Introduction to a four-year biodiversity survey of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, in the footsteps of pioneering naturalists in western Yunnan, China

Main Article Content

Bosco Pui Lok Chan
Zeng Bi
Shao-Zhong Duan

Abstract

The Gaoligongshan Mountains in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, is one of the biologically richest areas on Earth.  In 2014, we launched a four-year biodiversity survey in the Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve and its immediate vicinity, aiming to update the current diversity, distribution, and status of the mammals, birds, herpetofauna, freshwater fishes, and butterflies on which we have expertise.  Despite the intensity of earlier scientific explorations, our survey resulted in the discoveries of a new genus, a number of new species, genera and species new to China, Gaoligongshan, or Tengchong County, and updated the altitude limits for some species.  Species richness of mammalian and avian fauna, the two groups most susceptible to habitat loss and hunting, remains remarkably high, but past impacts of hunting and habitat degradation were in evidence.  Our results clearly illustrate the immense conservation value of this mountain range and the necessity for more in-depth, focused biodiversity field surveys.  This monograph summarizes our findings, and this chapter gives an overview of the geography, climate, vegetation, and ecology of Tengchong, a history of earlier and present biodiversity explorations, and conservation recommendations based on our findings.


 

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Chan, B.P.L., Bi, Z. and Duan, S.-Z. 2019. Introduction to a four-year biodiversity survey of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, in the footsteps of pioneering naturalists in western Yunnan, China. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11, 11 (Sep. 2019), 14391–14401. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4438.11.11.14391-14401.
Section
Communications

References

Allen, G.M. (1938). The Mammals of China and Mongolia, Part 1. American Museum of Natural History, New York, 620pp.

Allen, G.M. (1940). The Mammals of China and Mongolia, Part 2. American Museum of Natural History, New York, xxvii+1350pp.

Anderson, J. (1871). On eight new species of birds from western Yunnan, China. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871: 211–215.

Anderson, J. (1876). Mandalay to Momien: A Narrative of the Two Expeditions to western China of 1868 and 1875, under Colonel Edward B. Sladen and Colonel Horace Browne. MacMillan & Co., London, 479pp.

Anderson, J. (1878). Anatomical and Zoological Researches: Comprising an Account of the Zoological Results of the Two Expeditions to western Yunnan in 1868 and 1875; and a Monograph of the Two Cetacean Genera, Platanista and Orcella, 2 Vols. B. Quaritch, London. 2 Vols., xxv-l-985pp., xi-I-84pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.50434 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.50434

BirdLife International (2018). World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. Developed by the Key Biodiversity Areas Partnership: BirdLife International, IUCN, Amphibian Survival Alliance, Conservation International, Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, Global Environment Facility, Global Wildlife Conservation, NatureServe, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, World Wildlife Fund and Wildlife Conservation Society. Available online at http://www.keybiodiversityareas.org. Downloaded on 12 April 2018.

Boufford, D.E. (2014). Biodiversity hotspot: China’s Hengduan Mountains. Arnoldia 72: 24–35.

Chan, P.L.B. & Z. Bi (eds.) (2016). Biodiversity of Tengchong, Gaoligongshan. Kadoorie Conservation China, Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden, Hong Kong, 443pp.

Chan, P.L.B., C.F. Mak, J.H. Yang & X.Y. Huang (2017). Population, distribution, vocalization and conservation of the Gaoligong Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock tianxing) in the Tengchong Section of the Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, China. Primate Conservation 31: 107–113.

Chaplin, G. (2005). Physical geography of the Gaoligong Shan area of southwest China in relation to biodiversity. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 56(28): 527–556.

Chen, X.Y. (2013). Checklist of Fishes of Yunnan. Zoological Research 34(4): 281−343 [in Chinese with English abstract].

Chen, X.Y., W.J. Poly, D. Catania & W.S. Jiang (2017). A new species of sisorid catfish of the genus Exostoma from the Salween drainage, Yunnan, China. Zoological Research 38(5): 291–299.

Chettri, N., E. Sharma, B. Shakya, R. Thapa, B. Bajracharya, K. Uddin, K.P. Oli & D. Choudhury (2010). Biodiversity in the eastern Himalayas: Status, Trends and Vulnerability to Climate Change; Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability in the eastern Himalayas. Technical Report 2. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, 23pp.

Dumbacher, J.P., J. Miller, M.E. Flannery & X.J. Yang (2011). Avifauna of the Gaoligong Shan Mountains of western China: a hotspot of avian species diversity. Ornithological Monographs 70(1): 30–63.

Fan, P.F., K. He, X. Chen, A. Ortiz, B. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y.Q. Li, H.B. Zhang, C. Kimock, W.Z. Wang, C.P. Groves, S.T. Turvey, C. Roos, K.M. Helgen & X.L. Jiang (2017). Description of a new species of Hoolock Gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) based on integrative taxonomy. American Journal of Primatology 79(5): e22631.

Fritsch, P.W., L. Lu, H. Wang & D.Z. Li (2015). New species, taxonomic renovations, and typifications in Gaultheria series Trichophyllae (Ericaceae). Phytotaxa 201(1): 1–26.

Hoffmann, R.S. (2001). The southern boundary of the Palearctic realm in China and adjacent countries. Acta Zoologica Sinica 47(2): 121–131.

Lan, D.Y. & R. Dunbar (2000). Bird and mammal conservation in Gaoligong Shan Region and Jingdong County, Yunnan, China: patterns of species richness and nature reserves. Oryx 34(4): 275–286.

Lei, F., Y. Qu, G. Song, P. Alstrom & J. Fjeldså (2015). The potential drivers in forming avian biodiversity hotspots in the east Himalaya mountains of southwest China. Integrative Zoology 10: 171–181.

Li, H., D.M. He, B. Bartholomew & C.L. Long (1999). Re-examination of the biological effect of plate movement -- impact of Shan-Malay plate displacement (the movement of Burma-Malaya Geoblock) on the biota of the Gaoligong Mountains. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 21(4): 407–425.

Li, H., H. Guo & Z. Bao (2000). Flora of Gaoligong Mountains. Science Press, Beijing, China, 1344pp.

Li, F., X-Y. Huang, X-C. Zhang, X-X Z, J-h Y & B.P.L. Chan (2019). Mammals of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(11): 14402–14414. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4439.11.11.14402-14414 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4439.11.11.14402-14414

Liang, D., G. Gao, B. Wang, X.W. Wang, Y.X. Chan, X.R. Wu, C. Zhao, D.M. Jiang, L.X. Han & X. Luo (2015). The diversity and vertical distribution of the birds in middle Gaoligong Mountain, Yunnan. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 34(6): 930–940 [in Chinese with English abstract].

Liu, J.L. (2014). Biogeography of Seed Plants of the Southern Gaoligong Mountains. Yunnan University Press, Kunming, 391pp.

Liu, Y., J.H. Hu, S.H. Li, P. Duchen, D. Wegmann & M. Schweizer (2016). Sino-Himalayan mountains act as cradles of diversity and immigration centres in the diversification of parrotbills (Paradoxornithidae). Journal of Biogeography 43(8): 1488–1501.

Lo, Y.F.P. & Z. Bi (2019). A preliminary report on butterfly fauna (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, China. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(11): 14452–14470. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4443.11.11.14452-14470 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4443.11.11.14452-14470

Long, D. (2008). Bryophytes abroad: the Gaoligong Shan mountains of the Sino-Burmese border. Field Bryology 96: 28–38.

Long, Y., F. Momberg, J. Ma, Y. Wang, Y. Luo, H. Li, G. Yang & M. Li (2012). Rhinopithecus strykeri found in China. American Journal of Primatology 74(10): 871–873.

Ma, C., Z.P. Huang, X.F. Zhao, L.X. Zhang, W.M. Sun, M.B. Scott, X.W. Wang, L.W. Cui & W. Xiao (2014). Distribution and conservation status of Rhinopithecus strykeri in China. Primates 55: 377–382.

Ma, Y.P., Z.K. Wu, R.J. Xue, X.L. Tian, L.M. Gao & W.B. Sun (2013). A new species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) from the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan, China, supported by morphological and DNA barcoding data. Phytotaxa 114(1): 42–50.

Maspero, I. (2004). George Forrest, life and legacy of a plant hunter. The Botanics 16: 4–7.

Mittermeier, R.A., W.R. Turner, F.W. Larsen, T.M. Brooks & C. Gascon (2011). Global biodiversity conservation: the critical role of hotspots, pp3–22. In: Zachos, F.E. & J.C. Habel (eds). Biodiversity Hotspots: Distribution and Protection of Conservation Priority Areas. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 546pp.

Peng, Y., T. Wei, L. Yang & G. Liu (1980). Investigation Reports on Vertebrates in Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan Province, Vol. 2: Birds. Sciences Press, Beijing, 304pp [in Chinese].

Ríos-Saldana, C.A., M. Delibes-Mateos & C.C. Ferreira (2018). Are fieldwork studies being relegated to second place in conservation science? Global Ecology and Conservation 14: e00389. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2018.e00389

Rothschild, L.W. (1923). On a second collection sent by Mr. George Forrest from N.W. Yunnan. Novitates Zoologicae 30: 33–58.

Stotz, D.F., E.J. Harris, D.K. Moskovits, K. Hao, S. Yi & G.W. Adelmann (eds.) (2003). China: Yunnan, Southern Gaoligongshan. Rapid Biological Inventories, No. 4. The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, 144pp.

Tan, W.S., N. bin A. Hamzah, S. Saaban, N.A. Zawakhir, Y. Rao, N. Jamaluddin, F. Cheong, N. binti Khalid, N. Iadiah M. Saat, E.N. binti Z. Ee, A bin Hamdan, M.M. Chow, C.P. Low, M. Voon, S.H. Liang, M. Tyson & M.T. Gumal (2018). Observations of occurrence and daily activity patterns of ungulates in the Endau Rompin Landscape, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(2): 11245–11253. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3519.10.2.11245-11253 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3519.10.2.11245-11253

Tang, C.Z. (ed.) (1996). Birds of the Hengduan Mountains Region. Science Press, Beijing, 546pp [in Chinese].

UNESCO (2003). Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas (Paragraph 27, Communique 8C.4). World Heritage. UNESCO, Paris. Accessed on 1 July 2018. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1083/documents/.

UNESCO (2017). World Network of Biosphere Reserves. UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. Accesssed on 1 July 2018. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/ecological-sciences/

Wang, Z.H., A.P. Chen, S.L. Piao & J.Y. Fang (2004). Pattern of species richness along an altitudinal gradient on Gaoligong Mountains, southwest China. Biodiversity Science 12(1): 82–88 [in Chinese with English abstract].

Wen, J., R. Foster, J.L. Qin, S.L. Meng, L.L. Deng & X.C. Shi (2003). Vegetation and flora, pp69–72. In: Stotz, D.F., E.J. Harris, D.K. Moskovits, K. Hao, S. Yi & G.W. Adelmann (eds.) (2003). China: Yunnan, southern Gaoligongshan. Rapid Biological Inventories Report No. 4. The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, 144pp. Accessed on 1 July 2018. http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/rbi/pdfs/china04/chi04EntireEng.pdf.

Wu, Y., R.K. Colwell, C. Rahbek, C.L. Zhang, Q. Quan, C.K. Wang & F.M. Lei (2013). Explaining the species richness of birds along a subtropical elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains. Journal of Biogeography 40: 2310–2323.

Wu, Y.J., R.K. Colwell, N.J. Han, R.Y Zhang, W.J. Wang, Q. Quan, C.L. Zhang, G. Song, Y.H. Qu & F.M. Lei (2014). Understanding historical and current patterns of species richness of babblers along a 5000m subtropical elevational gradient. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23: 167–1176.

Xiong, Q.H. & H.S. Ai (eds.) (2006). Biodiversity of the Gaoligong Mountain. Science Press, Beijing, 742pp [in Chinese].

Xue, J.R. (ed.) (1995). Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, 395pp [in Chinese].

Yang, J.H., Y.Y. Wang & B.P.L. Chan (2016a). A new species of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from the Gaoligongshan Mountain range, China. Zootaxa 4150(2): 133–148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4150.2.3

Yang, L. & X. Yang (2004). The Avifauna of Yunnan China, Vol. 2: Passeriformes. Yunnan Science & Technology Press, Kunming, China, 1056pp [in Chinese].

Yang, J.H., X.Y. Huang, J.F. Ye, S.P. Yang, X.C. Zhang & B.P.L. Chan (2019). A report on the herpetofauna of Tengchong section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, China. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(11): 14434–14451. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4437.11.11.14434-14451 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4437.11.11.14434-14451

Yang, L., X. Wen, L. Han, X. Yang, W. Shi & S. Wang (1995). The Avifauna of Yunnan China, Vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Yunnan Science & Technology Press, Kunming, China, 673pp [in Chinese].

Yang, M.L., W.S. Jiang, W.Y. Wang, X.F. Pan, D.P. Kong, F.H. Han, X.Y. Chen & J.X. Yang (2016b). Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the Irrawaddy River in China: changes, threats and conservation perspectives. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 417(9): 1–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2015042

Zhang, S.B., W.Y. Chen, J.L. Huang, Y.F. Bi & X.F. Yang (2015). Orchid species richness along elevational and environmental gradients in Yunnan, China. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0142621.

Zheng, X., F. Li, Z. Bi, X-C Zhang, J-GHan & B.P.L. Chan (2019). Current status of birds in Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, China. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(11): 14415–14433. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4440.11.11.14415-14433 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4440.11.11.14415-14433

Zhu, J.Q., H. Chiba & L.W. Wu (2016). Tsukiyamaia, a new genus of the tribe Baorini (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae). ZooKeys 555: 37–55.

Most read articles by the same author(s)