P. Roy (chief editors). Butterflies of India, v. 2.90. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/flora/1237/Cynodon-dactylon

Shima, H. & A. Nakanishi (2007). Notes on some Oriental species of the genus Ypthima Hübner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae; Satyrinae). Nature and Human Activities 11: 51–59.

Tan, H. (2014a). Life History of the Common Five Ring (Ypthima baldus newboldi). https://butterflycircle.blogspot.com/2014/02/life-history-of-common-five-ring.html accessed 2 August 2020.

Tan, H. (2014b). Life History of the Common Three Ring (Ypthima pandocus corticaria). https://butterflycircle.blogspot.com/2014/01/life-history-of-common-three-ring.html accessed 2 August 2020.

Tan, H. (2015). Life History of the Common Four Ring (Ypthima huebneri). https://butterflycircle.blogspot.com/2015/01/life-history-of-common-four-ring.html accessed 2 August 2020.

van der Poorten, G. & N. van der Poorten (2012). New and revised descriptions of the immature stages of some butterflies in Sri Lanka and their larval food plants (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Part 2: Subfamily Satyrinae. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 22(2): 80–92.

Varshney, R.K. & P. Smetacek (2015). A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India. (Varshney, R.K. & P. Smetacek (ed.); First). Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal & Indinov Publishing. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3966.2164

Williams, M.C. (2020). Butterflies and Skippers of the Afrotropical Region: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae, Genus Ypthima. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society of Africa 1–25.