A checklist of mammals with historical records from Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya landscape, India

Main Article Content

Thangsuanlian Naulak
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2150-4526
Sunita Pradhan
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4877-4561

Abstract

A region-specific species checklist is an important resource for biodiversity documentation and conservation. This review provides an updated mammal species checklist for the biodiversity hotspots of the Darjeeling-Sikkim landscape in Eastern Himalaya. The list was compiled by systematically reviewing 94 available publications spanning 178 years from 1841 to 2019, for mammals from the region. The species checklist is envisioned to aid in understanding the current status of mammal records, historical distribution, ranked conservation status of mammals, and research gaps. A total of 173 mammal species under 11 orders and 33 families, including the recently upgraded taxon, Sikkim Pika Ochotona sikimaria was enlisted. There are 25 species included in the IUCN threatened categories, 58 species listed in the CITES Appendices, and 112 species included in the schedules of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 in India. Although mammals receive the maximum research attention in the landscape, small mammals and bats have rarely been subjected to systematic studies in recent years.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Naulak, T. and Pradhan, S. 2020. A checklist of mammals with historical records from Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya landscape, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 12, 11 (Aug. 2020), 16434–16459. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6062.12.11.16434-16459.
Section
Communications
Author Biography

Sunita Pradhan, Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and Environment, Regional Office Eastern Himalaya-Northeast India, NH 10 Tadong, Above Renault Showroom, Gangtok, Sikkim 737101, India.

Visiting Fellow

References

Agrawal, V.C. (2000).Taxonomic Studies on Indian Muridae and Hystricidae (Mammalia Rodentia) (Occasional). Director, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 186pp.

Agrawal, V.C., P.K. Das, S. Chakraborty, R.K. Ghose, A.K. Mandal, T.K. Chakraborty, A.K. Poddar, J.P. Lal, T.P. Bhattacharya & M.K. Ghosh (1992). Mammalia, pp. 27–169. In: Ghosh, A.K. (eds.). Fauna of West Bengal Part 1, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 443pp.

Altieri, M.A. (1999). The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems.­­ Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 19–31. https://www.assobio.it/web16/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/The-ecological-role-of-biodiversity-in-agroecosystems-1999.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-50019-9.50005-4

Anderson, J. (1881). Catalogue of Mammalia in the Indian Museum, Calcutta (Part 1), 350pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9179 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9179

Avasthe, R. & A. Jha (1999). Mammals of Sikkim. WWF-India, 99pp. http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/3933

Baldry, T.A. (1932). Wild Dog. Journal of Darjeeling Natural History Society 6(4):149–150.

Bali, A., A. Kumar & J. Krishnaswamy (2007). The mammalian communities in coffee plantations around a protected area in the Western Ghats, India. Biological Conservation139(1–2): 93–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.017

Bandyopadhyay, S. & B. Dasgupta (1984a). On the occurrence and life history of Eimera suncus Ahluwalia, Singh, Arora, Mandal and Sarkar, 1979 in new host, Suncus murinus soccatus (Hodgson) in Darjeeling, a new locality. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S. 3(1): 28–35.

Bandyopadhyay, S. & B. Dasgupta (1984b). Three new coccidia from flying squirrel, Petaurista magnificus (Hodgson) in Darjeeling. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S. 3(1): 19–27.

Banerjee, A., P. Chakraborty & R. Bandopadhyay (2019). Urgent conservation needs in the Sikkim Himalaya biodiversity hotspot. Biodiversity 20(2–3): 88–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2019.1656547 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2019.1656547

Banerjee, D., N.K. Sarkar & B. Dasgupta (1996). Differential leucocyte counts in parasitized flying squirrels in Darjeeling. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S. (15)(1): 4–7.

Barrett, G.W. & J.D. Peles (1999). Small Mammal Ecology: A Landscape Perspective, pp. 1–8. In: Barrett, G.W. & J.D. Peles (eds.). Landscape Ecology of Small Mammals. Springer New York, 347pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-21622-5_1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-21622-5_1

Bashir, T., T. Bhattacharya, K. Poudyal & S. Sathyakumar (2011). Notable observations on the melanistic Asiatic Golden Cat (Pardofelis temminckii) of Sikkim, India. NeBIO 2(1): 1–4.

Bates, P.J.J., Francis, C., Molur, S., Srinivasulu, C. & S.V. Kruskop (2019). Pipistrellus cadornae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T17331A22130442. Downloaded on 30 July 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T17331A22130442.en DOI: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T17331A22130442.en

Bhagwat, S.A., K.J. Willis, H.J.B. Birks & R.J. Whittaker (2008). Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23(5): 261–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.01.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.01.005

Biswas, G.G., D. Das & A. Mukhopadhyay (1999). Richness of mammalian species in the higher elevations of Neora Valley National Park. Zoos’ Print Journal 14(4): 10–12. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.14.4.10-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.14.4.10-2

Blanford, W.T. (1888).The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. Part 2. Taylor and Francis, London, 617pp.

Blyth, E. (1841). Descriptions of three Indian species of bat, of the genus Taphozous. The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 10(120): 971–977. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/51678

Blyth, E. (1863).Catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum Asiatic Society. Sevielle and Cranenburg, Bengal Printing Company Limited, Calcutta, 187pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.102849

Brandon-jones, D. (2004). A Taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (Primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos’ Print Journal19(8): 1552–1594. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.971.1552-94 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.971.1552-94

Chakraborty, R. (2003). Records of the zoological survey of India: A catalogue of mammalian exhibits (Issue Occasional Paper No.219). Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 99pp.

Chakraborty, R. (2011). Mammalian wealth of Sikkim, pp. 315–326. In: Arrawatia, M.L. & S. Tambe (eds.). Biodiversity of Sikkim: Exploring and conserving a Global hotspot.Information and Public Relations Department, Government of Sikkim, 542pp.

Chanchani, P., G.S. Rawat & S. P.Goyal (2010). Unveiling a wildlife haven: status and distribution of four Trans-Himalayan ungulates in Sikkim, India. Oryx 44: 366–375. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605310000293 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605310000293

Chatterjee, A., D. Chatterjee & B.D. Gupta (1970). Multiplicity of Blood infection in the Himalayan Flying Squirrel. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 36(1):87–88.

Chatterjee, P., Mondal, K., Chandra, K. & B. Tripathy (2018). “First Photographic Evidence of Asian Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii (Vigors and Horsfield, 1827) from Neora Valley National Park, Central Himalayas, India.” Records of the Zoological Survey of India 118(2): 128–32. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/89f0/1a7063bc757de89e104c7126fc721a3d76af.pdf (July 15, 2020).

Chattopadhyay, S., S.S. Saha, M. K. Ghosh & V. C. Aggarwal (2006). Mammalia. In: Alfred, J.R.B. (eds.). Fauna of Sikkim (Part 1) Vertebrates, State Fauna Series 9, pp. 37–76. Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 214pp.

Chazdon, R.L., C.A. Harvey, O. Komar, D.M. Griffith, B.G. Ferguson, M. Mart´ınez-Ramos, H. Morales, R. Nigh, L. Soto-Pinto, M.V. Breugel & S. M. Philpott (2009). Beyond reserves: A research agenda for conserving biodiversity in human-modified tropical landscapes. Biotropica 41(2): 142–153. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2008.00471.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2008.00471.x

Chettri, P.K., K. Sharma, S. Dewan & B.K. Acharya (2018). Butterfly diversity in human-modified ecosystems of southern Sikkim, the eastern Himalaya, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(5): 11551–11565. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3641.10.5.11551-11565 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3641.10.5.11551-11565

Dahal, N., S. Kumar, B.R. Noon, R. Nayak, R.P. Lama & U. Ramakrishnan (2020). The role of geography, environment, and genetic divergence on the distribution of pikas in the Himalaya. Ecology and Evolution 10(3): 1539–1551. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6007

Dahal, N., A.A. Lissovsky, Z. Lin, K. Solari, E.A. Hadly, X. Zhan & U. Ramakrishnan (2017). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution genetics, morphology and ecology reveal a cryptic pika lineage in the Sikkim Himalaya. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 106: 55–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.09.015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.09.015

Dalgilesh, G. (1906). Notes and observations on mammals collected and observed in the Darjeeling District. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 17(1): 122–127.

Das, P.K. (1986). Taxonomic status of Harpiocephalus harpia madrassius Thomas, 1923 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) with comments on other described forms under the genus Harpiocephalus Gray, 1842. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 83(2): 311–316.

Das, P.K. (2003). Studies on some Indian Chiroptera from West Bengal. Records of the Zoological Survey of India Occasional Paper No. 217. Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 164pp.

Dasgupta, B. (1991). A “mad elephant” in Darjeeling. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S. 10(1): 83–86.

Dasgupta, R. (1987). The construction of pools in parks and their relation to conservation of some small vertebrates. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S. 6(2): 110–112.

Dawson, W.R. (1934). The supposed discovery of Unicorns in Tibet. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 1934-1935: 41–46.

Dey, K., B. Dasgupta, & S.K. Dey (1984). A preliminary report on the ethno-zoological importance of the Himalayan flying squirrel. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S. 3(1): 99.

Dutt-Mazumdar, S. (1955). Wild life of the Darjeeling Hills. Journal of Darjeeling Natural History Society 27(4): 155–158.

Ellerman, J.R. (1961). The Fauna of India, including Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon: Mammalia Vol. 3 Rodentia, 2nd edition. Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta, 482 pp.

Ellerman, J.R. & T.C.S. Morrison-Scott (1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian Mammals 1758 to 1946, 2nd edition. Trustees of British Museum (Natural History), London, 809pp.

Elwes, H.J. (1916). Miscellaneous Notes – No. V. Altitude to which elephants ascend. The Journal of Bombay Natural History SocietyJournal of Bombay Natural History Society 24(2): 355.

Fry, T.B. (1923). A Collection of Mammals made by H. Stevens in the Darjeeling District. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 29(1): 90–92.

Gabb, H.B. (1945). Two Clouded Leopards. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 20(2): 58–61.

Ganguli-Lachungpa, U. (1997). Tibetan Gazelle Procarpa picticaudata in Sikkim, India. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 94(3): 557.

Ghose, P.S., B.K. Sharma, L.T. Theengh, P. Shrestha & T. Pintso (2012). Records of Spotted Linsang Prionodon pardicolor from Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary, Sikkim, India. Small Carnivore Conservation 47: 67–68.

Ghose, P.S., P. Shrestha, L.T. Theengh, T. Pintso & B.K. Sharma (2014). Records of small carnivores in Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary, Sikkim, India. Small Carnivore Conservation 51: 42–45.

Ghose, R.K. (1984). Ecological observation on the Neora Valley, Darjeeling District, West Bengal. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S. 3(2): 84–98.

Ghosh, M.K. (2005). Records of the Zoological Survey of India: Catalogue of Chiroptera in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India Part I : Megachiroptera (Issue Occasional Paper No. 232). Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 143pp.

Ghosh, M.K. (2008). Catalogue of Chiroptera in the collection of Zoological Survey of India (Part-II : Microchiroptera) Occasional Paper No. 281. Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 339pp.

Gomez, D., J.A. Coda, V. N. Serafini, A. Steinmann & J. W. Priotto (2017). Small mammals in Agroecosystems : responses to land use intensity and farming management. Mastozoología Neotropical 24(2): 289–300. http://www.sarem.org.arhttp//www.sbmz.com.brhttp://www.sarem.org.ar-http://www.sbmz.com.br

Gompper, M.E. & A.T. Vanak (2006). Vulpes bengalensis. Mammalian Species 795: 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1644/795.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1644/795.1

Groves, C. & P. Grubb (2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 309pp.

Gurung, S. & A.K. Agarwal (1969). The Himalayan Flying Squirrel – Some specialities. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 35(2): 112–115.

Hill, J.E. (1963). Occurrence of the European free-tailed Bat [Tadarida teniotis (Rafinesque)] (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in India. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 60(3): 723–735.

Hill, J.E. (1986). A note on Rhinolophus pearsonii Horsfield, 1851 and Rhinolophus yunanensis Dobson, 1872. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 83(Supplement): 12–18.

Hill, J.E., A. Zubaid & G.W.H. Davison (1986). The taxonomy of leaf-nosed bats of the Hipposideros bicolor group (Chiroptera : Hipposideridae) from southeastern Asia. Mammalia 50(4): 535–540.

Hinton, M.A.B. (1918). Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey No. XVIII – (continued) Report on the House Rats of India, Burma & Ceylon. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 26(2): 384–416.

Hodgson, B.H. (1847). On a new form of the Hog kind or Suidae. The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 16(1): 423–428. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/51678

Hooker, J.D. (1854). Himalayan journals; or, Notes of a naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia Mountains, &c. Vol II. John Murray, London, 408pp. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/123012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.60447

IUCN (2020). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-1. Retrieved July 2, 2020. https://www.iucnredlist.org/en

IUCN SMSG (2018). IUCN SSC Small Mammal Specialist Group. Retrieved September 26, 2018. http://www.small-mammals.org/conservation

Kandel, P., J. Gurung, N. Chettri, W. Ning & E. Sharma (2016). Biodiversity research trends and gap analysis from a transboundary landscape, Eastern Himalayas. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 9(1): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2015.11.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2015.11.002

Khajuria, H. & R.K. Ghose (1970). On a collection of small mammals from Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 36(1): 15–36.

Khatiwara, S. & T. Srivastava (2014). Red Panda Ailurus fulgens and other small carnivores in Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary, East Sikkim, India. Small Carnivore Conservation 50: 35–38.

Lachungpa, U. (2009). Indigenous lifestyles and biodiversity conservation issues in North Sikkim. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 8(1): 51–55.

Lepcha, T.W., T. Chandy, C.S. Rao, N. W. Tamang, N. Subba, S. Sathyakumar, K. Ramesh, T. Bhattacharya, A. Maheshwari & A. Arunkumar (2017). Wildlife Population Estimation for all Protected Areas of Sikkim 2016-2017, Department of Forests, Environment and Wildlife Management, Government of Sikkim, Gangtok, 72pp.

Lissovsky, A.A., M. McDonough, N. Dahal, W. Jin, S. Liu & L.A. Ruedas (2017). A new subspecies of large-eared pika, Ochotona macrotis (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae), from the Eastern Himalaya. Russian Journal of Theriology 16(1): 30–42. Retrieved from http://kmkjournals.com/upload/PDF/RJT/16/ther16_1_030_042.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.15298/rusjtheriol.16.1.03

Maclaren, P.I.R. (1949). Notes on Mammals, Sikkim and Southern Tibet. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 24(1): 6–8.

Mallick, J.K. (2012). Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(12): 3103–3136. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2418.3103-36 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2418.3103-36

Mallick, J.K. (2019). An updated checklist of the mammals of West Bengal. Journal on New Biological Report 8(2): 37–123.

Matthews, W.H. (1934). Records of some clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) in the Darjeeling District. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 37(4): 946–947.

Matveev, V.A. (2005). Checklist of Cambodian bats (Chiroptera), with new records and remarks on taxonomy. Russian Journal of Theriology 4(1): 43–62. https://doi.org/10.15298/rusjtheriol.04.1.03 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15298/rusjtheriol.04.1.03

Menon, V. (2014). Indian mammals: a field guide. Hachette Book Publishing India Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, 528 pp.

Millard, W.S., R.A. Spence & N.B. Kinnear (1916a). Proceedings of the meeting held on 17th February 1916. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 24(3): 617–621.

Millard, W.S., R.A. Spence & N.B. Kinnear (1916b). Proceedings of the meeting held on 31st August 1915. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 24(2): 383–386.

Mitra, S. (2004). In dire straits: The crisis of the Bengal Elephants. Panda (WWF - India Newsletter) October: 19–20.

Molur, S., G. Marimuthu, C. Srinivasulu, S. Mistry, A.M. Hutson, P.J.J. Bates, S. Walker, K.P. Priya & A.R.B. Priya (2002). Status of South Asian Chiroptera: conservation assessment and management plan (CAMP) workshop report. Zoo Outreach Organisation and Conservation Breeding Specialist Group – South Asia, Coimbatore, India, 320pp.

Molur, S., D. Brandon-Jones, W. Dittus, A. Eudey, A. Kumar, M. Singh, M.M. Feeroz, M. Chalise, P. Priya & S. Walker (2003). Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) workshop report. Zoo Outreach Organisation / CBSG-South Asia, 432pp.

Molur, S., C. Srinivasulu, B. Srinivasulu, S. Walker, P.O. Nameer & L. Ravikumar (2005). Status of South Asian Non-volant Small Mammals: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) workshop report. In Zoo Outreach Organization / CBSG-South Asia, 618pp.

Nameer, P.O. (2015). Checklist of Mammals of South Asia, pp. 720–739. In: Johnsingh A.J.T. & N. Manjrekar (eds.) Mammals of South Asia Volume 2. University Press, India, 799pp. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nameer_Prof_PO/publication/280711597_Checklist_of_Mammals_of_South_Asia_PON/links/55c1d5e608aeb5e0c583b597/Checklist-of-Mammals-of-South-Asia-PON.pdf

Nameer, P.O., J. Praveen, A. Bijukumar, M.J. Palot, S. Das & R. Raghavan (2015). A checklist of the vertebrates of Kerala State, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(13): 7961–7970. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.1999.7.13.7961-7970 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.1999.7.13.7961-7970

Pal, N.L. & B. Dasgupta (1982). Trypanosoma rhinolophinis n.sp. and Polychromophilus sp. In the insectivorous bats of Darjeeling. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S.(2): 101–103.

Pal, N.L. & B. Dasgupta (1984). Malaria parasites in the grey headed flying squirrel, Petaurista elegans caniceps. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society, N.S.(1): 3–18.

Perfecto, I. & J. Vandermeer (2008). Biodiversity conservation in tropical agroecosystems: A new conservation paradigm. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1134(1): 173–200. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1439.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1439.011

Perfecto, I., J. Vandermeer, A. Mas & L.S. Pinto (2005). Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification. Ecological Economics 54(4): 435–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.10.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.10.009

Pinckney, P. (1939). Shooting in Sikkim. Journal of Darjeeling Natural History Society 14(1): 13–18.

Pradhan, S. (1995). First report on the sightings of the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) in the Singhalila National Park, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society N.S. 14(1): 73–74.

Pradhan, S. & R. Bhujel (2000). Biodiversity Conservation in the Darjeeling Himalayas, pp. 31–­­78. In: Yonzon, P. (eds.). Kangchenjunga Mountain Complex, WWF Nepal Programme, Kathmandu, 134 pp.

Primrose, C. (1916). Miscellaneous Notes – No. II. Notes on the habits of the Harlequin Bat (Scotomanes ornatus). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 24(2): 353–354

Rawat, G.S. & S. Tambe (2011). Sikkim Himalaya: Unique Features of Biogeography and Ecology, pp. 1–12. In: Arrawatia, M.L. & S. Tambe (eds.). Biodiversity of Sikkim. Information and Public Relations Department, Government of Sikkim, 542pp.

Robinson, J.G. & R.E. Bodmer (1999). Towards Wildlife Management in Tropical Forests. The Journal of Wildlife Management 63(1): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.2307/3802482 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3802482

Saha, J. C. (1955). Annual Report of The Bengal Natural History Society and Natural History Museum, Darjeeling for the year ending March 31, 1955. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 17(1): 123–126.

Saha, S.S., S. Chattopadhyay, R.P. Mukherjee & J.R.B. Alfred (1992). Wildlife and its conservation in West Bengal, pp. 419–443. In: Ghosh, A.K (ed.). State Fauna Series 3: Fauna of West Bengal, Part 1. Director, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 443pp.

Saikia, U. (2018). A review of Chiropterological studies and a distributional list of the Bat Fauna of India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 118(3): 242–280.

Saikia, U., G. Csorba & M. Ruedi (2017). First records of Hypsugo joffrei (Thomas, 1915) and the revision of Philetor brachypterus (Temminck, 1840) specimens (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Indian Subcontinent. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 124(1): 83–89.

Sanborn, C.C. (1932). Mammals of the Suydam Cutting Sikkim Expedition. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 36: 181–187.

Sanyal, A.K., Ramakrishna & J.R.B. Alfred (2007). Faunal Resources in West Bengal. West Bengal 49(10–11): 38–48.

Sathyakumar, S., T. Bashir, T. Bhattacharya & K. Poudyal (2011a). Assessing mammal distribution and abundance in intricate eastern Himalayan habitats of Khangchendzonga, Sikkim, India. Mammalia 75(3): 257–268. https://doi.org/10.1515/MAMM.2011.023 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.2011.023

Sathyakumar, S., T. Bashir, T. Bhattacharya & K. Poudyal (2011b). Mammals of the Khangchendzonga Biosphere, pp. 327–350. In: Arrawatia, M.L. & S. Tambe (eds.). Biodiversity of Sikkim: Exploring and Conserving a Global Hotspot, Information and Public Relations Department, Government of Sikkim, 542pp.

Sathyakumar, S. (2001). Status and Management of Asiatic Black Bear and Himalayan Brown Bear in India. Ursus 12: 21–30.

Sclater, W.L. (1891). Catalogue of Mammalia in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 2. Rodentia, Ungulata, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Carnivora, Cetacea, Sirenia, Marsupialia, Monotremata. Government of India, Central Printing Office, 375pp.

Sharma, G., M. Kamalakannan & K. Venkataraman (2015). A Checklist of Mammals of India with their distribution and conservation status. ZSI e-publication. The Director, Zooligical Survey of India, Kolkata, 123pp.

Sharma, T.R. & U. Lachungpa (2002). Status, Distribution and Management of Mountain Ungulates in Sikkim. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas 1(1): 38–43. http://www.sikkimforest.gov.in/docs/Ecotourism/mountian ungulates in sikkim.pdf

Shebbeare, E.O. (1914). Miscellaneous Notes – No. IV. Altitude to which elephants ascend. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 22: 770.

Srinivasulu, C. & B. Srinivasulu (2012). South Asian Mammals: Their Diversity, Distribution and Status. Springer Science and Business Media, New York, 459pp.

Srivastava, T. & A. Kumar (2018). Seasonal habitat use in three species of wild ungulates in Sikkim Himalaya. Mammalian Biology 88: 100–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2017.11.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2017.11.013

The Statesman (2019). Siliguri: Five from Sikkim held with dead pangolin. The Statesman. https://www.thestatesman.com/cities/siliguri/siliguri-five-sikkim-held-dead-pangolin-1502753188.html

Thomas, O. (1915). Scientific results from the mammal survey, No. XI. A. — On Pipistrels of the Genera Pipistrellus and Scotozous. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 24(1): 29–34.

Thomas, O. (1916a). Scientific results from the mammal survey, No. XIII. A. — On the Muridæ from Darjiling and the Chin Hills. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 24: 404–415.

Thomas, O. (1916b). Scientific results from the mammal survey, No. XIV. A. — A New Bat of the Genus Murina from Darjiling. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 24(4): 639–640.

Thomas, O. (1920). Scientific results from the Mammal Survey XXIII. A new bat of the genus Myotis from Sikkim. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 27: 248–249.

Topál, G. (1970). On the systematic status of Pipistrelus annectans Dobson, 1871 and Myotis primula Thomas, 1920 (Mammalia). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 62: 373–379. http://publication.nhmus.hu/pdf/annHNHM/Annals_HNHM_1970_Vol_62_373.pdf

Vijayan, L., S. Bhupathy, A. Kumar, J. Thapa, B.K. Acharya, B. Chettri & S. Riphung (2004). An Ecological Study of Mammals, Birds, Herpetofauna and Butterflies in Teesta Basin, Sikkim: Report of Phase II, 123pp. http://www.sacon.in/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/FT-2004-PR163-Ecological-study-in-Mammals-Birds-Herpetofauna-and-Butterflies-in-Teesta-Basin-Sikkim.pdf

Wood, H.S. (1933). Notes on the Natural History and Shikar of Indian Deer. Journal of Darjeeling Natural History Society 7(4): 152–157.

Wroughton, R.C. (1916a). Bombay Natural History Society’s Mammal Survey of India, Burma and Ceylon. Report No. 23. Sikkim and Bengal Terai. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 24(3): 468–493.

Wroughton, R.C. (1916b). Bombay Natural History Society’s Mammal Survey of India, Burma and Ceylon. Report No. 26. Darjiling District. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 24(4): 773–782.

Wroughton, R.C. (1916c). Scientific results from the mammal survey, No. XIV. E. —The Indian Jackals. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 24(4): 649–653.

Wroughton, R.C. (1917). Bombay Natural History Society’s Mammal Survey of India, Burma and Ceylon. Report No. 28. Kalimpong (Darjiling). The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 25(2): 274–278.