Amanitaceous fungi of central Western Ghats: taxonomy, phylogeny, and six new reports to Indian mycobiota

Main Article Content

Rangappa Kantharaja
Maddappa Krishnappa


The study presents nine species from the family Amanitaceae collected during field work in Western Ghats forests of Karnataka State, of which six species (Amanita ballerina, A. franzii, A. griseofusca, A. lignitincta, Saproamanita manicata, and S. praeclara) are newly recorded from India. Descriptions, illustrations, molecular phylogenetics of all species, and brief discussions on distinguishing characters, ecology, & distribution are provided.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kantharaja, R. and Maddappa Krishnappa 2022. Amanitaceous fungi of central Western Ghats: taxonomy, phylogeny, and six new reports to Indian mycobiota. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 14, 4 (Apr. 2022), 20890–20902. DOI:


Atri, N.S., M. Kaur & S. Sharma (2017). Characterization of Lamellate Mushrooms–An Appraisal, pp. 471–500. In: Satyanarayana, T., S. Deshmukh & B.N. Johri (eds.). Developments in Fungal Biology and Applied Mycology. Springer, Singapore.

Berkley, M.J. (1850). Decades XXV to XXX. Sikkim-Himalayan fungi, collected by Dr. J.D. Hooker. Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 42–51, 76–88.

Bhatt, R.P., R.E. Tulloss, K.C. Semwal, V.K. Bhatt, J.M. Moncalvo & S.L. Stephenson (2003). The Amanitaceae of India. A critically annotated checklist. Mycotaxon 88: 249–270.

Bhatt, R.P., T. Mehmood, P. Uniyal & U. Singh (2017). Six new records of genus Amanita (Amanitaceae) from Uttarakhand,–India. Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology 7(3): 161–182.

Bhatt, V.K., R.P. Bhatt, R.D. Gour & M.P. Singh (1999). Mushrooms of Garhwal Himalaya: The genus Amanita Pers ex. Hooker. Mushroom Research 8(2): 1–8.

Boedijin, K.B. (1951). Notes on Indonesian fungi. The genus Amanita. Sydowia 5: 317–327.

Cai, Q., R.E. Tulloss, L.P. Tang, B. Tolgor, P. Zhang, Z.H. Chen & Z.L. Yang (2014). Multi-locus phylogeny of lethal amanitas: Implications for species diversity and historical biogeography. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 143.

Corner, E.J.H. & C. Bas (1962). The genus Amanita in Singapore and Malaya. Persoonia 2: 241-304.

Cui, Y.Y., Q. Cai, L.P. Tang, J.W. Liu & Z.L. Yang (2018). The family Amanitaceae: molecular phylogeny, higher-rank taxonomy and the species in China. Fungal Diversity 91: 5–230.

Dancholia, S. (1989). Noteworthy records of the genus Amanita from Orissa (India). Acta Botanica Indica 17: 279-282.

Darriba, D., G.L. Taboada, R. Doallo & D. Posada (2012). jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods 9: 772.

Doyle, J.J. & J.L. Doyle (1987). A Rapid DNA Isolation Procedure for Small Quantities of Fresh Leaf Tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin 19(1): 11–15.

Edler, D., J. Klein, A. Antonelli & D. Silvestro (2020). raxmlGUI 2.0: A graphical interface and toolkit for phylogenetic analyses using RAxML. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 12(2): 373–377.

Fraiture, A., M. Amalfi, O. Raspe, E. Kaya, I. Akata & J. Degreef (2019). Two new species of Amanita sect. Phalloideae from Africa, one of which devoid of amatoxins and phallotoxins. Mycokeys 53: 93–125.

Hall, T.A. (1999). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.

Kantharaja, R. & M. Krishnappa (2020). Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies on Battarrea phalloides (Agaricales): a new report to Indian mycobiota. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(8): 15881–15888.

Kantharaja, R., K.J.N. Patel & M. Krishnappa (2020). Two new records of genus Agaricus from Western Ghats forests of India. KAVAKA 55: 65–70.

Katoh, K., J. Rozewicki & K.D. Yamada (2017). MAFFT online service: multiple sequence alignment, interactive sequence choice and visualization. Briefings in Bioinformatics 20(4): 1160–1166.

Kaur, A. & N.S. Atri (2002). Some interesting mushrooms from Punjab plains. Mushroom Research 11(1): 1–5.

Kiran, M., J. Khan, H. Sher, D.H. Pfister & A.N. Khalid (2018). Amanita griseofusca: A new species of Amanita in section Vaginatae from Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan. Phytotaxa 364(2): 181–192.

Madeira, F., Y. Park, J. Lee, N. Buso, T. Gur, N. Madhusoodanan, P. Basutkar, A.R.N. Tivey, S.C. Potter, R.D. Finn & R. Lopez (2019). The EMBL-EBI search and sequence analysis tools APIs in 2019. ­Nucleic Acids Research 2: 47(W1), W636–W641.

Mohanan, C. (2011). Macrofungi of Kerala. Kerala Forest Research Institute Hand Book No. 27. Kerala, India.

Pearson, A.A. (1950). Cape agarics and boleti. Transactions of British Mycological Society 33(3-4): 276–314.

Persoon, C.H. (1794). Neuer Versuch einer systematischen Eintheilung der Schwamme. Neues Magazin fur die Botanik 1: 63–80.

Rambaut, A. (2018). FigTree v. 1.4.4. Electronic version accessed 12 February 2021.

Redhead, S.A., A.. Vizzini, D.C. Drehmel & M. Contu (2016). Saproamanita, a new name for both Lepidella E.-J. Gilbert and Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert (Amaniteae, Amanitaceae). IMA Fungus 7(1): 119–129.

Reid, D.A. & A. Eicker (1991). South African Fungi: the genus Amanita. Mycological Research 95(1): 80–95.

Ronquist, F., M. Teslenko, P.V.D. Mark, D.L. Ayres, A. Darling, S. Hohna, B. Larget, L. Liu, M.A. Suchard & J.P. Huelsenbeck (2012). MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61(3): 539–542.

Sridhar, K.R. (2018). Highlights on the Macrofungi of South West Coast of Karnataka, India. International Journal of Life Sciences A9: 37–42.

Stamatakis, A. (2014). RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30(9): 1312–1313.

Thongbai, B., S.L. Miller, M. Stadler, K. Wittstein, K.D. Hyde, S. Lumyong & O. Raspe (2017). Study of three interesting Amanita species from Thailand: Morphology, multiple-gene phylogeny and toxin analysis. PloS ONE 12(8): e0182131.

Tulloss, R.E. (2020). Observation 308760: Amanita praeclara (A. Pearson) Bas. Accessed 15 July 2020.

Verma, R.K. & V. Pandro (2018). Diversity and distribution of Amanitaceous mushrooms in India, two new reports from sal forest of central India. Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity 26(1): 42–54.

Verma, R.K., V. Pandro & G.R. Rao (2020). Two new records of gilled mushrooms of the genus Amanita (Agaricales: Amanitaceae) from India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(1): 15194–15200.

Vizzini, A., C. Angelini & A. Bizzi (2016). Saproamanita manicata in Repubblica Dominicana. - Rivista Micologica Romana. Bollettino dell’Associazione Micologica Ecologica Romana 98: 33–44.

Vrinda, K.B., C.K. Pradeep & S.S. Kumar (2005a). Occurrence of a lesser known edible Amanita in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Mushroom Research 14(1): 5–8.

Vrinda, K.B., C.K. Pradeep & S.S. Kumar (2005b). Occurrence of the deadly Amanita phalloides in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Journal of Mycopathological Research 43(2): 259–262.

Yang, Z.L. (1997). Die-Amanita-Arten von Südwestchina. Bibliotheca Mycologica 170: 1–240.

Zhang, M.Z., G.J. Li, R.C. Dai, Y.L. Xi, S.L. Wei & R.L. Zhao (2017). The edible wide mushrooms of Agaricus section Bivelares from Western China. Mycosphere 8(10): 1640–1652.