Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India

Main Article Content

Honnavalli N. Kumara
Ovee Thorat
Kumar Santhosh
R. Sasi
H.P. Ashwin

Abstract

During the present study in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT), nine species of small carnivores viz., Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Rusty-spotted Cat Prionalilurus rubiginosus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Striped-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, were recorded using camera-trapping technique, transect walks, and night surveys. Vegetation type strongly influences the presence and abundance of each species. The most sightings of small carnivores occurred in dry deciduous forests. Among all the species, the Asian Palm Civet was the most abundant and was followed by the small Indian Civet. Compared to many other forests or regions in India, the sight records of the Rusty-spotted Cat were relatively higher in BRT. Although we were unable to use statistical methods to search for higher levels of interdependencies between forest types and small carnivore abundance, our study sheds light on patterns of small carnivore distribution in this unique habitat which bridges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Kumara, H.N., Thorat, O., Santhosh, K., Sasi, R. and Ashwin, H. 2014. Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 6, 12 (Nov. 2014), 6534–6543. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3766.6534-43.
Section
Short Communications

References

Anonymous (2006). Fauna of Biligiri Rangaswamy Wildlife Sanctuary. Conservation Area Series 27. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

Aravind, N.A., R. Dinesh & P.S. Madhusudan (2001). Additions to the birds of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 16(7): 541-547; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.16.7.541-7

Bawa, K.S., S. Lele, K.S. Murali & B. Ganesan (1999). Extraction of non-timber forest products in Biligiri Rangan Hills, India: Monitoring a community-based project, pp. 89–102. In: Saterson, K., R. Margolius & N. Salafsky (eds.). Measuring Conservation Impact: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Project Monitoring And Evaluation. Biodiversity Support Program. World Wildlife Fund, Inc. Washington D.C., USA.

Ganesan, R. & R.S. Setty (2004). Regeneration of Amla, an important non-timber forest from south India. Conservation and Society 2: 365–375.

Ganeshaiah, K.N. & R.U. Shankar (1998). BRT Sanctuary: a biogeographic bridge of the Deccan Plateau, pp. 4–6. In: Ganeshaiah, K.N. & R.U. Shankar (eds.). Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary: Natural history, Biodiversity and Conservation. Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment and Vivekananda Girijana Kalyanakendra, Bangalore, India.

Ganeshaiah, K.N., R.U. Shanker, K.S. Murali & K.S. Bawa (1998). Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 5. Influence of dispersal mode on species response to NTFP extraction. Economic Botany 52: 316–319.

Hegde, R., S. Suraprakash, L. Achot, S. Lele & K.S. Bawa (1996). Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 1. Contribution to rural income. Economic Botany 50: 243–250.

Islam, Z. & A.R. Rahmani (2004). Important Bird Areas in India: Priority Areas for Conservation. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, BirdLife International, UK and Oxford University Press, Mumbai.

Joshi, A.R., J.L.D. Smith & F.J. Cuthbert (1995). Influence of food distribution and predation pressure on spacing behavior in Palm Civets. Journal of Mammalogy 76: 1205–1212.

Karthikeyan, S., J.N. Prasad & T.S. Srinivasa (1995). Yellow throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus at Biligirirangana Hills, Karnataka. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 92: 123–124.

Kelly, M.J. & E.L Holub (2008). Camera trapping of carnivores: trap success among camera types and across species, and habitat selection by species, on Salt Pond Mountain, Giles County, Virginia. Northeastern Naturalists 15: 249–262; http://dx.doi.org/10.1656/1092-6194(2008)15[249:CTOCTS]2.0.CO;2

Kumar, A. & G. Umapathy (1999). Home range and habitat use by Indian Grey Mongoose and Small Indian Civets in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India, pp. 87–91. In: Hussain SA ed. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas, mustelids, viverrids and herpestids of India, Wildlife Institute of India.

Kumara, H.N. & M. Singh (2007). Small carnivores of Karnataka: Distribution and sight records. Journal of Bombay Natural History and Society 104: 153–160.

Kumara, H.N., M. Singh & S. Kumar (2006). Distribution, habitat correlates and conservation of Slender Loris Loris lydekkerianus in Karnataka, India. International Journal of Primatology 27: 941–969.

Kumara, H.N., S. Rathnakumar, M.A. Kumar & M. Singh (2012). Estimating Asian elephant Elephas maximus density through distance sampling in the tropical forests of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, India. Tropical Conservation Science 5: 163–172.

Kumara, H.N., S. Rathnakumar, R. Sasi & M. Singh (2012). Conservation status of wild mammals in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wild life Sanctuary, the Western Ghats, India. Current Science 103: 933–940.

Menon, V. (2003). A Field Guide to Indian Mammals. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Limited, 201pp.

Mudappa, D. (2001). Ecology of the Brown Palm Civet Paradoxurus jerdoni in the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India. PhD Thesis. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India.

Mukherjee, S. (1989). Ecological separation of three sympatric carnivores in Keoladeo-Ghana National Park, Rajasthan, India. Dissertation submitted to the Saurashtra University, Rajkot in partial fulfillment of master’s degree in Wildlife Science.

Mukherjee, S., S.P. Goyal, A.J.T. Johnsingh & M.R.P.L. Pitman (2004). The importance of rodents in the diet of Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Caracal (Caracal caracal) and Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Zoology 262: 405–411.

Murali, K.S., U. Shankar, R.U. Shanker, K.N. Ganeshaiah & K.S. Bawa (1996). Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of the Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 2. Impact of NTFP extraction on regeneration, population structure, and species composition. Economic Botany 50: 251–269.

Murali, K.S. & R.S. Setty (2001). Effects of weeds Lantana camera and Chromelina odorata growth on the species diversity, regeneration and stem density of tree and shrub layer in BRT sanctuary. Current Science 80: 675–678.

Murali, K.S., R.S. Setty, K.N. Ganeshaiah & R.U. Shankar (1998). Does forest type classification reflect spatial dynamics of vegetation? An analysis using GIS techniques. Current science 75: 220–227.

Nag, K. (2008). Assessing animal abundance from photographic capture data using an occupancy approach. MSc Thesis, submitted to Manipal University.

Prater, S.H. (1971). The Book of Indian Animals. 4th Impression. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, and Oxford University Press.

Ramesh, B.R. (1989). Flora of Biligirirangan Hills. PhD Thesis. Madras University, Madras, India.

Rajamani, N., D. Mudappa & H.V. Rompaey (2003). Distribution and status of the Brown Palm Civet in the Western Ghats, south India. Small Carnivore Conservation 27: 6–11.

Setty, R.S., K.S. Bawa & J. Bommaiah (2001). Participatory research monitoring for non-timber forest products in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka, India, pp. 85–88. In: Ganeshaiah, K.N., R.U. Shanker & K.S. Bawa (eds.). Tropical Ecosystems: Structure, Diversity and Human Welfare. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Shankar, U., K.S. Murali, R.U. Shanker, K.N. Ganeshaiah & K.S. Bawa (1996). Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri RanganHills, India. Productivity, extraction and prospects of sustainable harvest of Nelli (Amla) (Emblica officinalis). Economic Botany 50: 270–279.

Shanker, R.U., K.N. Ganeshaiah, M.N. Rao & N.A. Aravind (2004). Ecological consequences of forest use-from genes to ecosystem: a case study in the Biligiri Ranganswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, south India. Conservation and Society 2: 347–364.

Shanker, R.U., R. Hegde & K.S. Bawa (1998). Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 6. Fuel wood pressure and management options. Economic Botany 52: 320–336.

Srinivasan, U. & N.S. Prashanth (2005). Additions to the Avifauna of the Biligirirangans. Indian Birds 1(5): 104.

Srinivasan, U. & N.S. Prashanth (2006). Preferential routes of bird dispersal to the Western Ghats in India: an explanation for the avifaunal peculiarities of the Biligirirangan Hills. Indian Birds 2(4): 114–119.