Main Article Content
The paper highlights the diversity, distribution and population status of Primula species in western Arunachal Pradesh. The present study has established the rich diversity of Primula species in western Arunachal Pradesh with a record total of 25 species, out of which five species, viz., Primula ioessa W.W.Sm., Primula munroi Lindley, Primula obliqua W.W.Sm., Primula prolifera Wall. and Primula jigmediana Hook. f. & Thomson ex Watt, are new to Arunachal Pradesh.Â More than 60% of the taxa of Primula of the state occurs in two districts of the western part of the state.Â A maximum diversity (76%) of Primula species was recorded between 3500m and 4000m and a minimum (4%) was between 1500m and 2000m.Â This study showed the poor population of some Primula species in the study area.Â Among the four sampling sites the Panga-Teng-Tso is highly disturbed which is clearly reflected by very poor population density of P. hookeri (1.36 individuals m-2). Various natural and anthropogenic threats have led to the pressure on the habitat of Primula species. Considering the rich species diversity of Primula and their distributional affinities, western Arunachal Pradesh may be considered as a centre of diversity of Indo-Chinese Primula species and appropriate conservation strategies should be adopted for the conservation of this genus.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27184.108.40.20653-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Basak, S.K. & G.G. Maiti (2000). Primula arunachalensis sp. nov. (Primulaceae) from the Eastern Himalaya. Acta Phytotaxonomica Geobotany 51(1): 11â€“15.
Basak, S.K., G.G. Maity & P.K. Hajra (2014). The Genus Primula L. in India: A Taxonomic Revision. Bishen Singh Mohendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.
Bhandari, B.S., D.C. Nautiyal & R.D. Gaur (1999). Structural attributes and productivity potential of an alpine pasture of Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 78(3â€“4): 321â€“329.
Boardman, P., A. Chambers, P. Eveleigh & J. Richards (2010). Discovering primulas of subsection Agleniana. Plantsman 9(2): 88â€“92.
Chowdhery, H.J. (1984). Primulaceae, pp. 443â€“447. In:
Chowdhery, H.J. & B.M. Wadhawa (eds.). Flora of Himachal Pradesh. Vol. 2. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, India.
Curtis, J.T. (1959). The Vegetation of Wisconsin: An Ordination of Plant Communities. 1st Edition. University of Wisconsin press, Wisconsin, USA, 657pp.
Curtis, J.T. & R.P. Mclntosh (1950). The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 31(3): 434â€“455; http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1931497
Gangwar, R.S. & B.D. Joshi (2006). Some medicinal flora in the riparian zone of river Ganga at Saptrishi, Haridwar, Uttaranchal. Himalayan Journal of Environment and Zoology 20(2): 237â€“241.
Giri, G.S., A. Pramanik & H.J. Chowdhery (2008). Material for the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh. Vol. 2. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, India, 103â€“112pp.
Grierson, A.J.C. & D.G. Long (eds.) (1999). Primulaceae, pp. 516â€“554. In: Long, D.G. (ed.), Flora of Bhutan: Including A Record of Plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling. Vol. 2. Part II. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, UK.
Hooker, J.D. (1882). Flora of British India. Vol. 3. Indian Reprint 1983, Bishen Singh Mohendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India, 482â€“495pp.
Hu, C.M. & S. Kelso (1996). Primulaceae, pp. 99â€“185. In: Wu, Z.Y. & P.H. Raven (eds.). Flora of China. Vol. 15. Myrsinaceae through Loganiaceae. Science Press (Beijing), China and Missouri Botanic Garden Press (St. Louis), USA.
Jain, S.K. & R.R. Rao (1977). A Hand Book of Field and Herbarium Method. Today and Tomorrow publishers, New Delhi, India, 157pp.
Kaul, R.N. & K. Haridasan (1987). Forest types of Arunachal Pradesh - a preliminary study. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 9(2): 379â€“388.
Magurran, A.E. (1988). Ecological Diversity and its Measures. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA, 179pp.
Olson, D.M. & E. Dinerstein (1998). The global 200: a representation approach to conserving the earthâ€™s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biology 12(3): 502â€“515; http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.012003502.x
Panthi, M.P., R.P. Chaudhary & O.R. Vetaas (2007). Plant species richness and composition in a trans-Himalayan inner valley of Manang District, central Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Sciences 4(6): 57â€“64.
Paul, A., M.L. Khan, A. Arunachalam & K. Arunachalam (2005). Biodiversity and conservation of rhododendrons in Arunachal Pradesh in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Current Science 89(4): 623â€“634.
Ram, J. (2005). Biodiversity and conservation of high altitude meadows of Uttaranchal Himalaya. Bulletin of the National Institute of Ecology 15: 11â€“17.
Rao, R.R. (1994). Biodiversity in India: Floristic Aspects. Bisen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India, 316pp.
Richards, J. (2003). Primula. Revised edition. Timber press, London, UK, 346pp.
Samant, S.S., U. Dhar & R.S. Rawal (1998). Biodiversity status of a protected area in West Himalaya: Askot Wildlife Sanctuary. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 5(3): 194â€“203; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504509809469983
Shaheen, H., S.M. Khan, D.M. Harper, Z. Ullah & R.A. Qureshi (2011). Species diversity, community structure, and distribution patterns in Western Himalayan alpine pastures of Kashmir, Pakistan. Mountain Research and Development 31(2): 153â€“159; http://dx.doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-10-00091.1
Shannon, C.E. & W. Weaver (1963). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, USA, 144pp.
Simpson, E.H. (1949). Measurement of diversity. Nature 163(4148): 688; http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/163688a0
Singh, K.N., A. Kumar, Gopichand, B. Lal & N.P. Todaria (2008). Species diversity and population status of threatened plants in different landscape elements of the Rohtang pass, western Himalaya. Journal of Mountain Science 5(1): 73â€“83; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11629-008-0073-4
Takhtadzhinan, A.L. (1969). Flowering Plants: Origin and Dispersal. 1st Edition. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, UK, 320pp.