Main Article Content
Interactions between people and wildlife have both positive and negative aspects.Â Negative interactions, commonly termed human-wildlife conflict (HWC), have increased in recent decades due to a number of factors including difficulties in identifying and communicating the complexities of stakeholder values and positions over wildlife and its management.Â Here, we present the perceptions of two conservation organizations on the landscape of HWC involving the threatened Mauritius Fruit Bat Pteropus niger, Kerr 1792 in Mauritius, including damage to fruit crops and controversial government culls in 2015 and 2016.Â Participants identified 18 stakeholders in the conflict varying in importance and influence, examined where and how hostility is manifested, and delineated both perceived and real costs of the conflict.Â Additionally, 13 environmental and 17 social risk factors associated with the conflict were categorized, along with potential policy and management options for mitigation.Â We argue that initial in-house workshops are advantageous in understanding conservation conflicts before extending dialogue with other stakeholders.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Anthony, B.P., P. Scott & A. Antypas (2010). Sitting on the fence? Policies and practices in managing human-wildlife conflict in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Conservation & Society 8(3): 225â€“240.
Anthony, B.P. & L. Swemmer (2015). Co-defining program success: Identifying objectives and indicators for a livestock damage compensation scheme at Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal for Nature Conservation 26: 65â€“77.
Anthony, B.P. & A. Szabo (2011). Protected areas: conservation cornerstones or paradoxes? Insights from Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Africa and Southeastern Europe, pp. 255â€“282. In: LÃ³pez-Pujol, J. (ed.). The Importance of Biological Interactions in the Study of Biodiversity. InTech Publishers, Rijeka, Croatia, 402pp.
Aziz, S.A., K.J. Olival, S. Bumrungsri, G.C. Richards & P.A. Racey (2016). The conflict between Pteropodid bats and fruit growers: species, legislation and mitigation, pp. 377-426. In: Voigt, C.C. & T. Kingston (eds.). Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Springer, Heidelberg, iâ€“ix, 606pp.
Barua, M., Bhagwat, S.A. & S. Jadhav (2013). The hidden dimensions of human-wildlife conflict: Health impacts, opportunity and transaction costs. Biological Conservation 157: 309â€“316.
Baruch-Mordo, S., S.W. Breck, K.R. Wilson & J. Broderick (2009). A tool box half full: How social science can help solve human-wildlife conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14(3): 219â€“223.
Chapron, G., P. Kaczensky, J.D.C. Linnell, M. von Arx, D. Huber, H. AndrÃ©n & J.V. LÃ³pez-Bao (2014). Recovery of large carnivores in Europeâ€™s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346(6216): 1517â€“1519.
Chardonnet, P., B. Soto, H. Fritz, W. Crosmary, N. Drouet-Hoguet, P. Mesochina, M. Pellerin, D. Mallon, L. Bakker, H. Boulet & F. Lamarque (2010). Managing the Conflicts between People and Lion: Review and Insights from the Literature and Field Experience. Wildlife Management Working Paper 13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 66pp.
Clark, T.W., A.P. Curlee & R.P. Reading (1996). Crafting effective solutions to the large carnivore conservation problem. Conservation Biology 10(4): 940â€“948.
Dickman, A.J. (2010). Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human-wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation 13(5): 458â€“466.
Dickman, A., S. Marchini & M. Manfredo (2013). The human dimension in addressing conflict with large carnivores. Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2: 110â€“126.
FAO (2002). Methodological Guide for Designing and Implementing a Multimedia Communication Strategy. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 44pp.
Funtowicz, S.O., J. Martinez-Alier, G. Munda & J.R. Ravetz (1999). Information Tools for Environmental Policy under Conditions of Complexity. Environmental Issues Series No. 9, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 34pp.
Hansard (2016). Debate No. 08 of 2016, Tuesday 24 May 2016, Republic of Mauritius, Sixth National Assembly, First Session. http://mauritiusassembly.govmu.org/English/hansard/Documents/2016/hansard0816.pdf
Hansard (2017). Debate No. 23 of 2017, Tuesday 31 October 2017, Republic of Mauritius, Sixth National Assembly, First Session.
Hutson, A.M. & P.A. Racey (2013). Pteropus niger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T18743A22084054.Â http://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T18743A22084054.enÂ Downloaded onÂ 02 July 2018.
IBM Corp. (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Inskip, C. & A. Zimmermann (2009). Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43(1): 18â€“34.
International Finance Corporation (IFC) (2007). Stakeholder Engagement: A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets. IFC, Washington, DC, 201pp.
Kellert, S.R. (1993). The biological basis for human values of nature, pp. 42â€“72. In: Kellert, S.R. & E.O. Wilson (eds.). The Biophilia Hypothesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, 496pp.
Kingston, T., V. Florens, R. Oleksy, K. Ruhomaun & V. Tatayah (2018). Pteropus niger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T18743A86475525. Downloaded on 07 July 2018.
Knight, J. (ed.) (2000). Natural Enemies: People-wildlife Conflicts in Anthropological Perspective. Routledge, New York, 254pp.
KovÃ¡cs, E., V. FabÃ³k, A. KalÃ³czkai & H.P. Hansen (2016). Towards understanding and resolving the conflict related to the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) conservation with participatory management planning. Land Use Policy 54: 158â€“168.
Kunz, T.H. (2003). Censusing bats: Challenges, solutions, and sampling biases, pp. 9â€“19. In: Oâ€™Shea, T.J. & M.A. Bogan (eds.). Monitoring Trends in Bat Populations of the United States and Territories: Problems and Prospects. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Information and Technology Report, USGS/BRD/ITR--2003â€“0003, Springfield VA, 274pp.
Lasswell, H.D. (1971). A Pre-view of the Policy Sciences. Elsevier, New York, 173pp.
Madden, F. (2004). Creating coexistence between humans and wildlife: global perspectives on local efforts to address human-wildlife conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(4): 247â€“258.
Manfredo, M.J. (2008). Who Cares about Wildlife? Social Science Concepts for Exploring Human-Wildlife Relationships and Conservation Issues. Springer, New York, 228pp.
Manfredo, M.J. & A.A. Dayer (2004). Concepts for exploring the social aspects of human-wildlife conflict in a global context. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9: 1â€“20.
Messmer, T.A. (2000). The emergence of human-wildlife conflict management: turning challenges into opportunities. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 45: 97â€“102.
Morrison, K., R. Victurine & C. Mishra (2009). Lessons Learned, Opportunities and Innovations in Human Wildlife Conflict Compensation and Insurance Schemes. WCS TransLinks Program, Bronx, NY, 24pp.
MWF (2016). Fruit damage claims do not justify a cull of the Mauritius Fruit Bat. Statement issued 9 December 2016, Mauritian Wildlife Foundation http://www.mauritian-wildlife.org/application/index.php?tpid=30&tcid=81
Nyhus, P.J. (2016). Human-wildlife conflict and coexistence. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 41(1): 143â€“171.
Oleksy, R. (2015). The impact of the Mauritius Fruit Bat (Pteropus niger) on commercial fruit farms and possible mitigation measures. Report to The Rufford Foundation; http://www.rufford.org/projects/ryszard_oleksy
Redpath, S.M., J. Young, A. Evely, W.M. Adams, W.J. Sutherland, A.A. Whitehouse, R.A. Lambert, J.D.C. Linnell, A. Watt & R.J. GutiÃ©rrez (2013). Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28(2): 100â€“109; http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.021
Reed, M.S. (2008). Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation 141: 2417â€“2431.
Reed, M.R., A. Graves, N. Dandy, H. Posthumus, K. Hubacek, J. Morris, C. Prell, C.H. Quinn & L.C. Stringer (2009). Whoâ€™s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management. Journal of Environmental
Management 90(5): 1933â€“1949.
Stemler, S. (2001). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 7(17): 1â€“6; http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=17
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human Groups and Social Categories: Studies in Social Psychology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 384pp.
Treves, A., R.B. Wallace & S. White (2009). Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate humanâ€“wildlife conflicts. Conservation Biology 23(6): 1577â€“1587.
Vincenot, C.E., F.B.V. Florens & T. Kingston (2017). Can we protect island flying foxes? Science 355(6332): 1368â€“1370.
White, R.M., A. Fischer, K. Marshall, J.M.J. Travis, T.J. Webb, S. di Falco, Salvatore, S.M. Redpath, & R. van der Wal (2009). Developing an integrated conceptual framework to understand biodiversity conflicts. Land Use Policy 26(2): 242â€“253.
Woodroffe, R., S. Thirgood & A. Rabinowitz (eds.) (2005). People and Wildlife: Conflict or Co-existence (No. 9). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 497pp.
WWF (2015). Human Tiger Conflict Workshop Report. World Wide Fund for Nature, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 21pp.
Young, J.C., M. Marzano, R.M. White, D.L. McCracken, S.M. Redpath, D.N. Carss, C.P. Quine & A.D. Watt (2010). The emergence of biodiversity conflicts from biodiversity impacts: characteristics and management strategies. Biodiversity and
Conservation 19(14): 3973â€“3990.