Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam

Main Article Content

Nguyen Truong Son
Thomas J. O'shea
Jeffery A. Gore
Gabor Csorba
Vuong Tan Tu
Tatsuo Oshida
Hideki Endo
Masaharu Motokawa


Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam.  We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite) Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013.  Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats.  Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts.  Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season.  In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected.  We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities.  For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.

Article Details

Author Biography

Nguyen Truong Son, Department of Vertebrate Zoology Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam

Department of Vertebrate Zoology


Bernard, R.T.F. & G.S. Cumming (1997). African bats: evolution of reproductive patterns and delays. Quarterly Review of Biology 72: 253–274.

Borissenko, A.V. & S.V. Kruskop (2003). Bats of Vietnam and adjacent territories, an identification manual. Russian Vietnamese Science and Technological Tropical Centre, Hanoi, Vietnam and the Zoological Museum of Moscow, M.V. Lomonosov State University, 211pp.

Brunet-Rossinni, A.K. & G.S. Wilkinson (2009). Methods for age estimation and the study of senescence in bats, pp. 315-325. In: KUNZ, T.H. & S. PARSONS (eds.). Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats. 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 901pp.

Chao, A. & T.-J. Shen (2010). User’s Guide for Program SPADE (Species Prediction and Diversity Estimation). Available at Downloaded 6 April 2015.

Csorba, G. (2011). A new species of Glischropus from the Indochinese Subregion (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Zootaxa 2925: 41–48.

Csorba, G. & P.J.J. Bates (2005). Description of a new species of Murina from Cambodia (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Murininae). Acta Chiropterologica 7: 1–7.

Csorba, G., V.D. Thong, P.J.J. Bates & N.M. Furey (2007). Description of a new species of Murina from Vietnam (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Murininae). Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 268: 1–12.

Csorba, G., N.T. Son, S. Ith & N.M. Furey (2011). Revealing cryptic bat diversity: three new Murina and redescription of M. tubinaris from Southeast Asia. Journal of Mammalogy 92: 891–904.

Douangboubpha, B., S. Bumrungsri, P. Soisook, C. Satasook, N.M. Thomas & P.J.J. Bates (2010). A taxonomic review of the Hipposideros bicolor species complex and H. pomona (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in Thailand. Acta Chiropterologica 12(2): 415–438.

Eger, J.L. & B.K. Lim (2011). Three new species of Murina from southern China (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Acta Chiropterologica 13: 227–243.

Fenton, M.B., S. Bouchard, M.J. Vonhof & J. Zigouris (2001). Time-expansion and zero-crossing period meter systems present significantly different views of echolocation calls of bats. Journal of Mammalogy 82: 721–727.

Fleming, T.H., E. T. Hooper & D.E. Wilson (1972). Three Central American bat communities: structure, reproductive cycles, and movement patterns. Ecology 53: 555–569.

Francis, C.M. (2008). A Guide to the Mammals of Southeast Asia. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 392pp.

Francis, C.M. & J.L. Eger (2012). A review of tube-Nosed bats (Murina) from Laos with a description of two new species. Acta Chiropterologica 14: 15–38.

Francis, C.M. & J, Habersetzer (1998). Interspecific and intraspecific variation in the echolocation call frequency and morphology of horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus and Hipposideros, pp. 169–179. In: KUNZ T.H. & P.A. RACEY (eds.). Bat Biology and Conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 365pp.

Furey, N.M., I.J. Mackie, & P.A. Racey (2009a). The role of bat detectors in improving inventory and monitoring surveys in Vietnamese karst bat assemblages. Current Zoology 55: 327–341.

Furey, N.M., V.D. Thong, P.J.J. Bates & G. Csorba (2009b). Description of a new species belonging to the Murina ‘‘suilla-group’’ (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Murininae) from northern Vietnam. Acta Chiropterologica 11: 225–236.

Furey, N.M., I.J. Mackie & P.A. Racey (2010). Bat diversity in Vietnamese limestone karst areas and the implications of forest degradation. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 1821–1838.

Furey, N.M., I.J. Mackie & P.A. Racey (2011). Reproductive phenology of bat assemblages in Vietnamese karst and its conservation implications. Acta Chiropterologica 13: 341–354.

Graham, G. L. (1983). Changes in bat species diversity along an elevational gradient up the Peruvian Andes. Journal of Mammalogy 64: 559–571.

Hendrichsen, D. K., P.J.J. Bates, B.D. Hayes, & J.L. Walston. (2001). Recent records of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Vietnam with seven species new to the country. Myotis 39: 35–122.

Hughes, A.C., C. Satasook, P.J.J. Bates, P. Soisook, T. Sritongchuay, G. Jones & S. Bumrungsri (2010). Echolocation call analysis and presence-only modelling as conservation monitoring tools for rhinolophoid bats in Thailand. Acta Chiropterologica 12: 311–327.

Hughes, A. C., C. Satasook, P.J.J. Bates, P. Soisook, T. Sritongchuay, G. Jones & S. Bumrungsri (2011). Using echolocation calls to identify Thai bat species: Vespertilionidae, Emballonuridae, Nycteridae and Megadermatidae. Acta Chiropterologica 13: 447–455.

Jiang, T., W. Metzner, Y. You, S. Liu, G. Lu, S. Li, L. Wang. & J, Feng (2010). Variation in the resting frequency of Rhinolophus pusillus in mainland China: effect of climate and implications for conservation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 128: 2204-2211.

Kingsada, P., B. Douangboubpha, I. Saveng, N. Furey, P. Sisook, S. Bumrungsri, C. Satasook, V.D. Thong, G. Csorba, D. Harrison, M. Pearch, P. Bates & N. Thomas (2011). A checklist of bats from Cambodia, including the first record of the intermediate horseshoe bat Rhinolophus affinis (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), with additional information from Thailand and Vietnam. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2011: 49–59.

Kingston, T. (2009). Analysis of species diversity of bat assemblages, pp. 195–215. In: KUNZ, T.H. & S. PARSONS (eds.). Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats. 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 901pp.

Kingston, T. (2010). Research priorities for bat conservation in Southeast Asia: a consensus approach. Biodiversity Conservation 19: 471–484.

Kingston, T., G. Jones, Z. Akbar & T.H. Kunz (1999). Echolocation signal design in Kerivoulinae and Murininae (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Malaysia. Journal of Zoology (London) 249: 359–374.

Kingston, T., G. Jones, A. Zubaid & T.H. Kunz (2000). Resource partitioning in rhinolophoid bats revisited. Oecologia 124: 332–342.

Kruskop, S.V. (2013). Bats of Vietnam. Checklist and an Identification Manual. Joint Russian-Vietnamese Sciences and Technological Tropical Centre and Zoological Museum of Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, 299pp.

Kruskop, S.V. & J.L. Eger (2008). A new species of tube-nosed bat Murina (Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera) from Vietnam. Acta Chiropterologica 10: 213–220.

Liu, H., H.-Y. Shi, Q.-P. Fan, W.-Y. Chen & B.-B. Li (2011). Echolocation calls of Scotomanes ornatus. Journal of Mianyang Normal University 2: 69–71, 76.

Magurran, A. E. (1988). Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 179pp.

NASA. (2012). NASA climatology resources. agro.cgi? Accessed 15 October 2012.

Patterson, B.D., D.F. Stotz, S. Solari, J.W. Fitzpatrick & V. Pacheco (1998). Contrasting patterns of elevational zonation for birds and mammals in the Andes of southeastern Peru. Journal of Biogeography 25: 593–607.

Racey, P.A. (2009). Reproductive assessment of bats, pp. 249–264. In: KUNZ, T.H. & S. PARSONS (eds.). Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats. 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 901pp.

Racey, P.A. & Entwistle, A.C. (2000). Life-history and reproductive strategies of bats, pp. 363–414. In: Crichton, E.G. & P.H, Krutzsch (eds.). Reproductive Biology of Bats. Academic Press, San Diego, 510pp.

Robinson, M.F. (1996). A relationship between echolocation calls and noseleaf widths in bats of the genera Rhinolophus and Hipposideros. Journal of Zoology (London) 239: 389–393.

Shek, C. & C. T. Y. Lau (2006). Echolocation calls of five horse shoe bats of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Biodiversity 13: 9–12.

Shen, T.-J., A. Chao & J.-F. Lin (2003). Predicting the number of new species in further taxonomic sampling. Ecology 84: 798–804.

Skowronski, M.D. & M.B. Fenton (2008). Model-based automated detection of echolocation calls using the link detector. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 124: 328–336.

Soisook, P., S. Karapan, C. Satasook & P.J.J. Bates (2013a). A new species of Murina (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from peninsular Thailand. Zootaxa 3746: 567–579.

Soisook, P., S. Karapan, S. Satasook, V.D. Thong, F.A.A. Khan, I. Maryanto, G. Csorba, N. Furey, B. Aul and P.J.J. Bates (2013b). A review of the Murina cyclotis complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) with descriptions of a new species and subspecies. Acta Chiropterologica 15: 271–292.

Solow, A. R. & Polasky, S. (1999). A quick estimator for taxonomic surveys. Ecology 80: 2799–2803.

Son, N.T., G. Csorba, T.V. Tu, D.V. Thong, Y. Wu, M. Harada,, T. Oshida, H. Endo & M. Motokawa (2015a). A new species of the genus Murina (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam with a review of the subfamily Murininae in Vietnam. Acta Chiropterologica 17: 201-232.

Son, N.T., M. Motokawa, T. Oshida, V.D. Thong, G. Csorba & H. Endo (2015b). Multivariate analysis of the skull size and shape in tube-nosed bats of the genus Murina (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Vietnam. Mammal Study 40: 79–94.

Sterling, E. J., M.M. Hurley, & L.D. Minh. (2006). Vietnam: A Natural History. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 423pp.

Struebig, M.J., S.J. Rossiter, P.J.J. Bates, T. Kingston, S.S.L. Oo, A.A. New, M.M. Aung, S.S. Win & K.M. Mya (2005) Results of a recent bat survey in Upper Myanmar including new records from the Kachin forests. Acta Chiropterologica 7: 147–163.

Thabah, A., S.J. Rossiter, T. Kingston, S. Zhang, S. Parsons, K.M. Mya, A. Zubaid & G. Jones (2006). Genetic divergence and echolocation call frequency in cryptic species of Hipposideros larvatus s. l. (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from the Indo-Malayan region. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 88: 119–130.

Thong, V. D. (2011). Systematics and echolocation of rhinolophoid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Vietnam. PhD thesis. University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. 250 pp.

Thong, V.D., C. Dietz, A. Denzinger, P.J.J. Bates, N.M. Furey, G. Csorba, G. Hoye, L.D. Thuy & H.-U. Schnitzler (2011). Further records of Murina tiensa from Vietnam with first information on its echolocation calls. Hystrix Italian Journal of Mammalogy 22: 129–138.

Tordoff, A., R. Timmins, R. Smith, M. Ky Vinh. (2003). A Biological Assessment of the Central Truong Son Landscape. Central Truong Son Initiative Report No. 1. WWF Indochina, Hanoi, Vietnam. 135 pp. Available at . Downloaded 9 April 2016.

Wei, L., Y. Gan, Z. Li, Z. Lin, T. Hong & L. Zhang (2011) Comparisons of echolocation calls and wing morphology among six sympatric bat species. Acta Theriologica Sinica 31: 155–163.

Wildlife Acoustics (2012). Echo Meter User Manual. Downloaded 9 April 2016.

Wu, H., T.-L. Jiang, R. Müller & J. Feng (2015). The allometry of echolocation call frequencies in horseshoe bats: nasal capsule and pinna size are the better predictors than forearm length. Journal of Zoology (London) 297: 211–219.

Zhang, L., G. Jones, J. Zhang, G. Zhu, S. Parsons, S.J. Rossiter & S. Zhang (2009). Recent surveys of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from China. I. Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. Acta Chiropterologica 11: 71–88.

Most read articles by the same author(s)