Redescription of Leposternon octostegum (Duméril, 1851), with an identification key for Brazilian Leposternon species, remarks on meristic methodology, and a proposal for pholidosis nomenclature (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae)

Main Article Content

José Duarte de Barros-Filho
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4661-9349
Marco Antonio de Freitas
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7242-7984
Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3776-3752
Mariana Fiuza de Castro Loguercio
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2430-4979
Maria Celeste Costa Valverde
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0108-3322

Abstract

The amphisbaenian Leposternon octostegum (Duméril, 1851) is redescribed based on newly collected material from the state of Bahia, Brazil.  Species validity was confirmed, and comparisons made to other Leposternon species and to the scarce literature available on Leposternon octostegum taxonomy.  Aspects of meristic annuli methodology are reviewed, and nomenclatural adjustments for some scales are proposed.  To place this information in its taxonomic context, a species identification key for the Brazilian species of the genus Leposternon is provided.  The present redescription contributes to a better understanding of Amphisbaenia taxonomy, thus also enabling the design of more adequate conservation and management strategies for the species belonging to this group.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Barros-Filho, J.D. de, Freitas, M.A. de, Silva, T.F.S., Loguercio, M.F. de C. and Valverde, M.C.C. 2019. Redescription of Leposternon octostegum (Duméril, 1851), with an identification key for Brazilian Leposternon species, remarks on meristic methodology, and a proposal for pholidosis nomenclature (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11, 1 (Jan. 2019), 13058–13086. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3597.11.1.13058-13086.
Section
Articles
Author Biography

José Duarte de Barros-Filho, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara Gomes, Departamento de Zoologia, Laboratório de Zoologia de Vertebrados, Tetrapoda, PHLC, sl. 522a/515b, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã, CEP 20550-013. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Departamento de Zoologia, Laboratório de Zoologia de Vertebrados  researcher

References

Alexander, A.A. (1966). Taxonomy and variation of Blanus strauchi (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). Copeia 1966(2): 205–224.

Amaral, A. (1926). Novos gêneros e espécies de ophidios brasileiros.Archivos do Museu Nacional 26: 101–121.

Avila-Pires, T.C. (1995). Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische verhandelingen Leiden 299(20): 1–315.

Barbour, T. (1914). Some new reptiles. Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club 4: 95–98.

Barros-Filho, J.D. (2000). Osteologia craniana comparada de espécies do gênero Leposternon Wagler, 1824 (Reptilia, Amphisbaenia). PhD. Thesis. Instituto de Biociências, Universidade do Estado de São Paulo, 138+107pp.

Barros-Filho, J.D., M.A. Freitas, T.F.S. Silva, M.C.C. Valverde, M.F.C. Loguercio & D. Veríssimo (2013). On the distribution and habitat of Leposternon octostegum (Duméril, 1851) (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Wildlife Biology in Practice 9(1): 1–6; https://doi.org/10.2461/wbp.2013.9.2

Biology Online (2005). Chin. http: //www.biology–online.org/dictionary/Chin Electronic version accessed 19 June 2016.

Boulenger, G.A. (1885). Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Natural History), Vol. 2. Printed by order of the Trustees, London, 497pp.

Broadley, D.G. & S. Broadley (1997). A revision of the African genus Zygaspis Cope (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia). Syntarsus (4): 1–23.

Broadley, D.G. & C. Gans (1978). Southern forms of Chirindia (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 47(3): 29–51.

Broadley, D.G., C. Gans & J. Visser (1976). Studies on Amphisbaenians (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). 6. The genera Monopeltis and Dalophia in Southern Africa. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 157(3): 311–485.

Broadley, D.G. & J.G. Measey (2016). A new species of Zygaspis (Reptilia: Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from north–easten Mozambique. African Journal of Herpetology 65(2): 115–122; https://doi.org/10.1080/21564574.2016.1183717

Castro–Mello, C. (2003). Nova espécie de Bronia Gray, 1845 do estado do Tocantins, Brasil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 43(7): 139–143.

Cope, E.D. (1900).The Crocodilians, Lizards and Snakes of North America. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1294pp.

Costa, H.C. & R.S. Bérnils (2015). Répteis brasileiros: Lista de espécies. http://www.sbherpetologia.org.br/images/LISTAS/2015–03–Repteis.pdf Electronic version accessed 23 September 2015.

Costa, H.C., F.C. Resende, M. Teixeira Jr., F. Dal Vechio & C.A. Clemente (2015). A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 87: 891–901; https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201520140088

Doughty, P., L. Kealley, L.P. Shoo & J. Melville (2015). Revision of the Western Australian pebble-mimic dragon species–group (Tympanocryptis cephalus: Reptilia: Agamidae). Zootaxa 4039(1): 85–117; https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4039.1.3

Downs, F.L. (1967). Intrageneric relantionships among colubrid snakes of the genus Geophis Wagler. Miscellaeous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 131: 1–193.

Duméril, A.H.A. (1851). Catalogue Méthodique de la Collection des Reptiles du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Gide et Baudry, Paris, 224pp.

Duméril, A.M.C. & G. Bribon (1839). Érpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol.5. Roret, Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871pp.

Dunger, G.T. (1966). A new species of the colubrid genus Mehelya from Nigeria. American Museum Novitates 2268: 1–8.

Fernandes, D.S., F.L. Franco & R. Fernandes (2004). Systematic revision of the genus Lachesis Daudin, 1803 (Serpentes, Viperidae). Herpetologica 60(2): 245–260.

Franco, L.F., L.A.C. Cintra & T. Lema (2006). A new species of Calamodontophis Amaral, 1963 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae) from southern Brazil. South American Journal of Herpetology 1(3): 218–226.

Freitas, M.A., D.P.F. França & D. Veríssimo (2011). Distribution extension of Uracentron flaviceps (Guichenot, 1855) (Reptilia: Squamata): Second record for the state of Acre, Brazil. Check List 7(6): 823–824.

Freitas, M.A., D.P.F. França, R. Graboski, V. Uhlig & D. Veríssimo (2012a).Conservation status and notes on the ecology of Bothrops muriciensis Ferrarezzi & Freire, 2001 (Serpentes, Viperidae). North–Western Journal of Zoology 8(2): 338–343.

Freitas M.A., D. Veríssimo & V. Uhlig (2012b). Squamate reptiles of the central Chapada Diamantina, with a focus on the Municipality of Mucugê, State of Bahia, Brazil. Check List 8(1): 16–22.

Gans, C. (1960). Studies on amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). 1. A taxonomic revision of the Trogonophinae and a functional interpretation of the amphisbaenid adaptative pattern. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 119(3): 129–204.

Gans, C. (1965). Notes on Amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). 17. A redescription and discussion of Amphisbaena angustifrons Cope and Amphisbaena camura Cope of southern South America. American Museum Novitates 2225: 1–32.

Gans, C. (1966). Studies on amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). 3. The small species from southern South America commonly identified as Amphisbaena darwini. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 134: 185–260.

Gans, C. (1967). A checklist of recent amphisbaenians (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135(2): 63–105.

Gans, C. (1968). Relative success of divergent pathways in amphisbaenian specialization. American Naturalist 102(926): 345–362.

Gans, C. (1971a). Studies on amphisbaenians (Amphisbaenia: Reptilia). 4. A review of the amphisbaenid genus Leposternon. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 144(6): 379–464.

Gans, C. (1971b). Redescription of three monotypic genera of amphisbaenians from South America: Aulura Barbour, Bronia Gray, and Mesobaena Mertens. American Museum Novitates 2475: 1–32.

Gans, C. (1974). Biomechanics - an Approach to Vertebrate Biology. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 261pp.

Gans, C. (1977). The biological roles of taxonomic characteristics utilized in amphisbaenian classification. British Journal of Herpetology 5(8): 611–615.

Gans, C. (1978). The characteristics and affinities of the Amphisbaenia. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 34(4): 353–416.

Gans, C. (1987). Studies on Amphisbaenians (Reptilia). 7. The small round–headed species (Cynisca) from Western Africa. American Museum Novitates 2896: 1–84.

Gans, C. (2005). Checklist and bibliography of the Amphisbaenia of the world. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 289: 1–130. https://doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2005)289<0001: CABOTA>2.0.CO;2

Gans, C. & A.A. Alexander (1962). Studies on amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia) .2. On the amphisbaenids of the Antilles. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 128(3): 65–158.

Gans, C. & M. Kraklau (1989). Studies on Amphisbaenians (Reptilia). 8. Two genera of small species from East Africa (Geocalamus and Loveridgea). American Museum Novitates 2944: 1–28.

Gans, C. & R. Montero (2008). An Atlas of Amphisbaenian Skull Anatomy. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285130884_An_atlas_of_amphisbaenian_skull_anatomy Electronic version accessed 3 October 2015.

Gomes, J.O. & A.O. Maciel (2012). A new species of Amphisbaena Linnaeus (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the state of Maranhão, northern Brazilian Cerrado. Zootaxa 3572: 43–54.

Greathouse, E. (2012). Animal Anatomy. http: //ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=397254&site=ehost–live Electronic version accessed 16 June 2016.

Hoffstetter, R. & J.–P. Gasc (1969). Vertebrae and Ribs of Modern Reptiles, pp. 206–207, 209, 259–260, 271–280. In: Gans, C., A. A. Bellairs & T. Parsons (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 1. Academic Press, London, xv+373pp.

Höfling, E., A.M.S. Oliveira, M.T. Rodrigues, E. Trajano & P.L.B. Rocha (1995). Chordata: manual para um curso prático. Edusp, São Paulo, 239pp.

Hoogmoed, M.S. (1997). Rediscovery of a forgotten snake in an unexpected place and remarks on a small herpetological collection. Zoologische Mededelingen 71(9): 63–81.

Hoogmoed, M.S. & T. Mott (2003). On the identity of Amphisbaena hugoi Vanzolini, 1990 (Reptilia: Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 77: 455–457.

Hoskin, C.J. (2014). A new skink (Scincidae: Carlia) from the rainforest uplands of Cape Melville, north–east Australia. Zootaxa 3869(3): 224–236; https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3869.3.2

International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature (2012). Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 5th edition - revised edition. Editorial Committee, Hannover, 160pp.

Komárek, V. (2012). Gross anatomy, pp. 145–146. In: Hedrich, H. (ed.). The Laboratory Mouse. Academic Press, London, xvii+868pp.

Loveridge, A. (1941). Revision of the African lizards of the family Amphisbaenidae. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 87: 351–451.

Marques, O.A.V., M. Martins & I. Sazima (2002).A new insular species of pitviper from Brazil, with comments on evolutionary biology and conservation of the Bothrops jararaca group (Serpentes, Viperidae). Herpetologica 58: 303–312.

Medicalency (2014). Operative surgery. Chin area (region mentalis). http://medicalency.com/podborodochnaya–oblast.htm Electronic version accessed 19 June 2016.

Meneghel, M., S. Carreira & F. Achaval (2001).Clave para la Deterninación de los Reptiles del Uruguay. DI.R.A.C., Montevideo, 52pp.

Mott, T., M.T. Rodrigues, M.A. Freitas & T.F.S. Silva (2008). New species of Amphisbaena with a nonautotomic and dorsally tuberculate blunt tail from State of Bahia, Brazil (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae). Journal of Herpetology 42(1): 172–175.

Nicholson, K.E. & G. Köhler (2014). A new species of the genus Norops from Darién, Panama, with comments on N. sulcifrons (Cope 1899) (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3895(2): 225–237; https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3895.2.5

Nogueira, C. & M.T. Rodrigues (2006).The genus Stenocercus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in extra–Amazonian Brazil, with the description of two new species. South American Journal of Herpetology 1(3): 149–165; https://doi.org/10.2994/1808-9798(2006)1[149:TGSSTI]2.0.CO;2

Ota, H., A. Ito & J.T. Lin. (1999). Systematic Review of the Elapid snakes allied to Hemibungarus japonicas (Günther, 1868) in the east Asian islands, with description of a new subspecies from the Central Ryukyus. Journal of Herpetology 33(4): 675–687; https://doi.org/10.2307/1565585

Papenfuss, T.J. (1982). The ecology and systematics of the Amphisbaenian genus Bipes. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 136(1): 1–42.

Peracca, D.M.G. (1897). Intorno ad una nuova specie di ofidio di S. Paulo (Brasile). Bolletino dei Musei di Zoologia Ed Anatomia Comparata 12(282): 1–2.

Peters, W.C.H. (1879). Über die Amphisbaenen und eine zu denselben gehörige neue Art (Lepidosternon Wuchereri). Monatsbericht der königlichpreussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1879: 273–277.

Pinna, P.H., A.F. Mendonça, A. Bocchiglieri & D.S. Fernandes (2010). A new two-pored Amphisbaena Linnaeus from the endangered Brazilian Cerrado biome (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Zootaxa 2569: 44–54.

Pinna, P.H., A.F. Mendonça, A. Bocchiglieri & D.S. Fernandes (2014). A new species of Amphisbaena Linnaeus, 1758 from a Cerrado region in Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Herpetologica 70(3): 339–349; https://doi.org/10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-13-00039

Porto, M., M. Soares & U. Caramaschi (2000). A new species of Leposternon (Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil, with a key to the species of the genus (Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae). Boletim do Museu Nacional 412: 1–10.

Ribeiro, S.L. (2010). Revisão sistemática de Leposternon Wagler, 1824 (Squamata: Amphisbaenia). PhD. Thesis.Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, xxix+510pp.

Ribeiro, S.L., W. Vaz-Lima & A.P. Santos Jr. (2008). New pored Leposternon (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) from Brazilian Cerrado. Zootaxa 1930: 18–38.

Ribeiro, S., C. Castro-Mello & C. Nogueira (2009).New species of Anops Bell, 1833 (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) from Jalapão region in the Brazilian Cerrado. Journal of Herpetology 43(1): 21–28; https://doi.org/10.1670/07-299R1.1

Ribeiro, S., C. Nogueira, C.E.D. Cintra, N.J. Silva Jr. & H. Zaher (2011). Description of a new pored Leposternon (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. South American Journal of Herpetology 6(3): 177–188; https://doi.org/10.2994/057.006.0303

Ribeiro, S., A. Santos–Jr & H. Zaher (2015). A new species of Leposternon Wagler, 1824 (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) from northeastern Argentina. Zootaxa 4034(2): 309–324; https: //doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4034.2.4

Ribeiro, S., J.O. Gomes, H.L.R. Silva, C.E.D. Cintra, & N.J. Silva Jr. (2016). A new two-pored species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado, with a key to the two-pored species of Amphisbaena. Zootaxa 4147(2): 124–142; https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4147.2.2

Ribeiro, S., A.L. Silveira, & A.P. Santos Jr. (2018). A New Species of Leposternon (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from Brazilian Cerrado with a Key to Pored Species. Journal of Herpetology 52(1): 50–58; https://doi.org/10.1670/16-125

Roberto, I.J., L.B.M. Brito & R.W. Ãvila (2014). A new six-pored Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the coastal zone of northeast Brazil. Zootaxa 3753(2): 167–176; https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3753.2.6

Rocha, C.F.D., A.F.B. Araújo, D. Vrcibradic & E.M.M. Costa (2000). New Cnemidophorus (Squamata; Teiidae) from Coastal Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Copeia 2000(2): 501–509.

Rodrigues, M.T., H. Zaher & F. Curcio (2001). A new species of lizard, genus Calyptomatus, from the Caatingas of the State of Piauí, northeastern Brazil (Squamata, Gymnophtalmidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 41(28): 529–546.

Rodrigues, M.T., M.A. Freitas, T.F. Santos-Silva & C.E.V. Bertolotto. (2006). A new species of lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata, Leiosauridae) from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil, with a key to species. Phyllomedusa 5(1): 11–24.

Romer, A.S. (1956). Osteology of the Reptiles. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, xxi+772pp.

Sabaj-Pérez, M.H. (ed.) (2010). Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology: an Online Reference. Version 1.5. http://www.asih.org/ Electronic version accessed 3 March 2014.

Saiff, E.I. (1970). Geographical variation in the genus Zygaspis (Amphisbaenia: Reptilia). Herpetologica 26: 86–119.

Scrocchi, G.J. & F.B. Cruz (1993). Description of a new species of the genus Lystrophis Cope and a revalidation of Lystrophis pulcher (Jan, 1863) (Serpentes; Colubridae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 38(10): 171–186.

Shea, G.M. (2015). A new species of Anilios (Scolecophidia: Typhlopidae) from Central Australia. Zootaxa 4033(1): 103–116; https://doi.org/10.1655/Herpetologica-D-16-00007.1

Sindaco, R., P. Kornilios, R. Sacchi & P. Lymberakis. (2014). Taxonomic reassessment of Blanus strauchi (Bedriaga, 1884) (Squamata: Amphisbaenia: Blanidae), with the description of a new species from south east Anatolia (Turkey). Zootaxa 3795(3): 311–326; https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3795.3.6

Smith, H.M. (1946). Handbook of Lizards. Lizards of the United States and Canada. Comstok, New York, xxi+557pp.

Steindachner, F. (1867). Reptilien, pp. 53–54. In: Reise der Österrichen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857–1859, unter die Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf–Urbair. Zoologischer Theil Band 1, Wien, 98pp.

Strauch, A. (1881). Bemerkungenüber die Eidechsenfamilie der Amphisbaeniden. Mélanges Biologiques du Bulletin de l’Ãcademie Imperiále des Sciences Naturelles de Saint-Pétersbourg 11: 355–479.

Strüssmann, C. & T. Mott (2009). Sympatric amphisbaenids from Manso Dam region, Mato Grosso State, Western Brazil, with the description of a new two-pored species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 44(1): 37–46; https://doi.org/10.1080/01650520802628295

Teixeira, M. Jr., F. Dal Vechio, A. Mollo Neto & M.T. Rodrigues (2014). A new two–pored Amphisbaena Linnaeus, 1758, from western Amazonia, Brazil (Amphisbaenia: Reptilia). South American Journal of Herpetology 9(1): 62–74; https://doi.org/10.2994/SAJH-D-14-00004.1

Testut, L. & O. Jacob (1947). Tratado de Anatomía Topográfica con Aplicaciones Médicoquirúrgicas. 7ª edicion, Tomo 1. Salvat Editores, Barcelona, xii+932pp.

Thomas, R.A. & R. Fernandes (1996). The systematic status of Platynion lividum Amaral, 1923 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Xenodontinae). Herpetologica 52: 271–275.

Thomas, R. & B. Hedges. (2006). Two new species of Amphisbaena (Reptilia: Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from the Tiburon Peninsula of Haiti. Caribbean Journal of Science 42(2): 208–219.

Troncoso-Palacios, J., H.A. Díaz, G.I. Puas, E. Riveros-Riffo & A.A. Elorza (2016). Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae). ZooKeys 632: 121–146; https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.632.9528

Uetz, P. & J. Hošek (eds.) (2018). The Reptile Database. http: www.reptile-database.org Electronic version accessed 22 March 2018.

Vanzolini, P.E. (1950). Contribuições ao conhecimento dos lagartos brasileiros da família Amphisbaenidae Gray, 1825. 1. Sôbre uma nova subespécie insular de Amphisbaena darwinii D. & B., 1839. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 9(6): 69–78.

Vanzolini, P.E. (1951).Amphisbaena fuliginosa. Contributions to the knowledge of the Brasilian (sic) lizards of the family Amphisbaenidae Gray, 1825. 6. On the geographical distribution and differentiation of Amphisbaena fuliginosa Linné. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 106(1): 1–67.

Vanzolini, P.E. (1991). Two new small species of Amphisbaena from the fossil dune field of the Middle Rio São Francisco, State of Bahia, Brazil (Reptilia, Amphisbaenia). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 37(17): 259–276.

Vanzolini, P.E. (1999). On Anops (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 41(1): 1–37.

Vanzolini, P.E., L.J. Vitt & A.M.M. Ramos-Costa (1980). Répteis das Caatingas. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, 161pp.

Witte, G.F. & R. Laurent (1942). Contribution à la systématique des Amphisbaenidae du Congo Belge. Revue de Zoologia et de Botanique Aafricaines 36: 67–86.

Zaher, H. & U. Caramaschi (1992). Sur Le statut taxinomique d’Oxyrhopustrigeminus et O. guibei (Serpentes, Xenodontinae). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4e série 14: 805–827.