Systematics of the enigmatic and narrowly endemic toad genus Bufoides Pillai & Yazdani, 1973: rediscovery of Bufoides kempi (Boulenger, 1919) and expanded description of Bufoides meghalayanus (Yazdani & Chanda, 1971) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) with notes on natural history and distribution

Main Article Content

N. Parthasarathy
H.N. Kumara
P.V. Karunakaran
S. Babu
Gautam Kadam
S.R. Chandramouli
R.S. Naveen


Bufoides kempi (Boulenger, 1919) known only from the two historical syntype specimens until now was rediscovered after more than a century from near its type locality in the Garo Hills, Meghalaya, northeastern India. Analysis of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene reveals congenericity between B. kempi and B. meghalayanus with an inter-specific genetic divergence of 4.67%. Description of B. kempi is expanded based on the six male and two female specimens collected during this study. We provide the first description of calls for this genus, notes on their breeding biology and larval morphology. Additional specimens of B. meghalayanus collected during this study are described to supplement its characterization.  

Article Details



Barbour, T. (1938). Notes on Nectophryne. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 51: 191–196.

Biju, S.D., G. Senevirathne, S. Garg, S. Mahony, R.G. Kamei, A. Thomas, Y.S. Shouche, C.J. Raxworthy, M. Meegaskumbura & I.V. Bocxlaer (2016). Frankixalus, a New Rhacophorid Genus of Tree hole Breeding Frogs with Oophagous Tadpoles. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0145727.

Boulenger, G.A. (1919). Descriptions of three new batrachians from the Garo Hills, Assam. Records of the Indian Museum 16: 207–208.

Chandramouli, S. R., K. Vasudevan, S. Harikrishnan, S. K. Dutta, S. J. Janani, R. Sharma, I. Das & R. K. Aggarwal (2016). A new genus and species of arboreal toad with phytotelmonous larvae, from the Andaman Islands, India (Lissamphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). ZooKeys 555: 57–90.

Chandramouli, S.R. & A.A.T. Amarasinghe (2016). Taxonomic reassessment of the arboreal toad genus Pedostibes Günther 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae) and some allied oriental bufonid genera. Herpetologica 7: 137–147.

Chandramouli, S.R. & A. Kalaimani (2014). Description of the larvae of Günther’s toad Duttaphrynus hololius (Günther, 1876) (Anura: Bufonidae) with notes on development and oral ultra-structure. Alytes, 31: 3–12.

Das, I. & S.K. Dutta (2007). Sources of larval identities for amphibians of India. Hamadryad 31: 152–181.

Das, I., D. Rangad, R.K.L. Tron, K. Deuti & R.N.K. Hooroo (2009). Rediscovery of the endangered Khasi Hills rock toad, Bufoides meghalayana in Meghalaya, Northeastern India. Froglog 92: 1–4.

Datta-Roy, A., I. Das, A.M. Bauer, R.K.L. Tron & P. Karanth (2013). Lizard Wears Shades. A Spectacled Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae), from the Sacred Forests of Mawphlang, Meghalaya, North-east India. Zootaxa, 3701 (2): 257–276.

Deuti, K., S. Rey & S.K. Dey (2012). Status survey of the Khasi Hills rock toad (Bufoides meghalayana) at Cherrapunjee, Meghalaya. Records of Zoological Survey of India III: 21–25.

Edgar, R. C. (2004). MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic acids research 32(5): 1792–1797.

Frost, D.R. (2022). Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1 (Date of access 10 Mar 2022). Electronic Database accessible at American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. https://

Giri, V.B., R. Chaitanya, S. Mahony, S. Lalrounga, C. Lalrinchhana, A. Das, V. Sarkar, P. Karanth & V. Deepak (2019). On the systematic status of the genus Oriocalotes Günther, 1864 (Squamata: Agamidae: Draconinae) with the description of a new species from Mizoram state, Northeast India. Zootaxa 4638 (4): 451–484.

Gosner, K.L. (1960). A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica, 16: 183–190.

Kocher, T.D., W.K. Thomas, A. Meyer, S.V. Edwards, S. Pääbo, F.X. Villablanca & A.C. Wilson (1989). Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86: 6192–6200.

McDiarmid, R.W. & R. Altig (1999). Tadpoles: the biology of anuran larvae. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 476pp.

Noble, G.K. (1931). The Biology of the Amphibia. McGraw Hill Book Company, London: 577pp.

Pillai, R.S. & G.M. Yazdani (1973). Bufoides, a new genus for the rock-toad, Ansonia meghalayana Yazdani & Chanda, with notes on its ecology and breeding habits. Journal of the Zoological Society of India 25: 65–70.

Ronquist, F. & J.P. Huelsenbeck (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574.

Rödel, M.-O. (2000). Herpetofauna of West Africa. Volume I: Amphibians of the West African Savanna. Frankfurt am Main (Edition Chimaira): 332 pp.

Savage, J.M. & W.R. Heyer (1997). Digital webbing formulae for anurans: a refinement. Herpetological Review 28: 131.

Stamatakis, A. (2006). RAxML-VI-HPC: Maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22: 2688–2690.

Tamura, K., G. Stecher, D. Peterson, A. Filipski, & S. Kumar (2013). MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30 (12): 2725–2729.

Yazdani, G.M. & S.K. Chanda (1971). A new toad, Ansonia meghalayana (family Bufonidae) from Meghalaya (Assam), India, with observations on its breeding on Pandanus furcatus Roxb. (Pandanales: Pandanaceae). Journal of the Assam Science Society 14: 76–80.