Distribution and morphometric measurements of Blanford’s Fox Vulpes cana (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Main Article Content

Abdulhadi Aloufi
Ehab Eid


A study on Blanford’s Fox was conducted from Tabuk Province, a poorly studied area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), from December 2015 until May 2016.  This study adds to our knowledge, where two survey methods were used, which are the live trapping and camera trapping methods.  Five specimens were captured alive, in addition to a dead specimen reported during the survey period.  Measurements of live, captured specimens were obtained and the skull of the dead specimen was measured.  The information provided will serve as a basis for future monitoring of Blanford’s Fox in Saudi Arabia, and it will provide the foundation for future research in the species’ range of occurrence in the Arabian Peninsula.  In addition, more attention shall be paid to establish a joint collaboration between scholars from Saudi Arabia and Jordan to assess the status of Blanford’s Fox along the sandstone escarpments Hisma plateau.

Article Details

How to Cite
Aloufi, A. and Eid, E. 2019. Distribution and morphometric measurements of Blanford’s Fox Vulpes cana (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11, 5 (Mar. 2019), 13557–13562. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4297.11.5.13557-13562.
Short Communications
Author Biography

Ehab Eid, Ehab Eid. P.O. Box 831051, Abdel Aziz El Thaalbi Street, Shmesani 11183, Amman, Jordan. 

The Royal Marine Conservation Society of Jordan (JREDS) and a Steering Committee member at the IUCN SSC


Abu Baker, M., K. Al-Omari, M. Qarqaz, Y. Khaled, M. Yousef & Z. Amr (2004). On the Current Status and Distribution of the Blanford’s fox, Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877, in Jordan (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae). Turkish Journal of Zoology 28: 1–6.

Al Jumaily, M.M. (1998). A review of the mammals of the Republic of Yemen. Fauna of Arabia 17: 477–502.

Al Jumaily, M.M., W.A.M. Al Rayl & M.M.A. Naji (2012). First record of Blanford’s Fox, Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877, for Yemen (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae). Zoology in the Middle East 57(1): 137–139. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2012.10648973

Al Safadi, M.M. (1990): The Carnivora of Yemen Arab Republic. Proceedings of the Egyptian Academy of Sciences 40: 129–138.

Al-Khalili, A.D. (1993). Ecological review and the distribution of Blanford’s Fox; Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae). Fauna of Saudi Arabia, 13: 390–396.

Aloufi, A. & E. Eid (2016). Zootherapy: A study from the Northwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Indian Journal of traditional knowledge 15(4): 561–569.

Amr, Z.S. (2000). Jordan Country Study on Biological Diversity: Mammals of Jordan. United Nations Environment Program, Amman.

Cunningham, P.L. & B. Howarth (2002). Notes on the distribution and diet of Blanfords fox, Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877 from the United Arab Emirates. Zoology in the Middle East 27: 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2002.10637937

Cunningham, P.L. & T. Wronski (2009). Blanford’s fox confirmed in the At-Tubaiq protected area (northern Saudi Arabia) and the Ibex reserve (Central Saudi Arabia). Canid News 75: 157–161

Disi, A.M. & A. Hatough-Bouran (1999). Biodiversity of the terrestrial vertebrate fauna of Petra (Jordan). Časopis Národního Muzea, Řada Přírodovědecká 168: 83–98.

Drew, C. (2003). A report on a preliminary ecological and environmental survey of Jebel Hafeet. Unpublished Internal Report, Environmental Agency - Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates

Eid, E., N. Boulad, T. Al Share, O. Abed & Y. Hageer (2013). Population density of the Blanford’s Fox; Vulpes cana in Jordan. Vertebrate Zoology 63(2): 241–245.

Eid, E., T. Al Share & O. Aabed (2015). Additional Knowledge on the Blanford’s Fox Vulpes cana from Jordan. Canids News 1478–2677.

Geffen, E., R. Hefner & P. Wright (2004). Blanford’s Fox Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877, pp194–198. In Sillero-Zubiri, C., M. Hoffmann & D.W. Macdonald (eds.). Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation: Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Geffen, E., R. Hefner, D.W. Macdonald & M. Ucko (1992). Diet and foraging behavior of Blanford’s Fox, Vulpes cana, in Israel. Journal of Mammalogy. 73: 395–402. https://doi.org/10.2307/1382074

Geffen, E., R. Hefner, D.W. Macdonald & M. Ucko (1993). Biotope and distribution of Blanford’s Fox. Oryx 27(2): 104–108. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605300020639

Harrison, D. & P.J. Bates (1989). Observations on two mammals species new to the Sultanate of Oman, Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877 (Carnivora: Canidae) and Nycteris thebaica Geoffroy, 1818 (Chiroptera: Nycteridae). Bonner Zoologische Beitraege. 40: 73–77.

Harrison, D. & P.J. Bates (1991). The Mammals of Arabia. Harrison Zoological Museum Publications. Kent, 354pp.

Hoffmann, M. & C. Sillero-Zubiri (2015). Vulpes cana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T23050A48075169. Downloaded on 28 June 2017. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T23050A48075169.en

Ilani, G. (1983). Blanfords fox, Vulpes cana, Blanford, 1877, a new species to Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology 32: 150.

Kingdon, J. (1990). Arabian Mammals: A Natural History. Academic Press, London, 279pp.

Llewellyn, O.A., M. Hall, A.G. Miller, T.M. AL-Abbasi, A.H. Al-Wetaid, R.J. Al-Harbi, K.F. Al-Shammari & A. AL-Farhan (2010). Important Plant Areas in the Arabian Peninsula: 1. Jabal Qaraqir. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 67: 37–56.

Llewellyn-Smith, R.E. (2000). A short note on Blanford’s Fox, Vulpes cana, in the Mountains of Ras al- Khaimah. Tribulus 10(1): 23–24.

Mallon, D. & K. Budd (eds.) (2011). Regional Red List Status of Carnivores in the Arabian Peninsula. Cambridge, UK and Gland Switzerland: IUCN, and Sharjah, UAE: Environment and Protected Areas Authority vi+49pp.

Mendelssohn, H., Y. Yom-Tov, G. Ilany & D. Meninger (1987). On the occurrence of Blanford’s Fox, Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877, in Israel and Sinai. Mammalia 51: 459-462.

Nader, I.A. (1990). Checklist of the Mammals of Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 11: 329–381.

Onar, V., O. Belli & R.P. Owen (2005). Morphometric examination of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from the Van-Yoncatepe necropolis in Eastern Anatolia. International Journal of Morphology 23(3): 253–260. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022005000300011

Qumsiyeh, M.B. (1996). Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press. Lubbock, 389pp.

Roberts, T.J. (1997). The Mammals of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, Karachi, 525pp.

Smith, M., K. Budd & C. Gross (2003). The Distribution of Blanford’s Fox (Vulpes cana: Blanford, 1877) in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Arid Environments 54: 55–60. https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.2001.0891

Spalton, A. & D. Willis (1999). The Status of the Arabian leopard in Oman: First results of the Arabian leopard Survey. In: Fisher, M., S.A. Ghazanfar & A. Spalton (eds.). The Natural History Museum of Oman. A Festschrisft for Michael Gallagher. Leiden, Netherland, 206pp.

Stuart, C. & T. Stuart (1995). First Record of Blanford’s Fox; Vulpes cana from south-eastern Arabian Peninsula with notes on the Canids of the Mountains of the United Arab Emirates. Unpublished Internal Report, Arabian Leopard Trust, Dubai.

Williams, J.B., A. Munoz-Garcia, S. Ostrowski & B. Tieleman (2004). A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 174(1): 29–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-003-0386-0