Main Article Content
The Chinese Pangolin (CP), Manis pentadactyla L. is one of the two pangolin species recorded in Bhutan. Not many studies, however, were carried out on the species in Bhutan. The present study was carried out to assess the habitat preference and current distribution of CP, Manis pentadactyla in Dorokha Dungkhag, Samtse from January to March 2017. Belt transect method consisting of 100 x 100 m each was used to assess the habitat preference and estimate burrow density, coupled with an extensive search of indirect signs of pangolin presence (burrows, scat, footprint, scales, scratches) was utilized to determine the current distribution of the CP. Modelling of habitat was carried out using QGIS and Maxent. A total of 181 burrows were recorded from 48 plots with burrow density of 0.104 per hectare. These were mostly distributed in the habitat dominated by needlework trees (Schima wallichii), evergreen broadleaf (Castanopsis hytrix) and shrubs (Viburnum species). The preferred habitat of the CP was recorded to range from an altitude of 1,300–1,700 m, with highest feeding activities recorded within the periphery of cardamom plantation and adjacent forested area. A higher burrow density was recorded in humid soils, with high termite presence, and in the vicinity of human settlements. Habitat modelling revealed that 23.57km2 of the study area was highly suitable and 37.88km2 was a suitable habitat for the species. Similar studies are suggested to be carried out in other parts of Bhutan in different seasons to better understand the species and its distribution in the country.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Grant numbers 20287-1
Azhar, B., D. Lindenmayer, J. Wood, J. Fischer, A.D. Manning, C. McElhinny & M. Zakaria (2013). Contribution of illegal hunting, culling of pest species, road accidents and feral dogs to biodiversity loss in established oil-palm landscapes. Wildlife Research 40(1): 1–9.
Begon, M. (1979). Investigating Animal Abundance. Edward Arnold, London 104pp.
Chalise, N.B. & N. Bhandari (2014). Habitat and Distribution of CP (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in Nagarjun Forest of Shivapuri Nagarjun National. Nepalese Journal of Zoology 2(1): 18–25. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278406616
Challender, D., S. Wu, P. Kaspal, A. Khatiwada, A. Ghose, N. Ching-Min Su & S.T. Laxmi (2019). Manis pentadactyla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T12764A123585318. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T12764A123585318.en Downloaded on 14 January 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T12764A123585318.en
Challender, D.W.S., C. Waterman & E.M. Baillie (2014). Scaling Up Pangolin Conservation. IUCN SSC Pangolin Specialist Group Conservation Action Plan. IUCN Pangolin Specialist Group, London, England. http://www.pangolinsg.org/files/2012/07/Scaling_up_pangolin_conservation_280714_v4.pdf
CITES. (2016). Consideration of Proposals for Amendment of Appendices I and II, Seventeenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Johannesburg. 18 <https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/17/prop/060216/E-CoP17-Prop-11.pdf>. Accessed on 25 August 2016.
Elith, J., S.J. Phillips, T. Hastie, M. Dudik, Y. En Chee & C.J. Yates (2011). A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists. Diversity and Distributions 17: 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00725.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00725.x
Gaubert, P. (2011). Family Manidae (Pangolins). In: Handbook of Mammals of the World (Wilson, D., pp. 82–13). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, 728p.
Gotch, A.F. (1979). Mammals-Their Latin Names Explained. A Guide to Animal Classification. Blandford Press, Poole, 271pp.
Gurung, K.K., R. Singh & Z. Richards (1996). Field Guide to the Mammals of the Indian Subcontinent: Where to Watch Mammals in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. Academic Press, 140pp.
Hemachandra, I., J. Edirisinghe, W. Karunaratne, C. Gunatilleke & R. Fernando (2014). Diversity and distribution of termite assemblages in montane forests in the Knuckles Region, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 34(1): 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1017/S174275841300043X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S174275841300043X
IUCN Pangolin Specialist Group (2020). Pangolins. Accessed 11 June 2020. https://www.pangolinsg.org/pangolins/
Irshad, N., T. Mahmood, R. Hussain & M.S. Nadeem (2015). Distribution, abundance and diet of the Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), Animal Biology 65(1): 57–71. https://doi.org/10.1163/15707563-00002462 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/15707563-00002462
IUCN Pangolin Specialist Group (2015). Natural history. Accessed 21 May 2017. http://www.pangolinsg.org/pangolins/links/
Jennings, A.P. & G. Veron (2011). Predicted distributions and ecological niches of 8 civet and mongoose species in Southeast Asia. Journal of Mammalogy 92: 316–327.
Jiménez-Valverde, A. & J.M. Lobo (2007). Threshold criteria for conversion of probability of species presence to either-or presence-absence. Acta Oecologica 31: 361–369.
Katuwal, H.B., K.R. Neupane, D. Adhikari, M. Sharma & S. Thapa (2015). Pangolins in eastern Nepal: trade and ethno-medicinal importance, Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(9): 7563–7567. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o4202.7563-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o4202.7563-7
Mahmood, T. & R. Hussain (2014). Habitat preference and population estimates of Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in district Chakwal of Potohar Plateau, Pakistan, Russian Journal of Ecology 45(January): 70–75. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413614010081 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413614010081
Muarya, K.K., S. Shafi & M. Gupta (2018). Chinese Pangolin: sighting of Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) in Valmiki Tiger Reserve, Bihar, India. Small Mammal Mail 416. Zoo’s Print 33(1): 15–18.
Newton, P., T. Nguyen & S. Roberton (2008). Pangolins in Peril: using local hunters’ knowledge to conserve elusive species in Vietnam. Endangered Species Reearch 6: 41–53. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00127 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00127
Pearsall, J. (2002). Concise Oxford English Dictionary (10th ed.). Oxford University Press, London, 1708p.
Phillips, S.J., R.P. Anderson & R.E. Schapire (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190(3): 231–259. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.026 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.026
Srinivasulu, C. & B. Srinivasulu (2012). South Asian Mammals: Their Diversity, Distribution, and Status. Springer, New York, USA, 480p.
Suwal, T.L., A. Thapa, S. Gurung, P.C. Aryal, H. Basnet, K. Basnet, K.B. Shah, S. Thapa, S. Koirala, S. Dahal, H.B. Katuwal, N. Sharma, S.R. Jnawali, K. Khanal, M. Dhakal, K.P. Acharya, D.J. Ingram & K.J-C. Pei (2020). Predicting the potential distribution and habitat variables associated with pangolins in Nepal, Global Ecology and Conservation 23: e10149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01049 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01049
Wilting, A., A. Cord, A.J. Hearn, D. Hesse, A. Mohamed, C. Traeholdt, S.M. Cheyne, S. Sunarto, M.A. Jayasilan, J. Ross, A.C. Shapiro, A. Sebastian, S. Dech, C. Breitenmoser J. Sanderson, J.W. Duckworth and H. Hofer. (2010). Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an endangered South-East Asian small felid. PLoS One 5(3): e9612. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009612 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009612
Wangchuk, N. (2013). Indian Pangolin Habitat and Conservation threats. B.Sc. Thesis. College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Bhutan, 40pp.
Wangchuk, T., P. Thinley, K. Tshering, D. Yonten & B. Pema (2004). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Bhutan. Thimphu: Department of Forest, MoA, Royal Government of Bhutan, 182pp.
Wu, S., N. Liu, Y. Zhang & G.Z. Ma (2004). Assessment of threatened status of CP (Manis pentadactyla), Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology 10(4): 456–461.
Wu, S., N.C. Sun, F. Zhang, Y. Yu, G. Ades, T.L. Suwal & Z. Jiang (2020). CP Manis pentadactyla (Linnaeus, 1758), pp. 49-70 In: Challender, D.W.S., H.C. Nash & C. Waterman (eds). Pangolins Science, Society and Conservation, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 630pp.
Wu, S.B., N.F. Liu, G.Z. Ma, Z.R. Xu & H. Chen (2003). Habitat selection by CP (Manis pentadactyla) in winter in Dawuling Natural Reserve, Mammalia 67(4): 493–502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm-2003-0403
Zoological Society of India (2002). Pangolins (Mammalia: Pholidota) of India. ENVIS Newsletter 9 (1 & 2).