Main Article Content
Tuberculosis is a highly contagious zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium spp. A study was conducted to detect the presence of Mycobacterium in captive elephants. A total of 15 captive elephants were screened from various regions in Maharashtra. The blood and serum samples collected were subjected to rapid test kit, BacT/ALERT 3D system, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and PCR. All the samples were found seronegative using rapid test kit and whole blood PCR. Whereas, all samples were signalled culture positive in BacT/ALERT 3D system which were further subjected to PCR, only one amplicon was produced of 176bp of RD4 gene (Mycobacterium bovis) and no acid-fast organism was detected upon ZN. Due to the atypical nature of this organism, diagnosis of this disease in elephants using various tests is complicated unlike the diagnostic tests that are validated in domestic animals. Therefore, many tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity in elephants. As TB is a zoonotic disease, transmission can occur between human-livestock-elephants interface. Therefore, the zoos and state forest authority should inculcate a protocol of periodic TB screening for Mahouts and elephants in captivity along with protocol of elephant-visitor interaction, thus helping in conservation of this endangered species in India.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2718.104.22.16853-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Bapat, P.R., A.S. Satav, S.D. Shekhawat, S.D. Manke, A.A. Husain, A.R. Nayak, A.P. Kawle, L.R. Singh, H.F. Daginawala & R.S. Kashyap (2017a). Molecular diagnosis of zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis infection in Melghat, India. Journal of Zoonotic Diseases 2(2): 2–16.
Bapat, P.R., R.S. Dubey, S.D. Shekhawat, A.A. Husain, A.R. Nayak, A.P. Kawle, H.F. Daginawala, L.R. Singh & R.S. Kashyap (2017b). Prevalence of zoonotic tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Central Indian populations. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 7: 277–283.
Choudhury, L., D.K. Desai, A. Duckworth, J.W. Easa, P.S. Johnsingh, A.J.T. Fernando, P. Hedges, S. Gunawardena, M. Kurt, F. Karanth, U. Lister, A. Menon, V. Riddle, H. Rubel & A.E. Wikaranayake (2008). Elephas maximus. The ICUN Red List of Threatened Species [online] https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T7140A12828813.en [viewed 6 March 2019].
Hirsch, D.C., N.. MacLachian & R.L. Walker (eds.) (2004). Veterinary Microbiology. 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., USA, 223pp.
Iyer, A.K. (1937). Veterinary science in India, Ancient and modern with special reference to tuberculosis. Agriculture Livestock India 7: 718–724.
Kathleen, A.A., E. Pleydell, M.C. Williams, E.P. Lane, J.F.C. Nyange & A.L. Michel (2002). Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an emerging disease of free-ranging wildlife. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(6): 598–601.
Mikota, S.K. (ed.) (2008). Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine - 6th Edition. Elsevier Saunders Inc., USA, 355pp.
Mc Gaughey C.A. (1961). Diseases of elephants - Part 3. Ceylon Veterinary Journal 9: 94–98.
Paudel, S. & T. Tsubota (2016). Tuberculosis in elephants: a zoonotic disease at the human‐elephant interface. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 21(3): 65–69.
Project Elephant Division Goverment of India (2017). [online] http://www.moef.nic.in/division/project-elephant/
Seneviratna, P., S.G. Wttimuny & D. Senevirtna (1966).Fatal tuberculosis pneumonia in an elephant. Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinician 60: 129–132.
Samrook J., E.F. Fritsch & T. Maniatis (1989). Molecular cloning: alaboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York. Brazilian Journal of Biology 62(3): 387–408.