Contributions to the knowledge of moths of Bombycoidea Latreille, 1802 (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of Bhutan with new records

Main Article Content

Jatishwor Singh Irungbam
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3003-6624
Meenakshi Jatishwor Irungbam
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7092-4637

Abstract

An annotated checklist of the superfamily Bombycoidea (Lepidoptera) of Bhutan is given, including three taxa of the family Bombycidae, two of Brahmaeidae, four of Endromidae, 12 of Eupterotidae, 37 of Saturniidae, and 93 of Sphingidae.  Among these, 14 taxa are new records for the country: two Bombycidae (Penicillifera apicalis (Walker, 1862) and Trilocha varians (Moore, 1855)), two Endromidae (Mustilizans hepatica (Moore, 1879) and Comparmustilia sphingiformis (Moore, 1879)), three Saturniidae (Saturnia cidosa Moore, 1865, Loepa sikkima (Moore, [1866]), and Salassa thespis (Leech, 1890)), and seven Sphingidae (Rhodoprasina floralis (Butler, 1876), Amplypterus mansoni mansoni (Clark, 1924), Acosmerycoides harterti (Rothschild, 1895), Hippotion celerio (Linnaeus, 1758), Theretra tibetiana Vaglia & Haxaire, 2010, T. silhetensis silhetensis (Walker, 1856), and Cechenena helops helops (Walker, 1856)).


 

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Irungbam, J.S. and Irungbam, M.J. 2019. Contributions to the knowledge of moths of Bombycoidea Latreille, 1802 (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of Bhutan with new records. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11, 8 (Jun. 2019), 14022–14050. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4358.11.8.14022-14050.
Section
Reviews

References

Arora, G.S. & I.J. Gupta (1979). Taxonomic Studies on Some of the Indian Non-Mulberry Silkmoths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Saturniinae). Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India Vol. 16:1. The Controller of Publications, Civil Lines, Delhi, 1-63pp., i-xi plts.

Bell, T.R.D. & F.B. Scott (1937). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths, Vol. 5, Sphingidae. Taylor and Francis, London. i-xviii, 1-537pp., 15pls.

Brechlin, R. (1997). Saturnia (Rinaca) witti n. sp., eine neue Saturniide aus Nepal (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 17(4): 423–433 [in German] .

Brechlin, R. (2009a). An annotated checklist of the Saturniidae and Brahmaeidae (Lepidoptera) of the Kingdom of Bhutan. Entomo-Satsphingia 2(1): 47–55 [in German].

Brechlin, R. (2009b). Zwei neue Arten der Gattung Saturnia Schrank, 1802 (Subgenus Rinaca Walker, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Entomo-Satsphingia 2(2): 30–36 [in German].

Brechlin, R. (2009c). Drei neue arten der Gattung Salassa Moore, 1859 (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Salassinae). Entomo-Satsphingia 2(2): 43–49 [in German].

Brechlin, R. (2009d). Eine neue art der Gattung Cypoides Matsumura, 1921 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Entomo-Satsphingia 2(2): 57–59 [in German].

​Brechlin, R. (2010a). Neue taxa der Gattung Loepa Moore, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Entomo-Satsphingia 3(1): 22–33 [in German].

Brechlin, R. (2010b). Rhodoprasina koerferi n. sp., eine neue Sphingidae aus Bhutan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Entomo-Satsphingia 3(2): 23–26 [in German].

Brechlin, R. (2014a). Eine neue art der Gattung Dahira Moore, 1888 aus Bhutan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Entomo-Satsphingia 7(1): 44–47 [in German].

Brechlin, R. (2014b). Eine neue art der Gattung Ambulyx Westwood, 1847 aus Bhutan und NO-Indien (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Entomo-Satsphingia 7(2): 50–55 [in German].

Brechlin, R. (2014c). Ein neues taxon der Gattung Clanis Hübner, [1819] aus Bhutan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Entomo-Satsphingia 7(2): 66–68 [in German].

Brechlin, R. (2015). Drei neue arten der Gattung Sphinx Linnaeus, 1758 aus Vietnam, China und Bhutan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Entomo-Satsphingia 8(1): 16–19 [in German].

Chu, H.F. & L.Y. Wang (1996). Fauna Sinica Insecta V, Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Saturniidae, Thyrididae. Science Press, Beijing, 302pp [in Chinese].

d’Abrera, B. (1986 [1987]). Sphingidae Mundi: Hawk Moths of the World. E.W. Classey, Faringdon, Oxfordshire, 226pp.

Danner, F., U. Eitschberger & B. Surholt (1998). Die Schwärmer der westlichen Palaearktis. Bausteine zu einer revision (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Herbipoliana 4: 1–368 [in German].

Dierl, W. (1975). Ergebnisse der Bhutan-Expedition 1972 des Naturhistorischen Museums in Basel, einige familien der “bombycomorphen†Lepidoptera. Entomologica Basiliensia 1: 119–134 [in German].

Dudgeon, G.C. (1898a). A catalogue of the Heterocera of Sikkim and Bhutan, part 1. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 11(1): 239–251.

Dudgeon, G.C. (1898b). A catalogue of the Heterocera of Sikkim and Bhutan, part 2. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 11(2): 406–419.

Ebert, G. (1969). Afghanische Bombyces und Sphinges. 3. Sphingidae (Lepidoptera). Ergebnisse der 2. Deutschen Afghanistan-Expedition (1966) der Ländessammlungen für Naturkunde in Karlsruhe. Reichenbachia 12: 37–53 [in German].

Eichler, F. (1971). Celerio galii [sic] tibetanica ssp. n. sowie Bemerkungen zur Art (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Entomologische Abhandlungen und Berichte aus dem Staatlichen Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden 38: 315–324 [in German].

Eitschberger, U. & T. Melichar (2010). Die taxa der Gattung Daphnis Hübner, 1819, die Neugliederung der Unterarten von Daphnis hypothous (Cramer, 1780) mit neuer Unterartbeschreibung und der Neotypusdesignation von Sphinx hypothous Cramer, 1780 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). The European Entomologist 2(3–4): 49–91 [in German].

Eitschberger, U. & H.B. Nguyen (2012). Bildatlas aller Entwicklungsstadien von Callambulyx rubricosa (Walker, 1856) - vom Ei bis zur Puppe (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Atalanta 43(3/4): 447–481 [in German].

Gielis, C. & K. Wangdi (2017). A Field Guide to the Common Moths of Bhutan. National Biodiversity Centre (NBC), Thimphu, 100pp.

Gogoi, H., G. Borah, T. Habung & K. Wangsa (2014). A field survey of the silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in West Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh and threats to their population. Journal of Bioresources 1(1): 16–24.

Gupta, I.J. (2003). Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, pp147–158. In: State Fauna Series 9, Fauna of Sikkim (Part 4). Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, i-iv, 512pp.

Hampson, G.F. (1892). The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Myanmar. Moths I. Taylor & Francis, London, i-xxii, 1- 527pp.

Hampson, G.F. (1910). The Moths of India. Supplementary Paper in The Fauna of British India. Series IV. Part I. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 20(1): 83–125.

Haruta, T. (1992a). Sphingidae, 83–92pp. In: Haruta, T. (ed.). Moths of Nepal, Part 1. Tinea Vol. 13 (Supplement 2). The Japanese Heterocerists’ Society, Tokyo. i-xvii, 1-122pp., 1-32 plts.

Haruta, T. (1992b). Saturniidae, 93–94pp. In: Haruta, T. (ed.). Moths of Nepal, Part 1. Tinea Vol. 13 (Supplement 2). The Japanese Heterocerists’ Society, Tokyo. i-xvii, 1-122pp., 1-32 plts.

Haruta, T. (1994). Sphingidae, 154–158pp. In: Haruta, T. (ed.). Moths of Nepal, Part 3. Tinea Vol. 14 (Supplement 1). The Japanese Heterocerists’ Society, Tokyo. i-xvii, 1-171pp., 65-96 plts.

Haruta, T. (1995). Sphingidae. 89pp. In: Haruta, T. (ed.). Moths of Nepal, Part 4. Tinea Vol. 14 (Supplement 2). The Japanese Heterocerists’ Society, Tokyo, i-xviii, 1-206pp., 97-128 plts.

Haxaire, J., F. Gujjar & M. Saeed (2017). A preliminary list of the Sphingidae of Miandam, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, north Pakistan (Lepidoptera Sphingidae). The European Entomologist 9(1): 25–41.

Hogenes, W. & C.G. Treadaway (1998). The Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) of the Philippines. Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, Supplement 17: 17–132.

Holloway, J.D. (1987). The Moths of Borneo (Part 3): Lasiocampidae, Eupterotidae, Bombycidae, Brahmaeidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae. Southdene Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 20pls+199pp.

Inoue, H., R.D. Kennett & I.J. Kitching (1997). Moths of Thailand. Vol. 2 (Sphingidae). Brothers of St. Gabriel in Thailand, Bangkok, 149pp.

Irungbam, J.S. & I.J. Kitching (2014). A first record of Clanis hyperion Cadiou and Kitching, 1990 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in Bhutan, and a preliminary checklist of the hawkmoths of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(1): 5386–5388. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3399.5386-8

Irungbam, J.S., M.S. Chib & K. Wangdi (2016). Taxonomic review of the superfamily Pyraloidea in Bhutan (Lepidoptera). Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 9(3): 355–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2016.06.004

Irungbam, J.S., M.S. Chib & A.V. Solovyev (2017). Moths of the family Limacodidae Duponchel, 1845 (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) from Bhutan with six new generic and 12 new species records. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(2): 9795–9813. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.2443.9.2.9795-9813

Irungbam, J.S. & L. Norbu (2019). A new country record of Langia zenzeroides zenzeroides Moore, 1872 (Sphingidae: Smerinthinae) from Bhutan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 116: 22–24.

Ivshin, N., V. Krutov & D. Romanov (2018). Three new taxa of the genus Cechetra Zolotuhin & Ryabov, 2012 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) from south-east Asia with notes on other species of the genus. Zootaxa 4450(1): 1–25. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4450.1.1

Jamtsho, K. & J.S. Irungbam (2019). White-streaked Hawkmoth: report on the range extension of Clanidopsis exusta (Butler, 1875) from Bhutan. Bugs R All #170, In: Zoo’s Print 34(3): 19–23.

Kaleka, A.S., D. Singh & S. Saini (2017). Taxonomic status of genus Brahmaea Walker (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea: Brahmaeidae) from India. Journal of Entomology 14: 234–240. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2017.234.240

Kendrick, R.C. (2002). Moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of Hong Kong. PhD Dissertation. The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, xvi+660pp. http://hdl.handle.net/10722/31688

Kitching, I.J. (2018). Sphingidae Taxonomic Inventory. Available online at http://sphingidae.myspecies.info/. Accessed on 14 June 2018.

Kitching, I.J. & K. Spitzer (1995). An annotated checklist of the Sphingidae of Vietnam. Tinea 14: 171–195.

Kitching, I.J. & J.M. Cadiou (2000). Hawkmoths of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Revisionary Checklist. London & Ithaca (The Natural History Museum, Cornell University Press), viii+226 pp.

Kitching, I.J., R. Rougerie, A. Zwick, C. Hamilton, R. St Laurent, S. Naumann, L.B. Mejia & A. Kawahara (2018). A global checklist of the Bombycoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e22236. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.6.e22236

Kishida, Y. (1993). Bombycidae, 143–145pp. In: Haruta, T. (ed.). Moths of Nepal, Part 2. Tinea Vol. 13 (Supplement 2). The Japanese Heterocerists’ Society, Tokyo. i-xv, 1-160pp., 33-64 plts.

Kishida, Y. (1994a). Eupterotidae, 64–65pp. In: Haruta, T. (ed.). Moths of Nepal, Part 3. Tinea Vol. 14 (Supplement 1). The Japanese Heterocerists’ Society, Tokyo. i-xvii, 1-171pp., 65-96 plts.

Kishida, Y. (1994b). Bombycidae, 83pp. In: Haruta, T. (ed.). Moths of Nepal, Part 3. Tinea Vol. 14 (Supplement 1). The Japanese Heterocerists’ Society, Tokyo. i-xvii, 1-171pp., 65-96 plts.

Kishida, Y. (1998). Sphingidae, 40–42pp. In: Haruta, T. (ed.). Moths of Nepal, Part 4. Tinea Vol. 15 (Supplement 1). The Japanese Heterocerists’ Society, Tokyo. i-xviii, 1-206pp., 97-128 plts.

Mell, R. (1922). Beiträge zur Fauna sinica. Biologie und Systematik der südchinesischen Sphingiden, Vols. 1 and 2. R. Friedländer & Sohn, Berlin, xxii+177pp+331pp [in German].

Michener, C.D. (1949). Parallelisms in the evolution of Saturniid Moths. Evolution 3: 129–141. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1949.tb00012.x

Nakao, K. (2019). Digital Moths of Asia. Available online at http://www.jpmoth.org/~dmoth/Digital_Moths_of_Asia/Moths%20of%20Asia%20frame_new.html. Accessed on 27 March 2019.

Nardelli, U. (1986). About the preimaginal stages and the breeding of Caligula thibeta Westwood, 1853. [With an introduction by W. Nässig.] Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 7(1): 11–23.

Nässig, W.A. (1994a). On the preimaginal morphology of Saturnia (Rinaca) zuleika and S. (R.) thibeta and notes on the Salassinae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 15(3): 409–438.

Nässig, W.A. (1994b). Preliminary notes on Saturniidae and Brahmaeidae of Vietnam with description of new taxa (Lepidoptera). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 15(3): 339–358.

Nässig, W. A. (2002). The Saturniidae of Borneo. Available online at http://www.saturnia.de/Research/Sat-Borneo.html. Accessed on 19 March 2019.

Nässig, W. A. & C.G. Treadaway (1998). The Saturniidae (Lepidoptera) of the Philippines. Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo Supplement 17: 223–424.

Nässig, W.F. & R.G. Oberprieler (2007). The nomenclature of the family-group names of Eupterotidae (Bombycoidea). Nota Lepidopterologica 30(2): 315–327.

Nässig, W.F. & R.G. Oberprieler (2008). An annotated catalogue of the genera of Eupterotidae. Senckenbergiana Biologica 88(1): 53–80.

Naumann, S., W.A. Nässig & S. Löffler (2008). Notes on the identity of Loepa katinka diversiocellata Bryk, 1944 and description of a new species, with notes on preimaginal morphology and some taxonomic remarks on other species (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 29(3): 149–162.

Naumann, S. & W.A. Nässig (2010a). Revisional notes on the species-group of Saturnia grotei Moore, 1859 of the genus Saturnia Schrank, 1802 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 31(1/2): 31–62.

Naumann, S. & W.A. Nässig (2010b). Two species in Saturnia (Rinaca) zuleika Hope, 1843 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 31(3): 127–143.

Naumann, S. & S. Löffler (2012). Taxonomic notes on the group of Loepa miranda, 1: the subgroup of Loepa yunnana (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 33(2/3): 57–68.

Naumann, S. & S. Löffler (2013). Two new species of the genus Cricula Walker, 1855 from Myanmar and India, with synonymic notes (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 33 (4): 177–184.

Pathania, P.C., S. Sharma & A.K. Gill (2014). Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) from north-west Himalaya along with collection housed in National PAU Insect Museum, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Biological Forum 6(1): 120–127.

Paukstadt, U. & L.H. Paukstadt (2018). The Research Collection of Ulrich and Laela H. Paukstadt. Available online at http://www.wildsilkmoth-paukstadt.de. Accessed on 11 June 2018.

Peigler, R.S. & S. Naumann (2003). A revision of the Silkmoth Genus Samia. University of the Incarnate Word, Texas, San Antonio 227 + iv pp., 10 maps, 148 col. figs., 80 bw. figs.

Pinratana, A. & R.E. Lampe (1990). Moths of Thailand, Vol. 1: Saturniidae. Brothers of St. Gabriel in Thailand, Bangkok, 96pp.

Pittaway, A.R. (1993). The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books, Colchester, 240pp.

Pittaway, A.R. & I.J. Kitching (2019). Sphingidae of the Eastern Palaearctic (including Siberia, the Russian Far East, Mongolia, China, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula and Japan). Available online at http://tpittaway.tripod.com/china/china.htm. Accessed on 30 March 30 2019.

Pittaway, A.R. & I.J. Kitching (2000). Notes on selected species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) from China, Mongolia and the Korean Peninsula. Tinea 16(3): 170–211.

Racheli, L. (2008). Noteworthy records of saturniids from northern Myanmar with notes on the true identity of Loepa diversiocellata (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Fragmenta Entomologica, Roma 40(1): 157–166.

Rafi, M.A., A. Sultan, I.J. Kitching, A.R. Pittaway, M. Markhasiov, M.R. Khan & F. Naz (2014). The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Zootaxa 3794(3): 393–418.

ŘézáÄ, M. (2018). Notes on the taxonomy of the genus Rhodoprasina Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) with the description of a new species. The European Entomologist 10(1): 185–206.

Sanyal, A.K., K. Mallick, S. Khan, U. Bandyopadhyay, A. Mazumder, K. Bhattacharyya, P.C. Pathania, A. Raha, & K. Chandra (2018). Insecta: Lepidoptera (Moths), 651–726pp. In: Chandra, K., D. Gupta, K.C. Gopi, B. Tripathy & V. Kumar (eds.). Faunal Diversity of Indian Himalaya. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata. 1-872pp.

Schnitzler, H. & D. Stüning (2009). Description of a further new species of Dahira Moore, 1888: D. marisae sp. n. from Bhutan (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). The European Entomologist 1(3–4): 75–78.

Sigovini, M., E. Keppel, D. Tagliapietra & N. Isaac (2016). Open nomenclature in the biodiversity era. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7(10): 1217–1225. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12594

Tikader, A., K. Vijayan & S. Beera (2014). Cricula trifenestrata (Helfer) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) - a silk producing wild insect in India. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 24(1): 22-29.

Vaglia, T., J. Haxaire, I.J. Kitching & M. Liyous (2010). Contribution á la connaissance des Theretra Hübner, [1819], des complexes clotho (Drury, 1773), boisduvalii (Bugnion, 1839) et rhesus (Boisduval, 1875) d’Asie continentale et du Sud-est (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). The European Entomologist 3(1): 1–37 [in French].

Wangdi, S., K. Wangdi, Sherub, R. Wangdi, S. Drukpa, M. Harada, T. Aoki, S. Yamagchi, M. Saito, Y. Igarashi, Y. Watanabe & M. Yago (2012). Butterflies of Trashiyangtse Valley, eastern Bhutan (part 1). Butterflies (Teinopalpus). The Butterfly Society of Japan (Teinopalpus) 62: 16–28.

Wang, X., M. Wang, V.V. Zolotuhin, T. Hirowatari, S. Wu & Huang (2015). The fauna of the family Bombycidae sensu lato (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hainan Islands. Zootaxa 3989: 1–138. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3989.1.1

Witt, T.J. & N. Pugaev (2007). Salassa belinda sp. n., a new Nepalese Saturniidae species from the lola Westwood, 1847-group (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Entomofauna, Monographie 1: 1–11.

Yakovlev, R.V. & V.V. Doroshkin (2017). Hyles svetlana Shovkoon, 2010 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), new species for Mongolian fauna and new records of hawk-moths in western Mongolia. Russian Entomological Journal 26(3): 263–266.

Zolotuhin, V.V. (2018). Nomenclature and synonymic remarks on two species of Eupterotidae (Lepidoptera) described by Johan Christian Fabricius and notes on related species. Zootaxa 4471(2): 381–386. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4471.2.11

Zolotuhin, V.V. & T.J. Witt (2009). The Bombycidae of Vietnam. Entomofauna Supplement 16: 231–272.

Zwick, A. & C.G. Treadaway (2001). Notes on the hawkmoths of the Philippines (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N. F. 22 (3): 177–181.

Most read articles by the same author(s)