Historical and current extent of occurrence of the Caracal Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) in India

Main Article Content

Dharmendra Khandal
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6981-0755
Ishan Dhar
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4340-9634
Goddilla Viswanatha Reddy

Abstract

This article focuses on the historical and current extent of occurrence of the Caracal Caracal Caracal in India between 1616 and April 2020.  We collated 134 reports during this period.  Historically, the Caracal was reported in 13 Indian states in nine out of 26 biotic provinces.  Since 2001, the Caracal’s presence has been reported in only three states and four biotic provinces, with only two possible viable populations.  Before 1947, the Caracal was reported from an area of 793,927km2.  Between 1948 and 2000, the Caracal’s reported extent of occurrence in India decreased by 47.99%.  From 2001 to 2020, the reported extent of occurrence further decreased by 95.95%, with current presence restricted to 16,709km2, less than 5% of the Caracal’s reported extent of occurrence in the 1948–2000 period.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Khandal, D., Dhar, I. and Reddy, G.V. 2020. Historical and current extent of occurrence of the Caracal Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) in India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 12, 16 (Dec. 2020), 17173–17193. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6477.12.16.17173-17193.
Section
Reviews

References

Acharjyo, L.N. (1998). The six cats of Orissa. ENVIS Bulletin of Wildlife & Protected Areas 1(2): 18–20.

Allen, G.O. (1919). Caracal (Felis caracal) and Hunting Leopard (Cynailurus jubatus) in Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 26(3): 1041.

Arnold, E. (1893). The Book of Good Counsels: From the Sanskrit of the Hitopadesa. W.H. Allen, London, 184pp.

Asrari, R., V.V. Kumar, A.K.R. Mahato & R.K. Raman (2013–14). Status and Distribution of Caracal (Caracal caracal) in Gujarat, p. 21. In: Annual Report: 2013–14. Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology, Bhuj, Kutch, Gujarat, 45pp.

Avgan, B., P. Henschel & A. Ghoddousi (2016). Caracal caracal (errata version published in 2016). In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T3847A102424310. Downloaded on 20 June 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T3847A50650230.en

Baker, S.W. (1890). Wild Beasts and Their Ways. Reminiscences of Europe, Asia, Africa and America. Macmillan, London, New York, 520pp.

Ball, V. (1874). On the Avifauna of the Chutia Nagpur Division, S.W. Frontier of Bengal. Stray Feathers 2(4&5): 355–376.

Behura, B.K. & G.B. Guru (1969). Wildlife of Orissa. Prakruti-Utkal University Journal Science 6(2): 95–96.

Bell, W.M. (1907). Contributions to the Museum. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 17(4): 1043–1045.

Blanford, W.T. (1888–91). Felis caracal. The Caracal. Pp. 88–89 in: The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. Taylor and Francis, London, 617pp.

Blochmann, H. (1873). The Ain i Akbari by Abul Fazl I Mubarik I Allami. Volume 1. Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1556pp.

Blyth, E. (1842). Monograph of the species of Lynx. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 11(128): 740–760.

Brander, D. (1923). Wild Animals in Central India. E. Arnold & Co. London, 296pp.

Brandon-Jones, C. (1997). Edward Blyth, Charles Darwin, and the Animal Trade in nineteenth century India and Britain. Journal of the History of Biology 30: 145-178

Briggs, I.G. (1861). The Nizam, his History and Relations with the British Government. Volume II. B. Quaritch, London, 440pp.

Buffon, G.L. (1761). Le Caracal, pp. 262–267. In: Histoire naturelle générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Tome 9. Imprimerie Royale, Paris, 376pp.

Burke, W.S. (1920). The Indian Field Shikar Book. Fifth edition, Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta and Simla, 406pp.

Capeller, C. (1891). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Based Upon the St. Petersburg Lexicons. Karl J. Trübner, Strassburg, 672pp.

Chakraborty, R. (2004). Reports of the ZSI: A catalogue of Mammalian Exhibits of Zoological Galleries of the Indian Museum. Zoological Survey of India. Kolkata, 99pp.

Chakraborty, S. & V.C. Agarwal (2000). Mammalia, pp. 15–84. In: Baqri, Q.H. (ed.) Fauna of Gujarat (Part 1). State Fauna Series No. 8. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 469pp.

Chakravarty, K.K. & R.G. Bednarik (1997). Indian Rock Art and its Global Context. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sanghralya. Motilal Banarsidas Private Publishers Ltd., Delhi, 228pp.

Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Manager of Publication, Delhi, 377pp.

Chand, R.C., S.K. Srivastava & J. Singh (2017). Changing Structure of Rural Economy of India Implications for Employment and Growth. Discussion Paper. National Institution for Transforming India, Government of India, New Delhi, 26pp.

Corbett, G.B. & J.E. Hill (1992). The mammals of the Indo-Malayan region: A systematic review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 488pp.

Das, P.K., J.P. Lal & V.C. Agrawal (1993). Mammalia, pp. 143–180. In: Ghosh, A.K. (ed.). Fauna of Orissa, Part 4. State Fauna Series Issue 1. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 200pp.

David, A. (1967). Sariska: A Lonely Sanctuary. Cheetal, Journal of Wildlife Preservation Society of India 9(2): 49.

De Brett, E.A. (1909). Bastar State. P. 32 in: Central Provinces Gazetteers: Chhattisgarh Feudatory States. The Times Press, Bombay, 354pp.

Desai, G.H. & A.B. Clarke (1923). Chapter II. Gazetteer of the Baroda State 1: 73.

Desai, H.S. (1974). The Forest of Gir. Sorath Research Society, Junagarh, Gujarat, 84pp.

Dhar, I. & M. Dhakad (2018). Wildlife Warriors: The Village Wildlife Volunteers Programme. Tiger Watch & Forest Department of Rajasthan, Rajasthan, 95pp.

Dharmakumarsinhji, K.S. (1978). The Changing Wildlife of Kathiawar. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 75(3): 632–650.

Divyabhanusinh (1987). Note on the Sighting of a Caracal (Felis caracal) at the Sariska National Park. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 84(1): 201.

Divyabhanusinh (1993). The End of a Trail: The Cheetah in India. Banyan Books, Bombay, 248 pp.

Dodsworth, P.T.L. (1913). Notes on some mammals found in the Simla District. The Simla Hill States, and Kalka and Adjacent country. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 22(4): 726–748.

Drake-Brockman, H.E. (1892). ‘A Lynx attacking a man’. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 7(4): 548.

Farhadinia, M.S., H. Akbari, M. Beheshti & A. Sadeghi (2007). Ecology and status of the Caracal, Caracal caracal, in Abbasabad Naein Reserve, Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 41: 5–9.

Fitzgerald, S.V. & A.E. Nelson (1911). Central Provinces District Gazetteers Amraoti District, Volume A. Gazetteer Department, Government of Maharashtra, Bombay, 437pp.

Forsyth, J. (1889). The Highlands of Central India: Notes on their Forests and Wild Tribes Natural History and Sports. Chapman & Hall Ltd. London, 388pp.

Foster, W. (1924). Hunting with Caracal in the 17th Century. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 30(2): 466–467.

Foster, W. (1926). John Company. John Lane, London, 285pp.

Ghoddousi, A., T. Ghadirian & H. Fahimi (2009). Status of Caracal in Bahram’gur Protected Area, Iran. Cat News 50: 10–13.

Ghosh, M. (1982). The review on the remains of ‘Domestic Cat’ from Harappa, Nagda and Nagarjunakonda in Indian subcontinent. Indian Museum Bulletin 17: 57–61.

Gogate, M.G. (1998). Smaller cats of Maharashtra. ENVIS Bulletin of Wildlife & Protected Areas 1(2): 24–28.

Government of India (2019). Rajasthan, pp. 175–18. In: Wastelands Atlas of India, Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development, 247pp.

Government of Punjab (1904). Part 1. Kangra Proper: Fauna, p. 12. In: Punjab District Gazetteers Volume XA. Punjab Government Press, Lahore, 338pp.

Gritsina, M.A. (2019). The Caracal Caracal caracal Schreber, 1776 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) in Uzbekistan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(4): 13470–13477. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4375.11.4.13470-13477

Gupta, A. (2018). How India Manages Its National Security. Penguin Randomhouse India Pvt. Ltd., 440pp.

Gupta, V.K. (2019). Prehistoric Art of Braj Region: Based on Study of Rock Shelters Near Fatehpur Sikri. Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology 7: 373–396.

Hamilton, A. (1727). A New Account of the East Indies. Volume 1. John Marsman, Edinburgh, 396pp.

Harting, J. (1883). An Arabic Treatise on Hunting, pp. 362–370. In: Essays on Sport and Natural History. Horace Cox, London, 485pp.

Heerden, H.V. (2004). Caracal. Flickr, electronic version at https://www.flickr.com/photos/hvhe1/252592577 accessed on 23June 2019.

Holdsworth, R.L. (1960). Our Less Known Species: The Caracal. Cheetal: A Journal of the Wild Life Preservation Society of India 3(1): 9.

Holdsworth, R.L. (1962). Editorial. Cheetal: A Journal of the Wild Life Preservation Society of India 5(2): 10.

Jerdon, T.C. (1874). The Mammals of India: A Natural History of All the Animals Known to Inhabit Continental India. John Wheldon, London, 335pp.

Joshi, P., M. Koldiya & N.B. Gajera (2015). The chase still continues: Caracal caracal. guide.net (Quarterly e-newsletter of the Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology) 4(2): 1–2.

Karanth, K.U.K. & M. Ramaswamy (2006). The Many Ways to Count a Cat. P.111 in: A View from the Machan: How Science Can Save the Fragile Predator. Permanent Black, 153pp.

Kazmi, R. (2020). Where the Wild Cat Roams: On Spotting the Black-Eared one. Roundglass Sustain. Electronic version at https://round.glass/sustain/species/caracal/ accessed on 02 September 2020.

Kolipaka, S.S. (2011). Caracals in India: The forgotten cats. IBD Press, Dehradun, 84 pp.

Khandal, D. & D. Khandal (2017). Unexplored Ranthambhore: Wolf, Jackal, Fox, Hyena. Dhonk Craft, Sawai Madhopur, 238pp.

Khudsar, F.A. (2004). Sighting of Caracal in the Chambal ravines of Bhind district. Madhya Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1): 149.

Kitchener, A. (1991). The natural history of the wild cats. Christopher Helm Publishers, London, 280pp.

Lydekker, R. (1907). The Caracal (Felis caracal), pp. 339–341. In: The Game Animals of India, Burma, Malaya, and Tibet. Rowland Ward limited, London, 409pp.

MacDonald, D. (1893). Proceedings of the Meeting held on 23rd February, 1893. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 8(1): 157–159.

Maurice, S.D. (1953). Mughal Painting Under Akbar the Great. Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12(2): 46–51.

Maxwell, N.N. (1914). Saugor Hog Hunting. P. 288 in: Wardrop, A.E. Modern Pig-sticking. Macmillan and Co. Ltd., London, 304pp.

McMaster, A.C. (1871). No. 26 Felis Caracal. P. 37 in: Notes on Jerdon’s Mammals of India. Higginbotham & Co., Madras, 266pp.

Millard, W.S. (1908). Contributions to the Museum. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 18(4): 938–940.

Moqanaki, E.M., M.S. Farhadinia, M. Tourani & H. Akbari (2016). The Caracal in Iran – current state of knowledge and priorities for conservation. Cat News Special Issue 10: 27–32.

Mukherjee, S. (1998). Cats: Some large, many small. ENVIS Bulletin of Wildlife & Protected Areas 1(2): 5–13.

Mukherjee, S., S.P. Goyal, A.J.T. Johnsingh & M.R.P.L. Pitman (2004). The importance of rodents in the diet of Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Caracal (Caracal caracal) and Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Zoology 262(4): 405–411. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903004783

Nair, A. (2006). Caracal spotted and photographed in Kutch after 10 years. Outlook, The Newswire. Electronic version at https://www.outlookindia.com/newswire/story/Caracal-spotted-and-photographed-in-kutch-after-10-years/377286 accessed on 21 December 2019.

Newall, D.J.F. (1887). The Highlands of India strategicaly considered: With Special Reference to Their Colonization as Reserve Circles. Volume II. Harrison and Sons, London, 274pp.

Nowell, K. & P. Jackson (1996). Caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776), pp. 50–53. In: Wild cats. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland, 421pp.

O’Malley, L.S.S. (1909). Sambalpur. Bengal District Gazetteers. The Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, Calcutta, 232pp.

Parashar, M.D. (2020). Siyagosh of Ranthambhore: Report on Status of Species. Forest Department of Rajasthan, Rajasthan, 5pp.

Parihar, A.S. (1989). Caracal (Felis caracal Schreber) sighted in Panna forests. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 86(2): 237.

Parks, F. (1850). Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque, During Four and Twenty Years in the East; with Revelations of Life in the Zenana. Volume 1. Pelham Richardson, London, 479pp.

Phipson, H.M. (1888). Contributions to the Museum. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 3(3): 199–201.

Phipson, H.M. (1889). Proceedings of the Meeting of 5th May 1889. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 4(2): 161–162.

Phipson, H.M. (1891). Proceedings of the Meeting on 1st July, 1891. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 6(2): 278–281.

Pocock, R.I. (1939). Genus Caracal Gray, pp. 306–309. In: The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Volume I Mammalia. Taylor and Francis, Ltd. London, 464pp.

Prakash, I. (1960). The present status of the Caracal (Felis caracal Schreber). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 58(3): 790–791.

Prakash, I. (1994a). Biodiversity Conservation in the Thar Desert. The Indian Forester 120(10): 175.

Prakash, I. (1994b). Mammals of the Thar Desert. Pawan Kumar Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, 114pp.

Prakash, S., A.K. Mitra, I.M. Momin, E.N. Rajagopal, S. Basu, M. Collins, A.G. Turner, K. Achuta Rao & K. Ashok (2015). Seasonal intercomparison of observational rainfall datasets over India during the southwest monsoon season. International Journal of Climatology 35(9): 2326–2338. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4129

Prater, S.H. (1948). The Book of Indian Animals. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, 326pp.

Punjab Government (1884). Chapter 1 – The District. Wild animals and game. Pp. 20–21 in: Gazetteer of the Jhang District, 1883-84. Arya Press, Lahore, 204pp.

Ranjitsinh, M.K. (1999). Sighting of the Caracal Caracal caracal in Jalore District. Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96(3): 464.

Ranjitsinh, M.K. (2017). A Life with Wildlife: From Princely India to the Present. Harper Collins Publishers India, Noida, 380pp.

Ranjitsinh, M.K. & Y.V. Jhala (2010). Assessing the potential for reintroducing the Cheetah in India. Wildlife Trust of India, Noida & Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, 179pp.

Rice, W. (1884). Chapter XII, pp. 216–217. In: Indian Game: From Quail to Tiger. W.H. Allen & Co., London, 221pp.

Rice, W. (1857). Chapter XIII, p. 117. In: Tiger-shooting in India: Being an account of hunting experiences on foot in Rajpootana, during the hot seasons from 1850 to 1854. Smith, Elder and Co., London, 219pp.

Rodgers, W.A., H.S. Panwar & V.B. Mathur (2002). Wildlife Protected Area Network in India: A review. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, 44pp.

Rose, H.A., J. Coldstream, R.E. Younghusband, E.R. Abbott, P.J. Fagan, H. Calvert, R.M. Lowis, M.R. Das, R.S. Sharma, G. Singh, M.M. Din & J.P. Thompson (1908). The Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908). Provincial Series Punjab; Volume 1, Part 12. Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta, 483pp.

Roy, P.D. & A.K. Singhvi (2016). Climate variation in the Thar Desert since the Last Glacial Maximum and evaluation of the Indian monsoon. TIP Revista Especializada en Ciencias Químico-Biológicas 19(1): 32–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.recqb.2016.02.004

Rungta, K. (2017). Breeding Siyagosh, pp. 80–87. In: Stalking Tigers on foot. The Marine Sports, Mumbai, 186pp.

Saleem, S. (2014). Prehistoric Cupule Site at Senetary: Recent Prehistoric Investigations in Kachhchh District, Gujarat. Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology 2: 449–456.

Sen, N.N. (1959). The present status of the Indian Lynx. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 56(2): 317.

Sharma, M.L. (2014). Rock Art of Rajasthan, pp. 43–74. In: History and Culture of Rajasthan: from earliest times upto 1956 A.D. Centre for Rajasthan Studies, University of Rajasthan, Jodhpur, 627pp.

Sharma, S.K. (2015). Todgarh-Raoli Wildlife Sanctuary: Some historical facts about the presence of Tigers during last century, pp. 1–4. In: Anushandhan (Vigyan Sodh Patrika), Volume 1, Allahabad, 292pp.

Sharma, V. & K. Sankhala (1984a). Vanishing Cats of Rajasthan, pp. 117–135. In: Jackson, P. (ed.). The Plight of the Cats. Proceedings from the Cat Specialist Group meeting in Kanha National Park. IUCN Cat Specialist Group, Bougy-Villars, Switzerland, 84pp.

Sharma, V. & K. Sankhala (1984b). Vanishing Cats of Rajasthan. Cheetal, Journal of the Wildlife Preservation Society of India 26(1): 5–23.

Srivastava, B.P. (1959). The present status of the Indian Lynx (Caracal caracal). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 57(1): 214–215.

Singh, A. (1975). A rare animal of the cat family - Caracal (Felis caracal). Cheetal, Journal of the Wildlife Preservation Society of India 16(3): 51.

Singh, A., J. Singh & P. Gandhi (2011). Ranthambhore: The Tiger’s Realm. Sujan Art Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 151pp.

Singh, H.S. (1998). Reports of small cats in Gujarat. ENVIS Bulletin of Wildlife & Protected Areas 1(2): 22–23.

Singh, H.S. & V.C. Soni (1999). Status of Wildlife in Wild Ass Sanctuary (Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat State, India). The Indian Forester 125(10): 1025.

Singh, R., Q. Qureshi, P.R. Krausman, K. Sankar & S.P. Goyal (2014). Population and habitat characteristics of Caracal in semi-arid landscape, western India. Journal of Arid Environments 103: 92–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2014.01.004

Singh, R., Q. Qureshi, P.R. Krausman, K. Sankar & S.P. Goyal (2015). Estimating occupancy and abundance of Caracal in a semi-arid habitat, Western India. European Journal of Wildlife Research 61(6): 915–918. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-015-0956-y

Sinha, D. & R. Chaudhary (2019). Wildlife Inventory and Proposal of Sloth Bear Conservation Reserve in Marihan-Sukrit-Chunar Landscape of Mirzapur Forest Division, Uttar Pradesh. Vindhyan Ecology and Natural History Foundation, Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, 73pp.

Sinha, N.K. (1995). Mammalia, p. 209. In: Ghosh, A.K.(ed.). Fauna of Western Himalaya. Volume 1. Uttar Pradesh. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 359pp.

Skinner, J.D. & C.T. Chimimba (2005). Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) Caracal, pp. 397–401. In: The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion, Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 814 pp.

Sterndale, R.A. (1884). No. 218. Felis Caracal, pp. 198–199. In: Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon, Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta, 540pp.

Stockley, C.H. (1928). The Caracal (Felis caracal), pp. 180–181. In: Big Game Shooting in the Indian Empire. Constable and Comp. Ltd., London, 200pp.

Stoliczka, F. (1872). Notice of the mammals and Birds inhabiting Kachh. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 41(3): 211–258.

Stuart, C.T. (1984). The extent of occurrence and status of Felis caracal Schreber, 1776. Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 31(2/3): 197–204.

Sunquist, M. & F. Sunquist (2002). Caracal Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776), pp. 37–47. In: Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 452pp.

Taylor, J.C. (1961). Editorial Notes. Cheetal, Journal of Wildife Preservation Society of India 4(1): 53.

Thackston, W.M. (1999). The Jahangirnama – Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Oxford University Press, New York, 532pp.

Thapar, V., R. Thapar & Y. Ansari (2013). Exotic Aliens: The Lion and the Cheetah in India. Aleph Book Company, New Delhi, 304pp.

Thurston, E. (1913). Chapter 10. Fauna, p. 86. In: The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and The Associated States. Provincial Geographies of India. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 293pp.

Tian, H., K. Banger, T. Bo & V. Dadhwal (2014). History of land use in India during 1880–2010: Large-scale land transformations reconstructed from satellite data and historical archives. Global Planetary Change 121: 78–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.07.005

Vanak, A.T., A.J. Hiremath, S. Krishnan, T. Ganesh & N.D. Rai (2017). Filling in the (forest) blanks: the past, present and future of India’s savanna grasslands, pp. 88–93. In: Hiremath, A.J, N.D. Rai & A. Siddharta (eds.). Transcending Boundaries: Reflecting on Twenty Years of Action and Research at ATREE. Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, Karnataka, 189pp.

Verma, T. (1994). Karkhanas under the Mughals from Akbar to Aurangzeb: A Study in Economic Development. Pragati Publication, New Delhi, 181pp.

Vigne, G.T. (1842). Chita-hunting, pp. 41–42. In: Travels in Kashmir, Ladakh, the Countries Adjoining the Mountain-Course of the Indus, and the Himalaya, North of the Panjab. Volume 1. Henry Colburn, London, 456pp.

Vira, R., K.N. Dave & L. Chandra (1953). Indian Scientific Nomenclature of the Mammals of India, Burma and Ceylon. International Academy of Indian Culture, Nagpur, 187pp.

Waddington, C.W. (1933). Indian India: As Seen by a Guest in Rajasthan. Jarrold, London, 168pp.

Wakankar, V.S. (2005). Painted Rock Shelters of India. Directorate of Archaeology, Archives, and Museums, Government of Madhya Pradesh, 420pp.

Wakankar, V.S. (2008). Indian Prehistory as Revealed by Excavations, Explorations, and Rock Art Study at Bhimbetka and in the adjoining Regions. Purakala 18: 65–72.

Ward, A.E. (1923). Game animals of Kashmir and Adjacent Hill Province. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 29(1): 23–35.

Ward, G.C. & D.R. Ward (1993). Tiger-Wallahs: Encounters with the men who tried to save the greatest of the great cats. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 170pp.

Wardrop, A.E. (1914). Chapter VII. The Meerut Tent Club, p. 106. In: Modern Pig-sticking. Macmillan and Co. Ltd., London, 304pp.

Wroughton, R.C. (1912). Bombay Natural History Society’s Mammal Survey of India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 21(3): 820–851.