Main Article Content
We quantified pine-forested habitat suitable for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis in the former historic range of the species to assess the potential for possible re-colonization.Â We used a remotely-sensed image and geographic information systems (GIS) to create a land-use/land (LU/LC) binary cover map, from which we calculated the habitat suitability index (HSI) based on an estimated home range of 50ha.Â A sensitivity analysis revealed the necessity for more data to make an accurate estimate, but our analysis of landscape metrics indicates more than 930ha of suitable habitat patches.Â These patches are heavily fragmented and mostly located on private lands.Â They can be assessed for understory and herbaceous vegetation and can be restored for possible re-establishment of approximately 18 groups/colonies of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Anderson, J.R., E.E. Hardy, J.T. Roach & R.E. Witmer (1976). A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, U.S. Geologic Survey, Washington, DC, 28pp.
Baker, W.W. (1971). Progress report on life history studies of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker at Tall Timbers Research Station. Progress report on life history studies of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker at Tall Timbers Research Station, pp. 44â€“59. In: Thompson, R.L. (ed.). The ecology and management of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker, May 26, 1971 - May 27, 1971, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Folkston, GA. U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and Tall Timbers Research Station, [Washington, DC].
Bernstein, R. (1983). Image geometry and rectification, pp. 873â€“922. In: Colwell, R.N. (ed.). Manual of Remote Sensing (2nd Edition). American Society of Photogrammetry.
BirdLife International (2013). Leuconotopicus borealis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22681158A49307003. Downloaded on 09 January 2016; http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T22681158A49307003.en
Callicott, J.B., R. Rozzi, L. Delgado, M. Monticino, M. Acevedo & P. Harcombe (2007). Biocomplexity and conservation of biodiversity hotspots: three case studies from the Americas. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 362: 321â€“333.
Campbell, J.B. (1996). Introduction to Remote Sensing. 2nd Edition. The Guilford Press, 622pp.
Charles, J.M. & H.E. Howard (1996). Foraging habitat of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker on the Dâ€™Arbonne National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana. Journal of Ornithology 67: 511â€“518.
Congalton, G.R. (1991). A review of assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data. Remote Sensing of the Environment 37: 35â€“46.
Congalton, G.R. & K. Green (1999). Assessing the Accuracy of Remotely Sensed Data: Principles and Practices. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 137pp.
Conner, R.N. & D.C. Rudolph (1989). Red-cockaded Woodpecker colony status and trends on the Angelina, Davy Crockett, and Sabine National Forests. Res. Pap. SO-250, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, 15pp.
Conner, R.N. & D.C. Rudolph (1991). Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and Red-cockaded Woodpecker population. Wilson Bulletin 103: 446â€“457.
Conner, R.N., D. Saenz & D. C. Rudolph (2004). The Red-cockaded Woodpecker: Interactions with fire, snags, fungi, rat snakes and Pileated awoodpeckers. Texas Journal of Science 56: 415â€“426.
Conner, R.N. (1981). Fire and cavity nesters, pp. 61â€“65. In: Wood, G.W. (ed.). Prescribed Fire and Wildlife in Southern Forests. Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute of Clemson University, Georgetown, South Carolina, USA.
Conner, R.N., R.G. Hooper, H.S. Crawford & H.S. Mosby (1975). Woodpecker nestling habitat in cut and uncut woodlands in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Management 39: 144â€“150.
Conner, R.N. & B.A. Locke (1982). Fungi and Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity trees. Wildlife Society Bulletin 94: 64â€“70.
Conner, R.N., O.K. Miller & C.S. Adkisson (1976). Woodpecker dependence on trees infected by fungal heart rots. Wildlife Society Bulletin 88: 575â€“581.
Conner, R.N. & D.C. Rudolph (1991). Effects of midstory reduction and thinning in Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree clusters. Wildlife Society Bulletin 19: 63â€“66.
Conner, R.N. & D.C. Rudolph (1995). Red-Cockaded Woodpecker population trends and management on Texas National Forests. Journal of Field Ornithology 66(1): 140â€“151.
Conner, R.N., D.C. Rudolph, D. Saenz & R.R. Schaefer (1994). Heartwood, sapwood, and fungal decay associated with Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity trees. Journal of Wildlife Management 58: 728â€“734.
Dale, V.H., S.M. Pearson, H.L. Oferman & R.V. Oâ€™Neill (1994). Relating patterns of land-use change to faunal biodiversity in the central Amazon. Conservation Biology 8: 1027â€“1036.
Dettki, H., R. Lofstran & L. Edenius (2003). Modeling habitat suitability for Moose in coastal northern Sweden: Empirical vs. Process-oriented Approaches. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Ambio 8(32): 549â€“556.
DeLotelle, R.S., R.J. Epting & R.J. Newman (1987). Habitat use and territory characteristics of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in Central Florida. Wilson Bulletin 99: 201â€“217.
Dickman, C.R. (1987). Habitat fragmentation and vertebrate species richness in an urban environment. Journal of Applied Ecology 24: 337â€“351.
Doster, R.H. & D.A. James (1998). Home-range size and foraging
habitat of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in the Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas. Wilson Bulletin 110: 110â€“117.
Engstrom, R.T. & F.J. Sanders (1997). Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging ecology in an old-growth longleaf pine forest. Wilson Bulletin 109: 203â€“217.
Ertep, S.A. & G.W. Lee (1994). Use of GRASS to facilitate Red-cockaded Woodpecker management at Fort Benning Military Reservation, pp. 628â€“633. In: 1994 Annual Conference Proceedings, Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, Washington, D.C., USA.
Ferrel, D.P. (1998). Habitat quality and the performance of Red-cockaded Woodpecker groups in the South Carolina Sand Hills. MS Thesis. Department of Forest Resources. Clemson University, 86pp.
Franzreb, K.E. (2006). Implications of home-range estimation in the management of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in South Carolina. Forest Ecology and Management 228: 274â€“284.
Girvetz, E.H. & S.E. Greco (2007). How to define a patch: a spatial model for hierarchically delineating organism-specific patches. Landscape Ecology 22: 1131â€“1142.
Hedrick, L.D., R.G. Hooper, D.L. Krusac & J.M. Dabney (1998). Silvicultural systems and Red-cockaded Woodpecker management: another perspective. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26: 138â€“147.
Hooper, R.G., A.F. Robinson & J.A. Jackson (1980). The Red-cockaded Woodpecker: Notes on life history and management. USDA Forest Service, General Report SA-GR 9.
Hooper, R.G., L.J. Niles, R.F. Harlow & G.W. Wood (1982). Home ranges of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in coastal South Carolina. The Auk 99: 675â€“682.
Hooper, R.G. (1988). Longleaf pines used for cavities by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. Journal of Wildlife Management 52: 392â€“398.
Jackson, J.A. (1994). Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Birds of North America 85: 1â€“20.
Jensen, J. (1996). Introductory Digital Image Processing: A
Remote Sensing Perspective. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
Kotliar, N.B. & J.A. Weins (1990). Multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure - a hierarchical framework for the study of heterogeneity. Oikos 59: 253â€“260.
Laperriere, J.A., P.C. Lent, W.C. Gassaway & F.A. Nodler (1980). Use of Landsat data for moose-habitat analysis in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 44: 881â€“887.
Larson, M.A., D.D. William, F.R. Thompson & J.J. Millspaugh (2003). Landscape-level habitat suitability models for twelve wildlife species in southern Missouri. Forest Service U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Lunetta, R.S., R.G. Congalton, L.K. Fenstermaker, J.R. Jensen, K.C. McGwire & L.R. Tinney (1991). Remote sensing and geographic information system data integration: Error sources and research issues. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 57: 677â€“687.
Luiz, A.B.J. & G.J. Garcia (1997). A study of habitat fragmentation in southeastern Brazil using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Forest Ecology and Management 98: 35â€“47.
Marks, P.L. & P.A. Harcombe (1981). Forest vegetation of the Big Thicket, southeast Texas. Ecological Monographs 51: 287â€“305.
McGarigal, K. & B.J. Marks (1994). FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. United States Department of Agriculture.
McGarigal, K. & B.J. Marks (1995). FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. USDA Forest Service Technical Reports. PNW-351.
McGarigal, K. (2002). Landscape pattern metrics. Enclyopedia of Environmetrics 2: 1135â€“1142.
McGarigal, K., S.A. Cushman, M.C. Neel & E. Ene (2002). FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps. Department of Natural Resources Conservation, University of Massachusetts, 304 Holdsworth Natural resources Center, Box 34210, Amherst, MA 01003. Available from http://www.umass.edu/laneco/research/fragstats_documents.html (accessed March 2007).
NOAA (2008). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research (assessed January 2009).
Pearson, S.M., M.G. Turner, R.H. Gardner & R.V. Oâ€™Neill (1996). An organism-based perspective of habitat fragmentation, pp. 77â€“95. In: Szaro, R.C. & D.W. Johnston (eds.). Biodiversity in Managed Landscapes: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press, New York.
Reed, J.M., P.D. Doerr & J.R. Walters (1988). Minimum Viable Population Size of Red-cockaded Woodpecker. The Journal of Wildlife Management 52: 385â€“391.
Santos, M.J., J.A. Greenberg & S.L. Ustin (2010). Using hyperspectral remote sensing to detect and quantify southeastern pine senescence effects in Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) habitat. Remote Sensing of Environment 114: 1242â€“1250.
Shao, G. & J. Wu (2008). On the accuracy of landscape pattern analysis using remote sensing data. Landscape Ecology 23: 505â€“511.
Star, J. & J. Estes (1990). Geographic Information Systems: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
Thapa, V. (2014). An analysis of One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) habitat at the Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(10): 6313â€“6325;
Thomlinson, J.R. (1993). Landscape ecological characteristics of habitat of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Dissertation, University of North Texas, Denton.
USFWS (2005). United States Fish and Wildlife Services. Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Northeast Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 Westgate Center Drive, Hadley, MA 01035. Available from http://www.northeast.fws.org (accessed December 2007).
USFWS (2010). United States Fish and Wildlife Services. Red-cockaded Woodpecker recovery. Available from http://www.fws.gov/rcwrecovery/rcw.html (accessed June 2010).
Walters, J.R., S.J. Daniels, J.H. Carter & P.D. Doerr (2002). Defining quality of Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging habitat based on habitat use and fitness. Journal of Wildlife Management 66: 1064â€“1082.
Wilcove, D.S., C.H. McClellan & A.P. Dobson (1986). Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. Conservation Biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp.237â€“256.
With, K.A. & T.O. Christ (1995). Critical thresholds in speciesâ€™ responses to landscape structure. Ecology 76: 2446â€“2459.
Wood, D.R., F.J. Villela & L.W. Burger Jr. (2008). Red-cockaded Woodpecker home range use and microhabitat selection in a loblolly-shortleaf pine forest. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(4): 793â€“800; http://dx.doi.org/10.1676/04-068.1
Xulong, L., H. Chunyang, P. Yaozhong, Y. Mingchaun & Z. Jinshui (2005). Accuracy Assessment of Thematic Classification based on Point and Polygon Sampling Units, Key laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster of Ministry of Education of China. College of Resources Science & Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China, 100875.