The state of Nepal birds 2010

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C. Inskipp
H.S. Baral
T. Inskipp
A. Stattersfield


The national status of Nepal birds was determined using the IUCN Red List criteria and following IUCN regional guidelines. Records of all species identified as potentially at high risk were extracted from all relevant references in a comprehensive, up-to-date Nepal bird bibliography. In addition, numerous previously undocumented records were obtained from observers in Nepal. The initial list of potentially threatened species was revised as records were accumulated. Literature reviews were made of current pressures on Nepal birds, responses to these pressures and recommendations for the future. Finally a comprehensive summary table was compiled for all nationally threatened species, including their world distribution, global threat status, national threat status, occurrence, habitat, main altitudinal range, population, key threats, research needs, and key conservation interventions needed. In 2010, 149 bird species (17% of the total recorded) of Nepal birds were considered nationally threatened: 53 Critically Endangered species, 48 Endangered and 47 Vulnerable. Near Threatened species were not assessed due to lack of time available for the necessary research. An additional 16 species were considered threatened in 2010 compared with 2004; no species assessed as threatened in 2004 was considered non-threatened in 2010. When habitat types are considered wetland species are the most threatened (35% of the total wetland species), followed by grassland species (23%). When altitudinal preferences are considered lowland species are the most threatened (36% of all lowland species), followed by species only occurring in the middle hills (17%). Human activities leading to habitat loss and damage are the major threats, with agriculture the root cause; hunting and trapping are other important threats. Effective responses for conservation include Nepal protected areas network, community forestry, designation of Ramsar sites, National Wetland Policy implementation, surveys of globally threatened species and their conservation needs, and conservation awareness activities. Recommendations for future actions by non governmental organisations are made.

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Inskipp, C., Baral, H., Inskipp, T. and Stattersfield, A. 2013. The state of Nepal birds 2010. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 5, 1 (Jan. 2013), 3473–3503. DOI: