Main Article Content
This study of the Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in the tall grassland habitat of Manas National Park, Assam during 2009â€“2010 is the first detailed assessment in northeastern India.Â We assessed the status, distribution, habitat use and key threats to this rare and little studied lagomorph species.Â After interviewing local forest staff, 20 grassland patches within a survey area of 2.65ha were selected and transects (50x2 m) laid randomly to determine the presence/absence of Hispid Hare by recording pellets and other indirect evidence.Â Hare presence was recorded in 17 grassland patches within transects dominated by Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum narenga.Â Hispid Hare preferred dry savannah grasslands to wet alluvial grasslands during winter and avoided recently burned patches due to lack of cover and food.Â The distribution pattern observed was clumped (s2/a = 6.2), with more evidence of Hispid Hare presence in areas where ground cover was dense, dry and away from water sources. Population density was estimated at 381.55 individuals/km2, which in comparison with other studies indicates that Manas National Park currently holds the highest density of Hispid Hare.Â Habitat loss due to overgrazing, unsustainable thatch harvesting, burning of grassland, weed invasion, encroachment and hunting were identified as key threats which must be addressed to ensure survival of this threatened species in the Park.ÂÂ
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27184.108.40.20653-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Aryal, A., D. Brunton, W. Ji, H.K. Yadav, B. Adhikari & D. Raubenheimer (2012). Diet and Habitat use of Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Mammal Study 37(2): 147â€“154; http://dx.doi.org/10.3106/041.037.0205
Bell, D.J. (1986). A study of the Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in Royal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Western Nepal: â€˜A after burning reportâ€™. Dodo 23: 24â€“31.
Bell, D.J. (1987). Study of the Biology and Conservation Problems of the Hispid Hare. Final Report. University of East Anglia, England, 38pp.
Bell, D.J., W.L.R. Oliver & R.K. Ghose (1990). The Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus. Rabbits, Hares and Pikas, pp. 128â€“136. In: Chapman, J.A. & J.E.C. Flux (eds.). Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Blandford, W.T. (1888). The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma - Mammalia. Taylor and Francis, London; http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.97003
Borthakur, M. (1986). Weather and climate in North East India. Northeastern Geographer 18(1&2): 20â€“27.
Choudhury, A. (2003). Current status and conservation of Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in North-East India. Proceeding of Bombay Natural History Society.
Choudhury, B. & U. Kumar (2009). A short note on rescue of a Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus) at Manas National Park. Zoosâ€™ Print XXIV(8):
Das, B.C. & B.N. Mukharjee (1996). Integral Calculas. U.N. Dhur and Sons, 278pp.
Dawson, M.R. (1971). Fossil mammals of Java. 1. Notes on Quaternary Leporidae Mammalia, Lagomorpha from central Java. Proceedings of Koninklijke Nederlandse Akaddemie van
Wetenschappen, Amsterdam 74: 27âˆ’32.
Ditomaso, J.M. (2000). Invasive weeds in rangelands: Species, impacts, and management. Weed Science 48(2): 255âˆ’265.
Forys, E.A. & S.R. Humphrey (1997). Comparison of 2 methods to estimate density of an endangered lagomorph. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 86â€“92; http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3802417
Gillon, D. (1983). The fire problem in tropical savannas. In: Boeilier, F. (ed.). Tropical Savannas. Ecosystems of The World â€“ 13. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. New York.
Jain, S.K. & P.K. Hajra (1975). On the botany of Manas Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam. Bulletin of Botanical Survey of India 17(1âˆ’4): 75âˆ’86.
Lahkar, B.P. (2008). Ecology and management of grassland with special reference to grass and bird communities in Manas National Park, Assam. PhD Thesis, 226pp.
Lahkar, B.P., B.K. Talukdar & P. Sarma (2011). Invasive species in grassland habitat: an ecological threat to the Greater One-horned Rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis). Pachyderm 49 (Januaryâ€“June): 33â€“
Langbein, J., M.R. Hutchings, S. Harris, C. Stoate, S.C. Tapper & S. Wray (1999). Techniques for assessing the abundance of Brown Hares, Lepus europaeus. Mammal Review 29: 93â€“116; http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2907.1999.00040.x
Maheswaran, G. (2002). Status and ecology of endangered Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary, West Bengal, India. Bombay Natural History Society and Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.
Maheshwaran, G. & A. Kumar (2008). Trapping success and inventory of small mammals in Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary, India, Tiger Paper 35(1): 22âˆ’28.
Maheswaran, G. & A.T. Smith (2008). Caprolagus hispidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. . Downloaded on 19 May 2015; http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T3833A10112058.e
Mary, P.P., R.R. Sinha, A. Kumar, M. Medhi, G. Narayan & P. Deka (2013). Habitat characteristics of the Critically Endangered Pigmy Hog (Porcula salvania) of Manas National Park and Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park in Assam, northeast India, pp. 405â€“421. In: Nautiyal, S., K.S. Rao, H. Kaechele, K.V. Raju & R. Schaldach (eds.), Knowledge Systems of Societies for Adaptation and Mitigation of Impacts of Climate Change, Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heideberg; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36143-2_24
Menon, V. (2003). A Field Guide to Indian Mammals. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd in association with Penguin Book India Pvt. Ltd, 200pp.
Molur, S., C. Srinivasulu, B. Srinivasulu, S. Walker, P.O. Nameer & L. Ravikumar (2005). Status of South Asian Non-volant Small Mammals: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organisation/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India, 618pp.
Nath, N.K. (2009). Status survey of Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in the North Bank Landscape (Assam and Arunachal Pradesh), India. A Technical Report, Aaranyak, 58pp.
Nath, N.K., P.P. Sarkar & K. Machary (2010). Ecological Assessment of Hispid Hare in Manas National Park, India. A Technical Report. Aaranyak, Guwahati, 44pp.
Odum, E.P. (1971). Fundamentals of Ecology - 3rd Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, 574pp.
Oliver, W.L.R. (1979). The doubtful future of the Pygmy Hog and the Hispid Hare. Pygmy Hog survey report - Part 1. Journal of
Bombay Natural History Society 75(2): 337â€“341.
Oliver, W.L.R. (1980). The Pygmy Hog: the biology and conservation of the Pygmy Hog, Sus salvanius and the Hispid Hare, Caprolagus hispidus. Special scientific report No. 1. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey, UK, 120pp.
Piana, R.P. & S.J. Marsden (2014). Impacts of cattle grazing on forest structure and raptor distribution within a neotropical protected area. Biodiversity and Conservation 23(3): 559âˆ’572; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-013-0616-z
Roy, S.D. (1991). Manas - A monograph. Tiger Paper 18: 10.
Sarma, P.K., B.P. Lahkar, S. Ghosh, A. Rabha, J.P. Das, N.K. Nath, S. Dey & N. Brahma (2008). Land use and Land cover change and future implication analysis in MNP, India using Multi-temporal satellite data. Current Science 95(2): 223âˆ’227.
Tandan, P., B. Dhakal, K. Karki & A. Aryal (2013). Tropical grasslands supporting the endangered Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus) population in the Bardia National Park, Nepal. Current Science 105(5): 691â€“694.
Tessier-Yandell, J. (1972). The Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus (Pearson, 1839). Cheetal 15(1): 34â€“36.
US Fish & Wildlife Service (2013). Project Summaries, Division of International Conservation Rhino and Tiger Conservation Fund, 12pp.
Watkinson, A.R. & S.J. Ormerod (2001). Grassland, grazing and biodiversity: editorsâ€™ introduction. Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 233âˆ’237; http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2001.00621.x/pdf
White, R., S. Murray & M. Rohweder (2000). Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems-Grassland Ecosystems. Published by World Resource Institute.
Yadav, B.P., S. Sathyakumar, R.K. Koirala & C. Pokharel (2008). Status, distribution and habitat use of Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus) in Royal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Tiger Paper 35(3): 8âˆ’14.