Main Article Content
The diet of leopards occupying human-dominated and protected areas (PAs) in Goa, India was analyzed through scat analysis. A total of 117 scats, 55 from wildlife sanctuaries/ national parks and 62 from human-dominated areas were collected and analyzed. Analysis of 55 scats from protected forest revealed the presence of only wild prey in the leopard diet, whereas 61% of scats collected from human-dominated areas consisted of only wild prey, 29% of domesticated animals, and 10% a mixture of both wild prey & domesticated animals. Of the prey biomass consumed in human-dominated areas, domestic animals constituted only 33% of the leopard diet. Among all leopard scats, 71% contained only one prey species, 28% contained two species, and 1% contained three.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Ackerman, B.B., F.G. Lindzey, & T.P. Hemker (1984). Cougar food habits in southern Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management 48: 147–155. https://doi.org/10.2307/3808462
Ahmed, K. & J.A. Khan (2008). Food habits of Leopard in tropical moist deciduous forest of Dudhwa National Park, Uttar Pradesh, India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science 34: 141–147.
Akrim, F., T. Mahmood, T. Max, M.S. Nadeem, S. Qasim & S. Andleeb (2018). Assessment of bias in morphological identification of carnivore scats confirmed with molecular scatology in north-eastern Himalayan region of Pakistan. PeerJ. 6: e5262. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5262
Andheria, A.P., K.U. Karanth & N.S. Kumar (2007). Diet and prey profiles of three sympatric large carnivores in Bandipur Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of Zoology 273: 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00310.x
Athreya, V.R., S.S. Thakur, S. Chaudhari & A.V. Belsare (2007). Leopards in human dominated areas: a spillover from sustained translocations into nearby forests. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 104: 13–18.
Athreya, V., M. Odden, J.D.C., Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy, & K.U. Karanth (2013). Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India. PLoS ONE 8(3): e57872. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057872
Athreya, V., M. Odden, J.D.C., Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy, & K.U. Karanth (2014). A cat among the dogs: Leopard Panthera pardus diet in a human-dominated landscape in western Maharashtra, India. Oryx 50: 156–162. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605314000106
Bagchi, S.P., P. Goyal & K. Sankar (2003). Prey abundance and prey selection by tigers (Panthera tigris) in a semi-arid, dry deciduous forest in western India. Journal of Zoology 260: 285–290. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903003765
Daniel, J.C. (1996). The Leopard in India: A Natural History. Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun, 228pp.
Edgaonkar, A. & R. Chellam (2002). Food habits of the Leopard, Panthera pardus, in the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra, India. Mammalia 2002: 353–360. https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.2002.66.3.353
Harihar, A. (2005). Population, food habits and prey densities of tiger in Chilla Range, Rajaji National Park, Uttaranchal, India. M.Sc. Thesis, Saurashtra University, Gujarat.
Henschel, P., K.A. Abernathy & L.J.T. White (2005). Leopard food habits in the Lope´ National Park, Gabon, Central Africa. African Journal of Ecology 43: 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2004.00518.x
Holland, K.K., L.R. Larson & R.B. Powell (2018). Characterizing conflict between humans and big cats Panthera spp: A systematic review of research trends and management opportunities. PLoS ONE 13(9): e0203877. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203877
Jadhav, S. & S.K. Pati (2012). Fauna of the protected areas of Goa. Special Publication Series on the occasion of CBD CoP-11, 2012-India. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 16pp.
Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1992). Prey selection in three sympatric carnivores in Bandipur. Mammalia 56: 517–526. https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.19184.108.40.2067
Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1983). Large mammalian prey--predators in Bandipur. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 80: 1–57.
Karanth, K.U. & M.E. Sunquist (1995). Prey selection by Tiger, Leopard and Dhole in tropical forests. Journal of Animal Ecology 64: 439–450.
Karanth, K.U., J.D. Nichols, N.S. Kumar, W.A. Link, & E.J. Hines (2004). Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 4854–4858. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0306210101
Khorozyan, I.G., A.G. Malkhasyan & A.V. Abramov (2008). Presence–absence surveys of prey and their use in predicting Leopard (Panthera pardus) densities: a case study from Armenia. Integrative Zoology 3: 322–332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-4877.2008.00111.x
Kshettry A., S. Vaidyanathan & V. Athreya (2018). Diet Selection of Leopards (Panthera pardus) in a human-use landscape in north-eastern India. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918764635
Laguardia, A., J. Wang, F. L. Shi, K. Shi & P. Riordan (2015). Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China. Zoological Research 36: 72–78. https://doi.org/10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2015.2.72
Lovari, S., C.P. Pokheral, S.R. Jnawali, L. Fusani, & F. Ferretti (2014). Coexistence of the tiger and the common leopard in a prey‐rich area: the role of prey partitioning. Journal of Zoology 295: 122-131. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12192
Mondal, K., K. Sankar & Q. Qureshi (2012). Factors influencing the distribution of Leopard in a semiarid landscape of western India. Acta Theriologica (Warsz) 58: 179–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-012-0109-6
Mukherjee, S., S.P. Goyal & R. Chellam (1994a). Refined technique for the analysis of Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica scats. Acta Theriologica 39: 425–430.
Mukherjee, S., S.P. Goyal & R. Chellam (1994b). Standardisation of scat analysis techniques for Leopard (Panthera pardus) in Gir National Park, Western India. Mammalia 58: 139–143. https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.19220.127.116.11
Mukherjee, S. & C. Mishra (2001). Predation by Leopard Panthera pardus in Majhatal Harsang Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Himalayas. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 98: 267–268.
Norton, P.M., A.B. Lawson, S.R. Henley & G. Avery (1986). Prey of Leopards in four mountainous areas of the South-Western Cape Province. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 16: 41–48.
Odden, M. & P. Wegge (2009). Kill rates and food consumption of Leopards in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Acta Theriologica 54: 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03193134
Rabinowitz, A. (1989). The density and behavior of large cats in dry tropical forest mosaic in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. National History Bulletin Siam Society 32: 225–251.
Ramakrishnan, U., R.G. Coss & N.W. Pelkey (1999). Tiger decline caused by the reduction of large ungulate prey: evidence from a study of Leopard diets in southern India. Biological Conservation 89: 113–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00159-1
Rostro-García, S., J.F. Kamler, R. Crouthers, K. Sopheak, S. Prum, V. In, C. Pin, A. Caragiulo, & D.W. Macdonald (2018). An adaptable but threatened big cat: density, diet and prey selection of the Indochinese Leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) in eastern Cambodia. Royal Society Open Science 5: e171187. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.171187
Sankar, K. & A.J.T. Johnsingh (2002). Food habits of tiger (Panthera tigris) and Leopard (Panthera pardus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India, as shown by scat analysis. Mammalia 66: 285–289.
Smith, J.L.D., C. McDougal & D. Miquelle (1989). Scent marking in free-ranging tigers, Panthera tigris. Animal Behaviour 37: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472(89)90001-8
Sunquist, M.E. (1981). The social organization of tigers (Panthera tigris) in Royal Chitwan National Park. Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology 336: 1–98. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.336
Sunquist, M.E. & F.C. Sunquist (1989). Ecological constraints on predation by large felids, pp. 283-301. In: Gittleman, J.L. (ed.), Carnivore Behavior, Ecology and Evolution. Chapman and Hall, London, 620pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-4716-4_11
Vijayan, S. & B.P. Pati (2002). Impact of changing cropping patterns on man-animal conflicts around Gir protected area with specific reference to Talala sub-district, Gujarat, India. Population and Environment 23: 541–559. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016317819552