Raptors observed (1983–2016) in National Chambal Gharial Sanctuary: semi-arid biogeographic region suggestions for parametric studies on ecological continuity in Khathiar-Gir Ecoregion, India

Main Article Content

L.A.K. Singh
R.K. Sharma
Udayan Rao Pawar

Abstract


The birds of prey or raptors in the National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS) assume importance as they are among the top predators of the region, predating on small crocodilians, turtles, and birds. Our checklist of 30 species of raptors is developed from observations made during winter surveys conducted between 1983 and 2016. The study area covered the course of river Chambal including its confluence with river Kuno that leads from Palpur-Kuno Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh. The raptors which use the steep and inaccessible mud cliffs of the Chambal landscape include Bonelli’s Eagle Aquila fasciata, Laggar Falcon Falco jugger, Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus, White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Spotted Owlet Athene brama, and the Indian Eagle-Owl or Rock Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis. Most of the other raptors noted in NCS appear to visit from and around the adjoining wildlife areas of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. According to two methods of classification the study comes in the semi-arid biogeographic zone or Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forest ecoregion. The list of raptors from NCS-Kuno has been compared with previous reports and the list available for Sariska Tiger Reserve and Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve in Rajasthan. The present work is the outcome of a long-term ecological monitoring that primarily focused on the Gharial Gavialis gangeticus and its ecological associates in water and the riverine shores. The birds of prey demanded time and attention for looking above and away from the water surface or the shorelines. Yet, our meticulous records maintained over 34 years have generated a basal profile that is expected to inspire focused studies on parameters that sustain ecological association of raptors of NCS adjoining forest habitats and wildlife sanctuaries in the ecoregion.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
L.A.K. Singh, R.K. Sharma and Pawar, U.R. 2022. Raptors observed (1983–2016) in National Chambal Gharial Sanctuary: semi-arid biogeographic region suggestions for parametric studies on ecological continuity in Khathiar-Gir Ecoregion, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 14, 1 (Jan. 2022), 20444–20460. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.7437.14.1.20444-20460.
Section
Communications

References

Anonymous (2021). Birds of Ranthambhore: http//www.ranthambhoreguides.com/birds/checklist, Download 22nd March 2021.

Ali, S. (1979). The Book of Indian Birds. Eleventh Edition. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay. Pp xlvii + 187.

Ali, S. (2002). The Book of Indian Birds. Thirteenth Edition Revised. Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University Press. Pp lvii + 326.

Bildstein, K.L., W. Schelsky, J. Zalles & S. Ellis (1998). Conservation status of tropical raptors. Journal of Raptor Research 32(1): 3–18.

Bustard, H. R. (1999). Indian Crocodile Conservation Project. Pages 5-9. Envis (Wildlife and Protected Areas) 2(1): . Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Pp 1-155.

Choudhary B. C. Gautam, P. & Nair. T. (2014). Generic tri-state management plan. National Chambal sanctuary, National tri-state Chambal sanctuary management and co-ordination committee (NTRIS - CASMACC) Ministry of environment and Forests, Government of India.

de Vos, A. (1984). Crocodile Conservation in India. Biological Conservation 29 (1984): 183–189.

ENVIS (2020). Protected Areas of India www.wiienvis.nic.in/ updated 03 August 2020. Downloaded 20 March 2021.

FSI (2019). The State of Forest Report 2019. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Dehra Dun. Pp 1-167.

Gill F., D. Donsker & P. Rasmussen (Eds). (2021). IOC World Bird List (v11.1). Accessed 28 Feb 2021. https://doi.org/10.14344/IOC.ML.11.1

Gopi, G. V. & B. Pandav (2006). White bellied sea-eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster preying on salt-water crocodile Crocodylus porosus. Indian Birds 2(6): 171.

Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp, & T. Inskipp (2011). Birds of the Indian subcontinent. India: Oxford, 528pp.

Hernández, Mauro & Antoni Margalida (2009). Poison-related mortality effects in the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) population in Spain. August 2009, European Journal of Wildlife Research 55(4):415–423. https://doi.org/10.14344/IOC.ML.11.110.1007/s10344-009-0255-6

Meteyer, C.U., B. A. Rideout, H. L. Shivasprasad, S. Ahmed, M. J. I. Chaudry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, A. Ali, & A. A. Khan (2004). Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population declines in Pakistan. Nature 427: 630–633.

Mitra (1979). Checklist of Birds in National Chambal Sanctuary. Unpublished official report.

Murthy, R. S. (2004). Management Plan of National Chambal Sanctuary, Morena (M.P.) 2003–2004 to 2013–2014. Forest Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal, India, 148pp.

Nair, T. & Y. C. Krishna (2013). Vertebrate fauna of the Chambal River Basin, with emphasis on the National Chambal Sanctuary, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(2): 3620–3641. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3238.3620-41

Naoroji Rishad (2011). Birds of prey of the Indian subcontinent. Om books international corporate & editorial. www.ombooks.com, 692pp.

Palei, N. C., B. P. Rath & B. P. Acharya (2019). An observation of the White-Bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster preying on Saltwater Crocodile Crocodylus porosus in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, Vol.11, Number 13: 14767–14769. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4916.11.13.14767-14769

Potier, S., M. Mitkus & A. Kelber (2020). Visual adaptations of diurnal and nocturnal raptors. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.05.004

Prakash, V., D. J. Pain, A. A. Cunningham, P. F. Donald, N. Prakash, A. Verma, R. Gargi, S. Sivakumar & A. R. Rahmani (2003). Catastrophic collapse of Indian white-backed Gyps bengalensis and long-billed Gyps indicus vulture populations. Biological Conservation 109: 381–390.

Rao, R.J. & L.A.K. Singh (1987a). Notes on comparative body size, reproductive effort and species of Kachuga (Reptilia, Chelonia) in the National Chambal Sanctuary. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 84(1): 55–65.

Rao, R.J. & L.A.K. Singh (1987b). Notes on ecological relationship in basking and nesting site utilisation among Kachuga spp. (Reptilia, Chelonia) and Gavialis gangeticus (Reptilia, Crocodilia) in National Chambal Sanctuary. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 84(3): 599–604.

Rao, R.J. & L.A.K. Singh (1987c). Kachuga (Reptilia, Emydidae) in National Chambal Sanctuary: Observations on diurnal nesting emergences and unsuccessful nesting crawl. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 84(3): 688–691.

Reddy P. A., D. S. Gour, M. Bhavanishankar, K. Jaggi, S.M. Hussain, K. Harika & S. Shivaji (2012). Genetic Evidence of Tiger Population Structure and Migration within an isolated and fragmented landscape in Northwest India. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29827. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029827

Rodgers, W.A. & H.S. Panwar (1988). Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network in India. A report prepared for the Ministry of Environment and Forests and Wildlife, Government of India, volumes 1 and 2. 339, 267.

Sale, J. B. (1982). 2nd Draft. Management Plan for the National Chambal Sanctuary. First Five-Year Period 1982/83 – 1986/87. Central Crocodile Breeding and Management Institute, Hyderabad, iii+82pp.

Scott, D.A. [ed.] (1989). A Directory of Asian Wetlands. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK, xiv+1181pp, 33 maps.

Sharma, R.K. & L.A.K. Singh (1986). Wetland Birds in National Chambal Sanctuary. Preliminary Report from field camp. Crocodile Research Centre of Wildlife Institute of India, Hyderabad, 36pp+7table.

Sharma, R.K. & L.A.K. Singh (2014). Status of Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) in National Chambal Sanctuary after thirty years. Zoos’ Print Magazine XXIX (7): 22–27.

Sharma, R.K. & L.A.K. Singh (2015). Status of Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus Palustris) in National Chambal Sanctuary after thirty years and its implications on conservation of Gharial (Gavialis Gangeticus). Zoos’ Print Magazine XXX (5): 9–16.

Sharma, R. K. & L.A.K. Singh (2018). Spatial and temporal patterns of stork sightings (Aves: Ciconiidae) in National Chambal Sanctuary of Gangetic River system. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(3): 11410–11415. http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3817.10.3.11410-11415

Sharma, R.K., R. Mathur & S. Sharma (1995). Status and Distribution of fauna in National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh. The Indian Forester, Dehradun, 121(10): 912–916.

Sharma, R. K., S. C. Bhadoria, B. S. Rathore & N. Dasgupta (2013). Diversity of aquatic animals in National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, pp. 246–261. In: Rathore, B.S. & V.S. Rathore (eds.) Management Resource for Sustainable Development. Divya Publishing House, Astral International Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 306pp.

Shultz, S., Baral, H.S., Charman, S., Cunningham, A.A., Das, D., Ghalsasi, G.R., Goudar, M.S., Green, R.E., Jones, A., Nighot, P., Pain, D.J. & Prakash, V. (2004). Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, (Supplement) 271: S458–S460. https://doi.org/10.1098/Rsbl.2004.0223

Singh, L.A.K. & R. J. Rao (1984). Ecological relationship among Turtles in National Chambal Sanctuary. Interim Study Report-1 CRC/ NCS/21-a.Crocodile Research Centre. Wildlife Institute of India. Morena, 45pp.

Singh, L.A.K. & R. J. Rao (1985). Ecological Relationship among Turtles in National Chambal Sanctuary, Interim Study Report-2. National Chambal Sanctuary, Deori, Morena, Madhya Pradesh, 27pp.

Singh, L.A.K. & R. K. Sharma (1985). Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) observations on habits and distribution pattern in National Chambal Sanctuary. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 82(3): 648–653.

Singh, L.A.K. & R. K. Sharma (2015). Climate-related warnings viewed through population trend of crocodiles and dolphin in National Chambal Sanctuary. Presentation made at and Abstract in: UGC- SAP Sponsored National Seminar on Challenges and practices in biodiversity conservation with special reference to herpetofauna, 20–21 November 2015, Department of Zoology, North Orissa University.

Singh, L.A.K. & R. K. Sharma (2018). Sighting trend of the Indian Skimmer (Charidiformes: Laridae: Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838) in National Chambal Gharial Sanctuary (1984–2016) reflecting on the feasibility of long-term ecological monitoring. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(5): 11574–11582. http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3732.10.5.11574-11582

Singh, L.A.K. (1979). Results of survey on the status of mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris Lesson) in rivers Budhabalanga West Deo in Similipal Tiger reserve, Orissa. Typed Report, Dec. 1979. Similipal Tiger Reserve, Jashipur.

Singh, L.A.K. (1985). Gharial Population Trend in National Chambal Sanctuary with notes on radio- tracking. Study Report December 1985. Crocodile Research Centre, Wildlife Institute of India, Hyderabad, 167pp+vii.

Singh, L.A.K. (1999). Status of Gharial and Mugger in Orissa, pp. 17–23. In: Indian Crocodiles. Envis (Wildlife and Protected Areas). Vol.2, No.1, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun, June 1999, 155pp.

Singh, L.A.K. (1993). Survey of Raptors seen in Simlipal Tiger Reserve, Orissa. Bihang newsletter, Vol. 1 (2), January – February 1993: 5–6.

Sultana, A. (2013). An updated checklist of birds of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(13): 4791–4804. http://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3215.4791-804

Swan, G.E., Cuthbert, R., Quevedo, M., Green, R.E., Pain, D.J., Bartels, P., Cunningham, A.A., Duncan, N., Meharg, A.A., Oaks, J.L., Parry-Jones, J., Shultz, S., Taggart, M.A., Verdoorn, G. & Wolter, K. (2006a). Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures. Biology Letters 2:279–282.

Swan, G., Naidoo, V., Cuthbert, R., Green, R.E., Pain, D.J., Swarup, D., Prakash, V., Taggart, M., Bekker, L., Das, D., Diekmann, J., Diekmann, M., Killian, E., Meharg, A., Patra, R.C., Saini, M. & Wolter, K. (2006b). Removing the threat of diclofenac to critically endangered Asian vultures 2006. Public Library of Science Biology 4: 396–402.

Tharmalingam, R., N. Shridharan & R. Kalle (2011). Birds of Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, Central India, Zoos’ Print, vol. XXVI, Issue-12 Dec.2011.

Vyas, R.V. (2019). Note on interactions between predators and prey: Indian crocs and birds. Crocodile Specialist Group, Newsletter 38(2): 4–7.

Wikipedia 2021. Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests. Last edited on 26 January 2021. Accessed 19 March 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khathiar-Gir_dry_deciduous_forests

WWF (2021). Southern Asia: Northwestern India, Ecoregions. Downloaded on 19 April 2021 from https://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/im0206

Zabala-Albizua, Jabi, Joel C. Trexler, Nilmini Jayasena & Peter Frederick (2020). Early Breeding Failure in Birds Due to Environmental Toxins: A Potentially Powerful but Hidden Effect of Contamination. October 2020, Environmental Science and Technology 54(21): 13786–13796. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04098