Status and conservation needs of Cycas pectinata Buch.-Ham. in its natural habitat at Baroiyadhala National Park, Bangladesh

Main Article Content

M.K. Hossain
M.A. Hossain
S. Hossain
M.R. Rahman
M.I. Hossain
S.K. Nath
M.B.N. Siddiqui


The widespread cycad Cycas pectinata was first discovered in the Bengal region by William Griffith in Baroiyadhala forest of Chattogram in 1838. In Bangladesh, this species is confined to a few hills at Baroiyadhala, Sitakunda upazila of Chattogram district. Though the Baroiyadhala forests were declared a national park in 2010, the loss of this native gymnosperm from this forest is alarming. The present study aimed to assess the status of C. pectinata populations in its native range, identify the drivers responsible for ongoing losses, and identify locations of C. pectinata occurrence in Baroiyadhala National Park suitable for in situ conservation. A random quadrat survey with 21 sample plots of 100 × 100 m was conducted during April–June 2018 in Baroiyadhala National Park. Population and growth data for C. pectinata were collected from each sample plot, along with observations of disturbances. Four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with adjacent local people. The study revealed presence of 12 C. pectinata individuals per hectare and five seedlings per hectare in the study area, and significant numbers of dead and burned Cycas were also found in some sites. Based on density, five C. pectinata hotspots were identified for in situ conservation programs. Habitat destruction, indiscriminate fire, and unsustainable harvesting of leaves and male and female cones are responsible for rapid declines in C. pectinata populations in its wild habitat. Measures for protection and restoration of the species are creating awareness among the local people about ecological importance of this species; enhancing protection; banning trade of Cycas; creating opportunities of sustainable livelihood for local people to reduce dependency on forests.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hossain, M., Hossain, M., Hossain, S., Rahman, M., Hossain, M., Nath, S. and Siddiqui, M. 2021. Status and conservation needs of Cycas pectinata Buch.-Ham. in its natural habitat at Baroiyadhala National Park, Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 13, 8 (Jul. 2021), 19070–19078. DOI:
Author Biography

M.R. Rahman, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, 79085 Freiburg, Germany.

MS Student, University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Finland.


Cheek, B. (2000). An introduction to Cycad reproduction. In: Biology of Cycads. Downloaded on 26 March 2020.

da Silva, J.A.T., W.R. Woodenberg & S. Zeng (2014). Cycads in vitro. Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 24(2): 287-301.

de Caceres, M., S. Martín-Alcón, J.R. González-Olabarria & L. Coll (2019). A general method for the classification of forest stands using species composition and vertical and horizontal structure. Annals of Forest Science 76(2): 40.

Demiray, H., A.E. Dereboylu, Z.I. Yazici, S. Bildik, K. Bülbül, S.G. Şenol & A.F. Pirhan (2017). In vitro seed germination of Cycas revoluta Thunb. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 46(2): 559-564.

Donaldson, J., K. Hill & D. Stevenson (2003). Cycads of the world: an overview, pp. 3-8. In: Donaldson, J. (ed.). Cycads: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, United Kingdom. 8 pp.

Dutta, S., M.K. Hossain, M.A. Hossain & P. Chowdhury (2014). Floral diversity of Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco-Park in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity 22(2): 106-118.

Dyer, R.A. (1965). The cycads of southern Africa. Bothalia 8(4): 405-408.

Egunyu, F., M.G. Reed & J.A. Sinclair (2016). Learning through new approaches to forest governance: evidence from Harrop-Procter community forest Canada. Environmental Management 57(4):784–797.

Forsyth, C. & J.V. Staden (1983). Germination of Tagetes minuta LI Temperature effects. Annals of Botany 52(5): 659-666.

Harun-Ur-Rashid, M., S. Islam & S.B. Kashem (2018). Floristic diversity (Magnoliids and Eudicots) of Baraiyadhala National Park, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 25(2): 273–288.

Hossain, M.K. (2015). Protected area management plan for Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary and Baraiyadhala National Park: 2015 – 2025 Bangladesh Forest Department-Ministry of Forests and Environment, Dhaka, Bangladesh,109pp.

Khan, M., M. Rahman & M. Ali (Eds.) (2001). Red Data Book of Vascular Plants of Bangladesh. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka, Bangladesh,179pp.

Khuraijam, J.S. & R. Singh (2014). Population assessment and distribution of Cycas pectinata Buchanan-Hamilton in Northeast India. Pleione 8(1): 17-25.

Khuraijam, J.S. & R. Singh (2015). Ethnobotany of Cycas pectinata Ham. in Northeast India. Encephalartos 119: 18-23.

Khuraijam, J.S. & R. Singh (2016). Illegal trade of Cycas cones in India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Cycads 1(1): 20-21.

Köhl, M., & S. Magnussen (2016). Sampling in Forest Inventories, pp 777-837. In: Pancel, L. & M. Kohl (eds.). Tropical Forestry Handbook. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 3633pp.

Köhl, M., S. Magnussen & M. Marchetti (2006). Sampling Methods, Remote Sensing and GIS Multiresource Forest Inventory. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 373pp.

Krueger, R. & M.A. Casey (2015). Focus groups: a practical guide for applied research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California, 280pp.

Kumer, P. & M. Urbanc (2020). Focus Groups as a Tool for Conducting Participatory Research: A Case Study of Small-Scale Forest Management in Slovenia, pp 207-220. In: Nared, J. & D. Bole (eds.). Participatory research and planning in practice. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, 227pp.

Liamputtong, P. (2011). Focus group methodology: principles and practice. Sage, London, 224pp.

Lindstrom, A. & K. Hill (2007). The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in India. Telopea 11(4): 463-488.

Miller, P. & P. Scoptur (2016). Focus groups: hitting the bull’s-eye. Association for Justice, Washington DC, 262pp.

Nguyen, H.T. (2010). Cycas pectinata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010. Downloaded on 02 January 2020.

Norstog, K.J. & T.J. Nicholls (1997). The Biology of the Living Cycads. Cornell University Press, Ithaca., New York, USA,384pp.

Osborne, R. (1995). An overview of cycad conservation in South Africa, pp. 1-7. In: J. S. Donaldson (ed.). Cycad Conservation in South Africa, Issues, Priorities and Actions. Cycad Society of South Africa, South Africa. 7pp.

Osborne, R., K.D. Hill, H.T. Nguyen & P.K. Loc (2007). Cycads of Vietnam. Satooz, Brisbane, Australia, 116 pp.

Rahman, M. (2006). Cycas – a rare and endangered indigenous species of Bangladesh to the verge of extinction. Biodiversity Bangladesh 8(1&2): 1-4.

Schreuder, H.T., R. Ernst, & H. Ramirez-Maldonado (2004). Statistical techniques for sampling and monitoring natural resources. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-126. Fort Collins, CO: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 111pp.

Sharma, M. & S.Y. Zhang (2004). Height–Diameter Models Using Stand Characteristics for Pinus banksiana and Picea mariana. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 19(5): 442-451.

Singh, R. & J.S. Khuraijam (2010). Status and survey of Cycas pectinata Buchanon-Hamilton in Sikkim and West Bengal. Pleione 4(2): 235-239.

Stevenson, D.W., L. Stanberg & M.A. Calonje (2018). The World List of Cycads, pp. 540-576. In: N. Li, D. W. Stevenson and M. P. Griffith (eds.). Cycad Biology and Conservation: The 9th International Conference on Cycad Biology, Shenzhen, China. 1-7 December 2011. Memories of the New York Botanical Garden.

Subrahmanyam, N. & A. Sambamurty (2006). Ecology, 2nd edition. Alpha Science International, Oxford, 664pp.

USAID (2018). Hazarikhil wildlife sanctuary: sustaining nature, biodiversity, and local communities. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Dhaka, Bangladesh, 6pp.

Vovides, A., M.A. Perez-Farrera, J. Gonzáles-Astorga, D. González, T. Gregory, J. Chemnic, C. Iglesias, P. Octavio-Aguilar, S. Avendafio & C. Bareenas (2003). An outline of our current knowledge on Mexican cycads (Zamiaceae, Cycadales). Current Topics in Plant Biology 4: 159-174.

Watt, G. (1889). A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. Cosmo Publications, Delhi, India, 675pp.

Whitelock, L.M. (2002). The Cycads. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon, 532pp.

Woodenberg, W.R., P. Berjak & N.W. Pammenter (2010). Development of cycad ovules and seeds. 1. Implication of the ER in primary cellularisation of the megagametophyte in Encephalartos natalensis Dyer and Verdoorn. Plant growth regulation 62(3): 265-278.

Woodenberg, W.R., P. Berjak, N. Pammenter & J.M. Farrant (2014). Development of cycad ovules and seeds. 2. Histological and ultrastructural aspects of ontogeny of the embryo in Encephalartos natalensis (Zamiaceae). Protoplasma 251(4): 797-816.