Flowering plants of Agumbe region, central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India

Main Article Content

G.S. Adithya Rao
Y.L. Krishnamurthy


Agumbe, the Cherrapunji of southern India, is a bastion of rich endemic flora.  In the present study of random sampling, a total of 570 species of flowering plants were collected belonging to 370 genera and 105 families, including a few endemic and Red Listed medicinal plants such as Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Roxb., Dipterocarpus indicus Bedd., Dysoxylum malabaricum Bedd. ex C.DC., Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb., Hopea canarensis Hole, Calophyllum apetalum Willd., Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) W.J.de Wilde, and Myristica dactyloides Gaertn.  Family Leguminosae contributes the maximum number of species (47 species) followed by Rubiaceae (32 species) and Asteraceae (27 species) and Genera Ficus (9 species), Diospyros (8 species) and Syzygium (7 species) are the dominant genera. Trees (185 species) are the dominant species followed by herbs (162 species), climbers (117 species), shrubs (62 species), grasses and sedges (19 species), epiphytes (15 species) and parasites (10 species). 

Article Details

How to Cite
Rao, G.A. and Krishnamurthy, Y. 2021. Flowering plants of Agumbe region, central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 13, 7 (Jun. 2021), 18853–18867. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4761.13.7.18853-18867.


Bhat, K.G. (2014­). Flora of South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts of Karnataka). Taxonomy Research Centre, Department of Botany, Poorna Prajna College, Udupi.

Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Government of India Press, New Delhi.

Cochran, W. (1977). Sampling Techniques, 3rd Edition. Wiley, New York.

Denslow, J.S. (1987). Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18: 431.

Gadgil, M. (1996). Western Ghats: a lifescape. Journal of the Indian Institute of Sciences. 76: 495–504.

Gamble. J.S. (1998). Flora of the Presidency of Madras. The Authority of the Secretary of State for India in Council. Vol. 1, 2 and 3.

IUCN (2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. accessed at http:// www.iucnredlist.org.

Mittermeier, R.A., W.R. Turner, F.W. Larsen, T.M. Brooks & C. Gascon (2011). Global biodiversity conservation: the critical role of hot spots. In: Zachos, F.E. & J.C. Habel (eds.). Biodiversity Hot Spots: Distribution and Protection of Conservation Priority Areas. Springer, Heidelberg.

Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. Fonseca & J. Kent (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.

Nayar, M.P. (1980). Endesim and patterns of distribution of endemic genera. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 1: 99–110.

Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry (1990). Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Vol. 1-3. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Nayar, M.P. (1996). Hot Spots of Endemic Plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. TBGRI, Thiruvananthapuram, 252pp.

Nayar, T.S., A.R. Beegam & M. Sibi (2014a). Flowering Plants of the Western Ghats, India - Volume 1 Dicots. Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 934pp.

Nayar, T.S., A.R. Beegam & M. Sibi (2014b). Flowering Plants of the Western Ghats, India - Volume 2 Monocots. Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 935–1683pp.

Padaki, A. & N. Parthasarathy (2000). Abundance and distribution of lianas in tropical lowland evergreen forest of Agumbe, central Western Ghats, India. Tropical Ecology 41(2): 143–154.

Pascal, J. (1988). Wet Evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India-Ecology, Structure, Floristic composition, and Succession. Sri Aurobindo Ashram press. Pondicherry, 345pp.

Prabh, N. (2011). Hulikal in Shimoga district is wettest in State. The Hindu, November 08, 2011.

Punekar, A.S. & P. Lakshminarasimhan (2011). Flora of Anshi National Park, Western Ghats – Karnataka. Biospheres Publication, Lakshmi Nagar, Parvati, Pune, Maharashtra, India, 772pp.

Ramaswam, S.N. Rao & G.D. Arekal (2001). Flora of Shimoga District. Prasaranga, University of Mysore, Mysore, 719pp.

Rao, K.S., A.N. Sringeswara, D. Kumar, S. Pulla & R. Sukumar (2012). Digital herbarium for flora of Karnataka. Current Science 102(9): 1268–1271.

Saldanha, C.J. & D. Nicholson (1976). Flora of Hassan District, Karnataka, India. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.

Saldanha, C.J. (1984). Flora of Karnataka, Vol. 1 & 2. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi.

Shetty, B.V., K.M. Kaveriappa & K.G. Bhat (2002). Plant Resources of Western Ghats and Lowlands of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts. Pilikula Nisarga Dhama Society, Moodushedde, Mangalore.

Shigwan, B. K., Kulkarni, A., Vijayan, S., Choudhary, R. K., & M. N. Datar (2020). An assessment of the local endemism of flowering plants in the northern Western Ghats and Konkan regions of India: checklist, habitat characteristics, distribution, and conservation. Phytotaxa 440(1): 25–54.

Singh, P., Karthigeyan, K., Lakshminarasimhan, P. & S.S. Dash (2015). Endemic vascular plants of India. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, 399pp.

Srinivas, V. & N. Parthasarathy (2000). Comparative Analysis of Tree diversity and Dispersion in the Tropical Lowland Evergreen forest of Agumbe, Central Western Ghats. Tropical Biodiversity 7(1): 45–60.

Sundararaghavan, R. (1970). The Flora of Agumbe and Tirthahalli areas in Shimoga District, Mysore State (Doctoral dissertation, PhD Thesis. Madras University, Madras. (Unpublished)

Sundararaghavan, R. (1981). “Notes on Vegetation and Flora of Agumbe.” Nelumbo 23.(1-2): 82–89.

The Plant List. (2013). Version 1.1. (http://www.theplantlist.org/)

Udaya, P. S. (2003). Floristic Inventory in the Seven Medicinal Plants Conservation Areas (MPCAs) of Karnataka, India. Ph.D Thesis, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

UNESCO (2011). Decisions adopted by the world heritage committee at its 35th session. 7 July 2011.

Yoganarasimhan, S.N., K. Subramanyan & B.A. Razi (1982). Flora of Chikmagalore District, Karnataka, India. International Book Distributors, Dehradun.