A checklist of macrofungi (mushroom) diversity and distribution in the forests of Tripura, India

Main Article Content

Sanjit Debnath
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8896-8128
Ramesh Chandra Upadhyay
Rahul Saha
Koushik Majumdar
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0340-1227
Panna Das
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1149-0143
Ajay Krishna Saha

Abstract

Abstract: The tropical region, which has the highest macrofungi diversity, has not been fully exploited instead of this is an important component of the global diversity. However, no work has been carried out to assess such diversity in Tripura. Since tropical forests are diverse in plant composition and structure, hence the objective of this study was to explore the mushroom species richness in Tripura, Northeast India with the aim of producing a checklist along with their present geographical distributions, key identification characters and valid photographs. Field surveys and collection of mushrooms were carried out in Tripura covering different sites during 2015–2018. Data on macrofungal diversity, distribution patterns and taxonomic identification were analyzed. A total of 217 wild mushrooms were documented from eight districts of Tripura, northeastern India. Out of 217 samples, 202 samples were identified up to the genus level, 125 samples were identified up to the species level.  A total of 76 genera belonging to 60 families and 25 orders were classified in this ecological study. The majority of macrofungi belong to the family Polyporaceae (30 nos), and order Agaricales (103 specimens). The wild macrofungi were collected from 56 sites of eight districts of this state and the maximum macrofungi diversity was recorded from Sepahijala District. Present findings also observed that the maximum wild fungi of this state grow on different plant parts. This is the preliminary study on documentation of wild macrofungi from eight districts of Tripura, northeastern India and it will be used as a reference database of wild mushrooms of this state, which will also help in future research work in different fields.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Debnath, S., Upadhyay, R.C. , Saha, R. , Majumdar, K. , Das, P. and Saha, A.K. 2020. A checklist of macrofungi (mushroom) diversity and distribution in the forests of Tripura, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 12, 10 (Jul. 2020), 16314–16346. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5730.12.10.16314-16346.
Section
Communications
Author Biographies

Sanjit Debnath, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura 799022, India.

Ph.D. Scholar, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022, Tripura, India

Ramesh Chandra Upadhyay, Retired Principal Scientist, Directorate of Mushroom Research (DMR), Chambaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173213, India.

Retired Principal Scientist, Directorate of Mushroom Research, Chambaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh-173213, India.

Rahul Saha, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura 799022, India.

Ph.D. Scholar, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022, Tripura, India

Koushik Majumdar, Plant Taxonomy and Biodiversity Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura 799022, India.

Research Associate, Plant Taxonomy and Biodiversity Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022, Tripura, India

Panna Das, Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura 799022, India.

Assistant Professor, Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022, Tripura, India

Ajay Krishna Saha, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura 799022, India.

Professor, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022, Tripura, India

Funding data

References

Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims & M. Blackwell (1996). Introductory Mycology, 4th edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2–8pp.

Antonín, V. & B. Buyck (2006). Marasmius (Basidiomycota, Marasmiaceae) in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. Fungal Diversity 23: 17–50.

Baptista, P., A. Martins, R.M. Tavares & T. Lino-Neto (2010). Diversity and fruiting pattern of macrofungi associated with chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Trás-os-Montes region (Northeast Portugal). Fungal Ecology 3(1): 9–19.

Castellano, M.A., E. Cazares, B. Fondrick & T. Dreisbach (2003). Handbook to Additional Species of concern in the Northwest Forest Plan. Gen. Tech. Report PNW-GTR-572. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon, 144pp.

Chang, S. & G.P. Miles (2004). Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effects and Environmental Impact. CRC Press, USA, 436pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203492086

Cho, S.E., J.W. Jo, N.K. Kim, Y.N. Kwag, S.K., Han, K.S. Chang, S.H. Oh & C.S. Kim (2019). Macrofungal survey of the Tian Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiology 47(4): 378–390. https://doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2019.1661565 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2019.1661565

Das, K. (2009). Mushrooms of Sikkim I: Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary. Sikkim State Biodiversity Board, Gangtok and Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, 160pp.

Das, K. (2010). Diversity and conservation of wild mushrooms in Sikkim with special reference to Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary. NeBIO 1(2): 1–13.

Debnath S., K. Chakraborty, B.K. Datta, P. Das & A.K. Saha (2019). Trichoglossum tetrasporum, newly recorded from India. Mycotaxon 134(1): 119–124. https://doi.org/10.5248/134.119 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5248/134.119

Debnath, S, R.C. Upadhyay, P. Das & A.K. Saha (2020a). Characterization of wild mushrooms from Tripura, Northeast India. Indian Phytopathology 73: 97–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42360-019-00188-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42360-019-00188-9

Debnath, S., A.R. Das, P. Karmakar, G. Debnath, P. Das & A.K. Saha (2017). Checklist of mushroom diversity in West Tripura, North-East India, pp. 205–213. In: Sinha, S. & R.K. Sinha (eds.). Trends in Frontal Areas of Plant Science Research. Narosa Publishing, New Delhi, India, 308pp.

Debnath, S., K. Saha, P. Das & A.K. Saha (2020b). Medicinal properties of Clitocybe brunneocaperata (Agaricomycetes) from India. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 22(4): 379–388. https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020034124 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020034124

Desjardin, D.E. & C.L. Ovrebo (2006). New species and new records of Marasmius from Panamá. Fungal Diversity 21: 19–39.

Hall, I.R., S.L. Stephenson, P.K. Buchanan, W. Yun & A.L.J. Cole (2003). Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of the World. Timber Press, Inc. Portland, U.S.A., 64pp.

Hawksworth, D.L. (2001). Mushrooms: the extent of the unexplored potential. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 3: 333–337.

Karun, N.C. & K.R. Sridhar (2013). Occurrence and distribution of Termitomyces (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) in the Western Ghats and on the west coast of India. Czech Mycology 65(2): 233–254.

Manoharachary, C., K. Sridhar, R. Singh, Adholeya, T.S. Suryanarayanan, S. Rawat & B.N. Johri (2005).Fungal Biodiversity: Distribution, Conservation and Prospecting of Fungi from India. Current Science 89(1): 58–71.

Martin, F., D. Cullen, D. Hibbett, A. Pisabarro, J.W. Spatafora, S.E. Baker & I. V. Grigoriev (2011). Sequencing the fungal tree of life. New Phytologist 190: 818–821.

Moore, S. & P. O’Sullivan (2014). A Guide to Common Fungi of the Hunter-Central Rivers Region. Hunter Local Land Services, NSW, 109pp.

Niranjan, M. & V.V. Sarma (2018). A check-list of fungi from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Phytotaxa 347(2): 101–126.

Payton, R.W. (1993). Ecology, altitudinal zonation and conservation of tropical rainforest of mount Cameroon final project report R4600, ODA London, and Mount Cameroon Project, 70pp.

Pegler, D.N (1977). A Preliminary agaric flora of East Africa. Kew Bulletin Additional Series 6: 1–615.

Priyamvada, H., M. Akila, R.K. Singh, R. Ravikrishna, R.S. Verma, L. Philip, R.R. Marathe, L.K. Sahu, K.P. Sudheer & S.S. Gunthe (2017). Terrestrial macrofungal diversity from the tropical dry evergreen biome of Southern India and its potential role in aerobiology. PLoS ONE 12(1): e0169333. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169333 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169333

Purkayastha, R.P., & A. Chandra (1985). Manual of Indian Edible Mushroom. Today and Tomorrow Printer and Publisher, New Delhi, 266pp.

Rogers, J.D., Y.M. Ju & J. Lehmann (2005). Some Xylaria species on termite nests. Mycologia 97: 914–923.

Semwal, K.C., S.L. Stephenson, V.K. Bhatt & R.P. Bhatt (2014). Edible mushrooms of the Northwestern Himalaya, India: a study of indigenous knowledge, distribution and diversity. Mycosphere 5(3): 440–461.

Senthilarasu, G. (2013a). Two interesting Pterula species from Maharashtra, India. Mycosphere 4(4): 766–771. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/4/4/13

Senthilarasu, G. (2013b). A checklist of Ramaria in India and an interesting blue species from Western Ghats. Kavaka 41: 6–10.

Singha, K., A. Banerjee, B.R. Pati & P.K. Das Mohapatra (2017). Eco-diversity, productivity and distribution frequency of mushrooms in Gurguripal Eco-forest, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology 7(1): 8–18.

Straatsma, G., F. Ayer & S. Egli (2001). Species richness, abundance, and phenology of fungal fruit bodies over 21 years in a Swiss forest plot. Mycological Research 105: 515–523.

Swapna, S., A. Syed & M. Krishnappa (2008). Diversity of macrofungi in semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forest of Shimoga district-Karnataka, India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 38(1): 21–26.

Tanti, B., G. Lisha & G.C. Sharma (2011). Wild Edible Fungal Resources Used by Ethnic Tribes of Nagaland, India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 10: 512–515.

Tapwal, A., R. Kumar & S. Pandey (2013). Diversity and frequency of macrofungi associated with wet ever green tropical forest in Assam, India. Biodiversitas 14: 73–78.

Tiwari, C.K., J. Parihar, R.K. Verma& U. Prakasham (2013). Atlas of Wood Decaying Fungi of Central India. Published by Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, MP, 166pp.

Verma, R.K. & V. Pandro (2018). Diversity and distribution of amanitaceous mushrooms in India, two new reports from sal forest of central India. Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity 26(1): 42–54.

Verma, R.N., G.B. Singh & S.M. Singh (1995). Mushroom Flora of North Eastern Hills. pp. 329–349. In: Chadha, K.L. & S.R. Sharma (eds.). Advances in Horticulture Mushroom. S.R. Molhotra Publishers House, New Delhi, India.

Wei, T.Z. & Y.J. Yao Tang (2009). Revision of Termitomyces in China. Mycotaxon 108(1): 257–285.

Weinstein, R.N., D.H. Pfister & T. Iturriaga (2002). A phylogenetic study of the genus Cookeina. Mycologia 94(4): 673–682.

Most read articles by the same author(s)