Main Article Content
Abstract: Many wildlife species survive in human-modified landscapes and understanding the opinions of those who share space with wildlife will aid conservation efforts. Using a questionnaire, we assessed the presence of 12 mammal species in 78 tea plantations in the Nilgiris, southern India. We obtained data on (i) plantation size, location, and elevation, (ii) species presence over a year, (iii) type and number of wildlife incidents caused, (iv) financial cost of wildlife damage, and (v) support for wildlife conservation. We used a generalized linear model to assess whether the distance to protected areas, elevation, and plantation size influenced species presence and the effect of these variables and wildlife incidents on support for conservation. Among all species reported, Bonnet Macaque, Wild Boar, and Porcupine were the most widespread, and the former two and the Gaur reportedly caused >50% of damages. Crop damage was the most frequent (74%, n = 244), whereas livestock predation, attacks on people, and infrastructure damage constituted <10% of incidents reported. The cost of wildlife damage was negligible for 72 estates and significant for six. The number of species increased with proximity to protected areas, with increasing elevation and plantation area. Plantation management (62%) supported wildlife conservation, and support increased with decreasing plantation size, increasing distance to protected areas, and with a higher number of species reported, but decreased with increasing incidents of wildlife damage. Mitigating impacts of a few widely distributed species that cause disproportionate damage and compensating those that incur disproportionately high costs could increase support for conservation. Education and awareness programs for the plantation community can further help increase support and participation in wildlife conservation activities. Plantations can thus serve as supplementary habitats for wildlife in regions where hard boundaries between protected areas and human settlements prevail.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Acha, A., M. Temesgen & H. Bauer (2018). Human–wildlife conflicts and their associated livelihood impacts in and around Chebera-Churchura National Park, Ethiopia. Society & Natural Resources 31(2): 260–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2017.1347974 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2017.1347974
Acharya, K. P., P.K. Paudel, P.R. Neupane & M. Köhl (2016). Human-wildlife conflicts in Nepal: patterns of human fatalities and injuries caused by large mammals. PLoS ONE 11(9): e0161717. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161717 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161717
Anand, S. & S. Radhakrishna (2017). Investigating trends in human-wildlife conflict: is conflict escalation real or imagined? Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 10(2): 154–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2017.02.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2017.02.003
Arjunan, M., C. Holmes, J.P. Puyravaud & P. Davidar (2006). Do developmental initiatives influence local attitudes toward conservation? A case study from the Kalakad–Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental Management 79(2): 188–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.06.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.06.007
Arlet, M.E. & F. Molleman (2010). Farmers’ perceptions of the impact of wildlife on small-scale cacao cultivation at the Northern Periphery of Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon. African Primates 7(1): 27–34.
Bal, P., C.D. Nath, K.M. Nanaya, C.G. Kushalappa & C. Garcia (2011). Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human–elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India. Environmental Management 47(5): 789–801. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9636-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9636-1
Bhagwat, S.A., K.J. Willis, H.J.B. Birks & R.J. Whittaker (2008). Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23(5): 261–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.01.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.01.005
Bruce, J., K.J. Wendland & L. Naughton-Treves (2010). Whom to pay? Key concepts and terms regarding tenure and property rights in payment-based forest ecosystem conservation. Land Tenure Center Policy Brief 15: 1–9.
Campbell‐Smith, G., H.V.P. Simanjorang, N. Leader‐Williams & M. Linkie (2010). Local attitudes and perceptions toward crop-raiding by Orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other nonhuman primates in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 72(10): 866–876.
Census of India (2011). Census of India. Office of the Registrar General: Government of India.
Daniels, R.J.R. (1996). The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve: A review of conservation status with recommendations for a holistic approach to management: India. South-South Cooperation Programme on Environmentally Sound Socio-Economic Development in the Humid Tropics: Working Papers. UNESCO, 16pp.
Davidar, E.R.C., P. Davidar, P. Davidar & J.P. Puyravaud (2012). Elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae) migration paths in the Nilgiri Hills, India in the late 1970s. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(14): 3284–3293. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3008.3284-93 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3008.3284-93
Davidar, P. (2018). The term human-wildlife conflict creates more problems than it resolves: Better labels should be considered. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(8): 12082–12085. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.43184.108.40.20682-12085 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.43220.127.116.1182-12085
de Pinho, J.R., C. Grilo, R.B. Boone, K.A. Galvin & J.G. Snodgrass (2014). Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan Agropastoralist Communities. PLOS ONE 9(2): e88842. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088842 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088842
Department of Economics and Statistics (2016). The Nilgiris District Statistical Hand Book, 166pp.
Di Minin, E., R. Slotow, L.T.B. Hunter, F.M. Pouzols, T. Toivonen, P.H. Verburg, N. Leader-Williams, L. Petracca & A. Moilanen (2016). Global priorities for national carnivore conservation under land use change. Scientific Reports 6(1): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep23814 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep23814
Dickman, A.J. (2010). Complexities of conflict: The importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation 13(5): 458–466. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2010.00368.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2010.00368.x
Erinjery, J.J., S. Kumar, H.N. Kumara, K. Mohan, T. Dhananjaya, P. Sundararaj, R. Kent & M. Singh (2017). Losing its ground: A case study of fast declining populations of a ‘least-concern’ species, the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). PLOS ONE 12(8): e0182140. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182140 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182140
Fulton, D.C., M.J. Manfredo & J. Lipscomb (1996). Wildlife value orientations: A conceptual and measurement approach. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 1(2): 24–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209609359060 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209609359060
Gillingham, S. & P.C. Lee (1999). The impact of wildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of local people around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation 26(3): 218–228. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892999000302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892999000302
Govind, S.K. & E.A. Jayson (2018). Crop damage by wild animals in Thrissur District, Kerala, India, pp. 309–323. In: Sivaperuman, C. & K. Venkataraman (eds.). Indian Hotspots: Vertebrate Faunal Diversity, Conservation and Management Volume 2. Springer, Singapore, 354pp.
GRASS Development Team (2017). Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Software (7.0) [Computer software]. http://grass.osgeo.org/programming7/
Guinness, S.K.M. (2016). Perceptions of crop raiding: Effects of land tenure and agro-industry on human–wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation 19(6): 578–587. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12279 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12279
Guzmán, A., A. Link, J.A. Castillo & J.E. Botero (2016). Agroecosystems and primate conservation: Shade coffee as potential habitat for the conservation of Andean night monkeys in the northern Andes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 215: 57–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.09.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.09.002
Hockings, K.J. & C. Sousa (2012). Differential utilization of cashew—a low-conflict crop—by sympatric humans and chimpanzees. Oryx 46(3): 375–381. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003060531100130X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S003060531100130X
Jenkins, C.N. & L. Joppa (2009). Expansion of the global terrestrial protected area system. Biological Conservation 142(10): 2166–2174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.04.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.04.016
Johnson, C.N., A. Balmford, B.W. Brook, J.C. Buettel, M. Galetti, L. Guangchun & J.M. Wilmshurst (2017). Biodiversity losses and conservation responses in the Anthropocene. Science 356(6335): 270–275. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam9317 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam9317
Kalam, T., H.K. Baishya & D. Smith (2018). Lethal fence electrocution: a major threat to Asian Elephants in Assam, India. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918817283 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918817283
Kansky, R. & A.T. Knight (2014). Key factors driving attitudes towards large mammals in conflict with humans. Biological Conservation 179: 93–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.09.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.09.008
Karanth, K.K. & S. Kudalkar (2017). History, location, and species matter: insights for human–wildlife conflict mitigation from India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 22(4): 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2017.1334106 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2017.1334106
Krishnan, S. (2009). Of land, legislation and litigation: forest leases, agrarian reform, legal ambiguity and landscape anomaly in the Nilgiris, 1969–2007. Conservation and Society 7(4): 283–298.
Krishnan, V., M.A. Kumar, G. Raghunathan & S. Vijayakrishnan (2019). Distribution and habitat use by Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in a coffee-dominated landscape of southern India. Tropical Conservation Science 12: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918822599 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918822599
Kshettry, A., S. Vaidyanathan, R. Sukumar & V. Athreya (2020). Looking beyond protected areas: Identifying conservation compatible landscapes in agro-forest mosaics in north-eastern India. Global Ecology and Conservation 22: e00905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00905 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00905
Kumar, M.A., S. Vijayakrishnan & M. Singh (2018). Whose habitat is it anyway? Role of natural and anthropogenic habitats in conservation of charismatic species. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918788451 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918788451
Kumar, V.S. & D.V.S Bhagavanulu (2008). Effect of deforestation on landslides in Nilgiris District—a case study. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 36(1): 105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12524-008-0011-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12524-008-0011-5
Kumara, H.N., M.A. Kumar, A.K. Sharma, H.S. Sushma, M. Singh & M. Singh (2004). Diversity and management of wild mammals in tea gardens in the rainforest regions of the Western Ghats, India: a case study from a tea estate in the Anaimalai Hills. Current Science 87(9): 1282–1287.
Lamichhane, B.R., G.A. Persoon, H. Leirs, S. Poudel, N. Subedi, C.P. Pokheral, S. Bhattarai, B.P. Thapaliya & H.H. de Iongh (2018). Spatio-temporal patterns of attacks on human and economic losses from wildlife in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. PLoS ONE 13(4): e0195373. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195373 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195373
Liu, F., W.J. McShea, D.L. Garshelis, X. Zhu, D. Wang & L. Shao (2011). Human-wildlife conflicts influence attitudes but not necessarily behaviors: Factors driving the poaching of bears in China. Biological Conservation 144(1): 538–547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.009
Loveridge, A.J., T. Kuiper, R.H. Parry, L. Sibanda, J.H. Hunt, B. Stapelkamp, L. Sebele & D.W. Macdonald (2017). Bells, bomas and beefsteak: complex patterns of human-predator conflict at the wildlife-agropastoral interface in Zimbabwe. PeerJ 5: 1–24. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2898 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2898
Marchal, V. & C. Hill (2009). Primate Crop-raiding: A study of local perceptions in four villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Primate Conservation 24(1): 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1896/052.024.0109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1896/052.024.0109
Naughton-Treves, L. & A. Treves (2005). Socio-ecological factors shaping local support for wildlife: Crop-raiding by elephants and other wildlife in Africa, pp. 252–277. In: Woodroffe, R., S. Thirgood & A. Rabinowitz (Eds.). People and Wildlife, Conflict or Co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 527pp.
Newmark, W.D., N.L. Leonard, H.I. Sariko & D.G.M. Gamassa (1993). Conservation attitudes of local people living adjacent to five protected areas in Tanzania. Biological Conservation 63(2): 177–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(93)90507-W DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(93)90507-W
Nyhus, P.J. & R.T. Sumianto (2000). Crop-raiding elephants and conservation implications at Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 34(4): 262–274. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3008.2000.00132.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3008.2000.00132.x
Pillay, R., A.J.T. Johnsingh, R. Raghunath & M.D. Madhusudan (2011). Patterns of spatiotemporal change in large mammal distribution and abundance in the southern Western Ghats, India. Biological Conservation 144(5): 1567–1576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.01.026 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.01.026
Prabhakar, R. & M. Gadgil (1995). Maps as markers of ecological change: a case study of the Nilgiri Hills of southern India, pp. 152–184. In: Arnold, D. & R. Guha (eds.). Nature, Culture, Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia. Oxford University Press, Delhi, 376pp.
Prabhakar, R. & J.P. Pascal (1996). Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve area: Vegetation and land use. Indian Institute of Science and French Institute of Pondicherry.
Puyravaud, J.P. & P. Davidar (2013). The Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve: an unrealized vision for conservation. Tropical Conservation Science 6(4): 468–476. https://doi.org/10.1177/194008291300600401 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/194008291300600401
Puyravaud, J.P., S.A. Cushman, P. Davidar & D. Madappa (2017). Predicting landscape connectivity for the Asian elephant in its largest remaining subpopulation. Animal Conservation 20(3): 225–234. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12314 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12314
R Core Team (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computinge. http://www.R-project.org
Ramkumar, K., B. Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick & R. Saravanamuthu (2014). Human and Elephant (Elephas maximus) deaths due to conflict in Coimbatore Forest Division, Tamil Nadu, India. Zoo’s Print XXIX(8): 12–19.
Rathod, S. & P. Rathod (2013). Amphibian communities in three different coffee plantation regimes in the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(9): 4404–4413. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3054.4404-13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3054.4404-13
Ravichandran, B. (2019a). Tamil Nadu: 30,000 acres of janmam lands are plantation estates. www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/190119/tamil-nadu-30000-acres-of-janmam-lands-are-plantation-estates. Electronic version accessed on 02 April 2020.
Ravichandran, B. (2019b). Tamil Nadu: 50-year ‘Janmam scourge’ comes to logical end. www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/190119/tamil-nadu-50-year-janmam-scourge-comes-to-logical-end. Electronic version accessed on 02 April 2020.
Riley, E.P. & N.E.C. Priston (2010). Macaques in farms and folklore: Exploring the human–nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 72(10): 848–854. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20798 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20798
Romañach, S.S., P.A. Lindsey & R. Woodroffe (2007). Determinants of attitudes towards predators in central Kenya and suggestions for increasing tolerance in livestock dominated landscapes. Oryx 41(02): 185. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307001779 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307001779
Shankar, T.R. & D. Mudappa (2003). Bridging the gap: Sharing responsibility for ecological restoration and wildlife conservation on private lands in the Western Ghats. Social Change 33(2-3): 129–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/004908570303300309 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/004908570303300309
Sidhu, S., G. Raghunathan, D. Mudappa & T.S. Raman (2017). Conflict to coexistence: human – leopard interactions in a plantation landscape in Anamalai Hills, India. Conservation and Society 15(4): 474. https://doi.org/10.4103/cs.cs_16_35 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/cs.cs_16_35
Tea Board India (2003). Techno Economic Survey of Tea Industry in Nilgiris, pp. 4–5.
Torres, D.F., E.S. Oliveira & R.R.N. Alves (2018). Conflicts Between Humans and Terrestrial Vertebrates: A Global Review. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1940082918794084. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918794084 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918794084
UNEP-WCMC, IUCN & NGS (2018). Protected Planet Report 2018. UNEP-WCMC, IUCN and NGS. Cambridge UK; Gland, Switzerland; and Washington, D.C., USA, 57pp.
UNESCO (2019). Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/ecological-sciences/biosphere-reserves/. Electronic version accessed on 12 April 2020.
Vitousek, P.M., H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco & J.M. Melillo (1997). Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science 277(5325): 494–499. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5325.494 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5325.494
von Lengerke, H.J.V. (1977). The Nilgiris: Weather and Climate of a Mountain Area in South India. Steiner.
Woodroffe, R. & J.R. Ginsberg (1998). Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280(5372): 2126–2128. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5372.2126 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5372.2126
Zimmermann, A., M.J. Walpole & N. Leader-Williams (2005). Cattle ranchers’ attitudes to conflicts with jaguar Panthera onca in the Pantanal of Brazil. Oryx 39(4): 406–412. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605305000992 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605305000992