Sero-diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants in Maharashtra, India

Main Article Content

Utkarsh Rajhans
Gayatri Wankhede
Balaji Ambore
Sandeep Chaudhari
Navnath Nighot
Vitthal Dhaygude
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2870-4822
Chhaya Sonekar

Abstract

Tuberculosis is a highly contagious zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium spp.  A study was conducted to detect the presence of Mycobacterium in captive elephants.  A total of 15 captive elephants were screened from various regions in Maharashtra.  The blood and serum samples collected were subjected to rapid test kit, BacT/ALERT 3D system, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and PCR.  All the samples were found seronegative using rapid test kit and whole blood PCR.  Whereas, all samples were signalled culture positive in BacT/ALERT 3D system which were further subjected to PCR, only one amplicon was produced of 176bp of RD4 gene (Mycobacterium bovis) and no acid-fast organism was detected upon ZN.  Due to the atypical nature of this organism, diagnosis of this disease in elephants using various tests is complicated unlike the diagnostic tests that are validated in domestic animals.  Therefore, many tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity in elephants.  As TB is a zoonotic disease, transmission can occur between human-livestock-elephants interface.  Therefore, the zoos and state forest authority should inculcate a protocol of periodic TB screening for Mahouts and elephants in captivity along with protocol of elephant-visitor interaction, thus helping in conservation of this endangered species in India.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Rajhans, U., Wankhede, G., Ambore, B., Chaudhari, S. , Nighot, N., Dhaygude, V. and Sonekar, C. 2021. Sero-diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants in Maharashtra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 13, 7 (Jun. 2021), 18713–18718. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5502.13.7.18713-18718.
Section
Communications

References

Bapat, P.R., A.S. Satav, S.D. Shekhawat, S.D. Manke, A.A. Husain, A.R. Nayak, A.P. Kawle, L.R. Singh, H.F. Daginawala & R.S. Kashyap (2017a). Molecular diagnosis of zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis infection in Melghat, India. Journal of Zoonotic Diseases 2(2): 2–16.

Bapat, P.R., R.S. Dubey, S.D. Shekhawat, A.A. Husain, A.R. Nayak, A.P. Kawle, H.F. Daginawala, L.R. Singh & R.S. Kashyap (2017b). Prevalence of zoonotic tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Central Indian populations. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 7: 277–283.

Choudhury, L., D.K. Desai, A. Duckworth, J.W. Easa, P.S. Johnsingh, A.J.T. Fernando, P. Hedges, S. Gunawardena, M. Kurt, F. Karanth, U. Lister, A. Menon, V. Riddle, H. Rubel & A.E. Wikaranayake (2008). Elephas maximus. The ICUN Red List of Threatened Species [online] https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T7140A12828813.en [viewed 6 March 2019].

Hirsch, D.C., N.. MacLachian & R.L. Walker (eds.) (2004). Veterinary Microbiology. 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., USA, 223pp.

Iyer, A.K. (1937). Veterinary science in India, Ancient and modern with special reference to tuberculosis. Agriculture Livestock India 7: 718–724.

Kathleen, A.A., E. Pleydell, M.C. Williams, E.P. Lane, J.F.C. Nyange & A.L. Michel (2002). Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an emerging disease of free-ranging wildlife. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(6): 598–601.

Mikota, S.K. (ed.) (2008). Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine - 6th Edition. Elsevier Saunders Inc., USA, 355pp.

Mc Gaughey C.A. (1961). Diseases of elephants - Part 3. Ceylon Veterinary Journal 9: 94–98.

Paudel, S. & T. Tsubota (2016). Tuberculosis in elephants: a zoonotic disease at the human‐elephant interface. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 21(3): 65–69.

Project Elephant Division Goverment of India (2017). [online] http://www.moef.nic.in/division/project-elephant/

Seneviratna, P., S.G. Wttimuny & D. Senevirtna (1966).Fatal tuberculosis pneumonia in an elephant. Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinician 60: 129–132.

Samrook J., E.F. Fritsch & T. Maniatis (1989). Molecular cloning: alaboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York. Brazilian Journal of Biology 62(3): 387–408.