Forest ghost moth fauna of northeastern India (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae: Endoclita, Palpifer, and Hepialiscus)

Main Article Content

John R. Grehan
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3119-1140
Vijay Anand Ismavel
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2329-596X

Abstract

Taxonomic and biological information is reviewed for the forest Hepialidae of northeastern India, a poorly known group of moths in a region known for the global significance of its biodiversity.  The taxonomic and biological characteristics are described for genera known from the northeast - Endoclita, Palpifer, and Hepialiscus. A key is provided for distinguishing these genera and the genus Thitarodes known from nearby Bhutan, China, and Nepal, which is almost certainly present within the borders of India.  Taxonomic characteristics are described for 12 species from the northeast along with illustrations of the species and maps of their known distributions.  Information on species distributions is extremely fragmentary and it is considered very likely that most species have more extensive distributions than currently documented.  The northeastern Indian region represents a center of hepialid diversity comprising three principal distribution patterns: (i) local endemics, (ii) Himalayan, and (iii) northeastern.  Comparison of distribution records and major vegetation types indicate the absence of information on the hepialid fauna for much of the northeast region.  The principal challenge for future documentation and assessment of the hepialid fauna for this region, as with any other part of India, is the lack of modern descriptions of type specimens.  The inclusion of voucher collections of Hepialidae in future biodiversity surveys of northeastern India is to be strongly encouraged, particularly in the context of current and future environmental impacts affecting the sustainability of forest environments in the region. 

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Grehan, J.R. and Ismavel, V.A. 2017. Forest ghost moth fauna of northeastern India (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae: Endoclita, Palpifer, and Hepialiscus). Journal of Threatened Taxa. 9, 3 (Mar. 2017), 9940–9955. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3030.9.3.9940-9955.
Section
Communications
Author Biographies

John R. Grehan, Research Associate, Section of Invertebrate Zoology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 4400 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA

Retired researcher. Specialist on the biology and taxonomy of Hepialidae (see http://www.johngrehan.net/index.php/hepialidae/)

Vijay Anand Ismavel, Makunda Christian Hospital, Bazaricherra, Karimganj District, Assam 788727, India

Pediatric surgeon working in a remote rural mission hospital and interested in the documentation of biodiversity, especially in the Barak Valley of Assam bordering Mizoram, Tripura and Bangladesh. Founder of “Makunda Nature Clubâ€.  Observations recorded at http://www.inaturalist.org/observations/ivijayanand

References

Atkinson, D.J (1931). Insect damage to the timber of teak (Tectona grandis). Burma Forest Bulletin 26: 3–4.

Beeson, C.F.C. (1941). The Ecology and Control of the Forest Insects of India and the Neighbouring Countries. C.F.C. Beeson, Dehra Dun, 1007pp.

Biswas, S., I. Coutand, D. Grujic, C. Hager, D. Stöckli & B. Grasemann (2007). Exhumation and uplift of the Shillong plateau and its influence on the eastern Himalayas: New constraints from apatite and zircon (U-Th-[Sm])/He and apatite fission track analyses. Tectonics 26: 1–22; http://doi.org/10.1029/2007TC002125, 2007

Chandra, K. & S. Sambath (2013). Moth diversity of Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(1): 3565–3570; http://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2718.966

Chatterjee, S. (2008). Biodiversity conservation issues of northeastern India. International Forestry Review 10: 315­­–324; http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1505/ifor.10.2.315

Chatterjee, S., A. Saikia, P. Dutta, D. Ghosh, G. Pangging & A.K. Goswami (2006). Biodiversity Significance of northeastern India. Background Paper No. 13. WWF, India, 74pp.

Chu, H.F. & L.Y. Wang (1985). ‘Insect-herb’ versus hepialids with descriptions of new genera and new species of Chinese Hepialidae. Sinozoologia 3: 121–134.

Dhanarajan, G. (1976). Some observations on the teak collar ring borer - Endoclita gmelina (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) in northwestern Malaysia. The Malaysian Forester 39: 214–223.

Devasahayam, S., T. Premkumar & K.M. Abdulla (1987). Records of Sahyadrassus malabaricus (Moore) damaging Gliricidia maculata, a standard of black pepper Piper nigrum in Kerala. Entomonograph 12: 391–296.

Felder, C. & R. Felder (1874): Heft 4 (partim), Heterocera, Bombyces & Sphinges, plates 75–107. In: Felder, C., R. Felder & A.F. Rogenhofer (eds.) ([1864] 1865–1875). Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde. Zoologischer Theil, Zweiter Band, Zweite Abtheilung: Lepidoptera,

Atlas, Vienna (K.-k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei), pp. 1–9, 1–10, 1–20, pls. 1–140.

Forest Survey of India (2015). India State of Forest Report 2015. Forest Survey of India, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, 288pp.

Grehan, J.R. (1987). Evolution of arboreal tunneling by larvae of Aenetus (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 14: 441–462; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1987.10423019

Grehan, J.R. (1989). Larval feeding habits of the Hepialidae (Lepidoptera). Journal of Natural History 23: 803–824; http://doi.org/10.1080/00222938900770421

Grehan, J.R. (2011). Notes on the biogeography and phylogeny of eastern Asian ghost moths (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 40: 59–74.

Grehan, J.R. (2012). Morphological evidence for phylogenetic relationships within the Hepialidae (Lepidoptera: Exoporia). Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 42: 33–62.

Grehan, J.R. & C.G.C. Mielke (2016). New species of Endoclita C. & R. Felder, 1874 from Sumatra, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). The European Entomologist 8: 17–36.

Grehan, J.R. & C.G.C. Mielke (2017 in press). Morphology and taxonomy of Endoclita nr. malabaricus (Moore, 1879) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) from Kodaikanal, India. The European Entomologist 9: (1)

Grehan, J.R. & J.E. Rawlins (2016). A remarkable new genus and species of ghost moth from Peru (Lepidoptera: Exoporia: Hepialidae). Annals of Carnegie Museum 84: 47–57; http://dx.doi.org/10.2992/007.084.0106

Gurule, S.A. & S.M. Nikam (2013). The moths (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of northern Maharashtra: a preliminary checklist. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(12): 4693–4713; http://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2555.4693-713

Hampson, G.F. [1893] (1892). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths, Vol. 1. Taylor and Francis, London, 527pp.

Hampson, G.F. (1896). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths, Vol. 4. Taylor and Francis, London, 549pp.

Kalshoven, L.G.E. (1951). De Plagen van de Cultuurgewassen in Indonesie. Van Hoeve, Gravenhage, Netherlands/Bandoeng, Indonesia, 1065pp.

Kalshoven, L.G.E. (1965). Notes on some injurious Lepidoptera from Java. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 108: 73–93.

Lakadong, N.J. & S.K. Barik (2006). Diversity and distribution of endemic plant species of Meghalaya, India, pp. 274–311. In: Pandey H.N. & S.K. Barik (eds.). Ecology, Diversity and Conservation of Plants and Ecosystems in India. Regency Publications, New Delhi, 436pp.

Liang, J.J. & Lee, M.J. (2011). Status of Forest Trees Infested with Endoclita sinensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 26: 203–210.

Li, S.P., F.Q. Yang & K.W.K. Tsim (2006). Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 41: 1571–1584; http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2006.01.046

Lodh, R. & B.K. Agarwala (2015). Inventory of butterfly fauna (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) of Tripura, India, in the Indo-Myanmar biogeographical zone, with records of threatened taxa. Check List 11: 1–37; http://doi.org/10.15560/11.2.1591

Maron, J.L. (2001). Intraspecific competition and subterranean herbivory: individual and interactive effects on bush lupine. Oikos 92: 178–186; http://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2001.920121.x

Mielke, C. & J.R. Grehan (2016). A new species of Hepialiscus Hampson, [1893] (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae). The European Entomologist 8: 133–151.

Moore, F. (1879). Descriptions of new genera and species of Asiatic Lepidoptera Heterocera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1879: 387–417.

Nair, K.S.S. (1982). Seasonal incidence, host range and control of the teak sapling borer, Sahyadrassus malabaricus. Kerala Forest Research Institute Research Report 16: 1–36.

Nair, K.S.S. (1987). Life history, ecology and pest status of the sapling borer, Sahyadrassus malabaricus (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae). Entomonograph 12: 167–173.

Negi, C.S., P. Joshi & S. Bohra (2016). Rapid Vulnerability Assessment of Yartsa Gunbu (Ophiocordyceps sinensis [Berk.] G.H. Sung et al) in Pithoragarh District, Uttarakhand State, India. Mountain Research and

Development 35: 382–391; http://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-14-00005.1

Nair, K.S.S. (2007). Tropical Forest Insect Pests Ecology, Impact, and Management. Cambridge University Press Cambridge, New York. 404pp.

Nielsen, E.S., G.S. Robinson & D.L. Wagner (2000). Ghost-moths of the world: a global inventory and bibliography of the Exoporia (Mnesarchaeoidea and Hepialoidea) (Lepidoptera). Journal of Natural History 34: 823–878; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002229300299282

Reddy C.S., C. S. Jha, P.G. Diwakar & V. K. Dadhwal (2015). Nationwide classification of forest types of India using remote sensing and GIS. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 187: 1–30;

http://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4990-8

Reiger, J.C., C Mitter, N.P Kristensen, D.D. Davis, E Van Nieukerken, J. Rota, T. Simonsen, K.T Mitter, A.Y Kawahara, S.-H Yen, M.P. Cummings & A. Zwick (2015). A molecular phylogeny for the oldest (nonditrysian) lineages of extant Lepidoptera, with implications for classification, comparative morphology and life-history evolution. Systematic Entomology 40: 671–704; http://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12129

Robinson, G.S., K.R. Tuck & M. Schaffer (1995). A Field Guide to the Smaller Moths of South- East Asia. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, 246pp.

Rose, H.S. (2002). An inventory of the moth fauna (Lepidoptera) of Jatinga, Assam, India. Zoo’s Print Journal 17(2): 707–721; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.17.2.707-21

Shubhalaxmi, V., R.C. Kendrick, A. Vaidya, N. Kalagi & A. Bhagwat (2011). Inventory of moth fauna (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of the northern Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 108: 183–205.

Singh, V. & H.S. Banyal (2014). Preliminary ecological studies on the Lepidoptera from Khajjiar Lake catchment, Himachal Pradesh, India. Biodiversity Journal 5: 61–68.

Smetacek, P. (2008). Moths recorded from different elevations in Nainital District, Kumaon, Hymalaya, India. Bionotes 10: 5–15

Smetacek, P. (2011). Review of Indian Lepidoptera collections and their

significance in conservation. ENVIS Bulletin 14: 135–139

Sondhi, S. & K. Kunte (2016). Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(8): 9053–9124; http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2984.8.8.9053-9124

Tindale, N.B. (1932). Revision of the Australian ghost moths (Lepidoptera Homoneura, family Hepialidae) Part I. Records of the South Australian Museum 4: 497–536.

Tindale, N.B. (1941). Revision of the ghost moths (Lepidoptera Homoneura, family Hepialidae). Part IV. Records of the South Australian Museum 7: 15–46.

Tindale, N.B. (1942). Revision of the ghost moths (Lepidoptera Homoneura, family Hepialidae). Part V. Records of the South Australian Museum 7: 151–168.

Tintumol, K., C.K. Vijayalakshmi, P.A. Rahiman & P.K. Vinodkumar (2014). A report on the occurrence of the teak sapling borer, Sahyadrassus malabaricus (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) attacking coffee. IJALS 7: 165–167.

Tobi, D., J.R. Grehan & B.L. Parker (1993). Review of the ecological and economic significance of forest Hepialidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Journal of Forest Ecology and Management 56: 1–12; http://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(93)90099-9

Ueda, K. (1988). New species of the genus Hepialiscus Hampson (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) from Taiwan. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History 8: 39–54.

Ueda, K. (2000). Moths of Nepal. Tinea 16 (supplement): 70–93.

Wagner, D.L. (1985). The biosystematics of the Holarctic Hepialidae, with special emphasis on the Hepialus californicus species group. PhD Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.

Walker, F. (1856). List of the specimens of lepidopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum 7: 1509–1808.

Yang, X.H., Y.H. Yu, Y.J. Wu, J.L. Qin & Y.Q. Luo (2013a). First report of

Endoclita signifer (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) as a new pest on Eucalyptus. Journal of Economic Entomology 106: 866–873.

Yang, X.H., Y.H. Yu, S.G Cao, Y.Q. Luo, J.T. Luo & J.J. Wang (2013b). Morphology and biology of Endoclyta signifer Walker (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), a new wood borer on Eucalyptus. Forest Research 26: 34–40.

Yang, X.H., Y.Q. Luo, X. Lan, Z.W.Yang, J.L. Qin & J.G. Wei (2015). Spatial distribution pattern of Endoclita signifer larvae infestation on Eucalyptus. Journal of Beijing Forestry University 37: 102–109;

http://doi.org/10.1603/EC12310

Zeya, A. (1980). Observations on a root-borer of young plantation teak in Prome Forest Division. Forest Research Institute Myanmar Leaflet 2/79-80: 1–27.

Zeya, A. (1985). Further Observation on a root-borer of young plantation

teak in Prome Forest Division with a view to its control and prevention in pure teak plantations. Forest Research Institute Myanmar Leaflet 9/84-85: 1–7.