Serosurvey of viral pathogens in free-ranging dog populations in the high altitude Trans-Himalayan region

Main Article Content

Chandrima Home
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0369-8198
Ajay Bijoor
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1194-1629
Yash Veer Bhatnagar
Abi Tamim Vanak

Abstract

Dogs, as reservoir hosts, have been implicated in the decline of carnivore populations across the globe. We conducted a serosurvey of free-ranging dog populations to assess the population level exposure rates to three viral pathogens, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV) in a Trans-Himalayan landscape in India that is home to the endangered Snow Leopard. A total of 97 dogs were sampled across six villages as a part of a surgical sterilization campaign during the study period. Samples were tested for IgG antibodies using a table top ELISA kit. Exposure rates to the three viral pathogens in the dog populations was high; 100% for CPV, 54% for CDV and 66% for CAV, with high positive immunoglobulin titer values for CAV and CPV, and low to moderate values for CDV. Overall conservation efforts for native carnivores need to address the role of free-ranging domestic dogs in disease transmission.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Home, C., Bijoor, A., Bhatnagar, Y.V. and Vanak, A.T. 2022. Serosurvey of viral pathogens in free-ranging dog populations in the high altitude Trans-Himalayan region. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 14, 5 (May 2022), 21025–21031. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.7203.14.5.21025-21031.
Section
Communications

References

Acosta-Jamett, G., W.S.K. Chalmers, A.A. Cunningham, S. Cleaveland, I.G. Handel & B.M. deC Bronsvoort (2011). Urban domestic dog populations as a source of canine distemper virus for wild carnivores in the Coquimbo region of Chile. Veterinary Microbiology 152(3–4): 247–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.05.008

Acosta-Jamett, G., S. Cleaveland, A.A. Cunningham & B.M. deC Bronsvoort (2010). Demography of domestic dogs in rural and urban areas of the Coquimbo region of Chile and implications for disease transmission. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 94: 272–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.01.002

Acosta-Jamett, G., A.A. Cunningham, B.M. deC Bronsvoort & S. Cleaveland (2015). Serosurvey of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in wild canids and domestic dogs at the rural interface in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. European Journal of Wildlife Research 61: 329–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-014-0886-0

Almberg, E.S., P.C. Cross & D.W. Smith (2010). Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem’s carnivore community. Ecological Applications 20(7): 2058–2074. https://doi.org/10.1890/09-1225.1

Anonymous (2011). Management plan for the Upper Spiti Landscape including the Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary.Nature Conservation Foundation, Wildlife Wing - Himachal Pradesh Forest Department and Youth Groups in Spiti.

Balboni, A., R. Verin, F. Morandi, A. Poli, S. Prosperi & M. Battilani (2013). Molecular epidemiology of canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2 in free-ranging Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Italy. Veterinary Microbiology 162(2–4): 551–557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.11.015

Beineke, A., W. Baumgärtner & P. Wohlsein (2015). Cross-species transmission of canine distemper virus-an update. One Health 1: 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2015.09.002

Belsare, A.V. & M.E. Gompper (2013). Assessing demographic and epidemiologic parameters of rural dog populations in India during mass vaccination campaigns. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 111(1–2): 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.04.003

Belsare, A.V. & M.E. Gompper (2015). A model-based approach for investigation and mitigation of disease spillover risks to wildlife: Dogs, foxes and canine distemper in central India. Ecological Modelling 296: 102–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.031

Belsare, A.V, A.T. Vanak & M.E. Gompper (2014). Epidemiology of viral pathogens of free-ranging dogs and Indian foxes in a human-dominated landscape in central India. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 61(1): 78–86.

Bijoor, A. (2016). Managing man’s best friend in a TransHimalayan landscape. Current Conservation 10(1): 8–14.

Brearley, G., J. Rhodes, A. Bradley, G. Baxter, L. Seabrook, D. Lunney, Y. Liu & C. McAlpine (2013). Wildlife disease prevalence in human-modified landscapes. Biological Reviews 88(2): 427–442. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12009

Castanheira, P., A. Duarte, S. Gil, C. Cartaxiero, M. Malta, S. Vieira & L. Tavares (2014). Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde. BMC Veterinary Research 10(91): 1–7. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/10/91

Chaudhary, V., N. Rajput, A. Shrivastav & D. Tonkyn (2016). Risk of disease spillover from dogs to wild carnivores in Kanha Tiger Reserve, India. BioRxiv 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1101/360271

Cleaveland, S., M.G. Appel, W.S. Chalmers, C. Chillingworth, M. Kaare & C. Dye (2000). Serological and demographic evidence for domestic dogs as a source of canine distemper virus infection for Serengeti wildlife. Veterinary Microbiology 72(3–4): 217–227.

Cleaveland, S., M.K. Laurenson & L.H. Taylor (2001). Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: Pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 356(1411): 991–999. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2001.0889

Daszak, P., A. Cunningham & A. Hyatt (2001). Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Tropica 78(2): 103–116.

Doherty, T.S., C.R. Dickman, A.S. Glen, T.M. Newsome, D.G. Nimmo, E.G. Ritchie, A.T. Vanak & A.J. Wirsing (2017). The global impacts of domestic dogs on threatened vertebrates. Biological Conservation 210(Part A): 56–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.04.007

Fiorello, C.V., A.J. Noss, S.L. Deem, L. Maffei & E.J. Dubovi (2007). Serosurvey of small carnivores in the Bolivian Chaco. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(3): 551–557.

Foley, J.A., R. Defries, G.P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S.R. Carpenter, F.S. Chapin, M.T. Coe, G.C. Daily, H.K. Gibbs, J.H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E.A. Howard, C.J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J.A. Patz, I.C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty & P.K. Snyder (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science 309(5734): 570–574. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1111772

Funk, S., C. Fiorello, S. Cleaveland & M.E. Gompper (2001). The role of disease in carnivore ecology and conservation, pp. 443–466. In: Gittleman, J.L., S.M. Funk, D.W. Macdonald & R.K. Wayne (eds.). Carnivore Conservation. Cambridge University Press.

Ghoshal, A., Y.V. Bhatnagar, C. Mishra & K. Suryawanshi (2016). Response of the red fox to expansion of human habitation in the Trans-Himalayan mountains. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62(1): 131–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-015-0967-8

Gompper, M.E. (2014). The dog-human-wildlife interface: assessing the scope of the problem pp. 9–54. In: Gompper, M.E. (ed.). Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press.

Hennelly, L., B. Habib & S. Lyngdoh (2015). Himalayan wolf and feral dog displaying mating behaviour in Spiti Valley, India, and potential conservation threats from sympatric feral dogs. Canid Biology and Conservation 18(7): 27–30.

Hiby, L.R., J.F. Reece, R. Wright, R. Jaisinghani, B. Singh & E.F. Hiby (2011). A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India. BMC Veterinary Research 7(46): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-7-46

Home, C. (2018). The ecological and social dimensions of human-dog-wildlife conflict in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, 143 pp.

Home, C., R. Pal, R.K. Sharma, K.R. Suryawanshi, Y.V. Bhatnagar & A.T. Vanak (2017). Commensal in conflict: Livestock depredation patterns by free-ranging domestic dogs in the Upper Spiti Landscape, Himachal Pradesh, India. Ambio 46(6): 655–666. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0858-6

Home, C., Y.V. Bhatnagar & A.T. Vanak (2018). Canine Conundrum: domestic dogs as an invasive species and their impacts on wildlife in India. Animal Conservation 21(4): 275–282. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12389

Knobel, D., S. Cleaveland, P. Coleman, E.M. Fevre, M.I. Meltzer, M.E.G. Miranda, A. Shaw, J. Zinsstag & F.-X. Meslin (2005). Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 83(5): 360–368.

Morgan, E.R., M. Lundervold, G.F. Medley, B.S. Shaikenov, P.R. Torgerson & E.J. Milner-Gulland (2006). Assessing risks of disease transmission between wildlife and livestock: The Saiga antelope as a case study. Biological Conservation 131(2): 244–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.04.012

Murray, K.A. & P. Daszak (2013). Human ecology in pathogenic landscapes: Two hypotheses on how land use change drives viral emergence. Current Opinion in Virology 3(1): 79–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2013.01.006

Ng, D., S. Carver, M. Gotame, D. Karmasharya, D. Karmacharya, S.M. Pradhan, A.N. Rana & C.N. Johnson (2019). Canine distemper in Nepal’s Annapurna Conservation Area - Implications of dog husbandry and human behaviour for wildlife disease. PLoS ONE 14(12): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220874

Osterhaus, A., J. Groen, H. Niesters, M. van de Bildt, B. Martina, L. Vedder, J. Vos, H. van Egmond, B.A. Sidi & M.E.O. Barham (1997). Morbillivirus in monk seal mass mortality. Nature 388: 838–839. https://doi.org/10.1038/42163

Pal, R. (2013). Estimates of Dog Abundance and Livestock Predation along a Gradient of Village Sizes in the Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, 49 pp.

Pongsiri, M.J., J. Roman, V.O. Ezenwa, T.L. Goldberg, H.S. Koren, S.C. Newbold, R.S. Ostfeld, S.K. Pattanayak & D.J. Salkeld (2009). Biodiversity Loss Affects Global Disease Ecology. BioScience 59(11): 945–954. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2009.59.11.6

Randall, D., J. Marino, D. Haydon, C. Sillero-Zubiri, D. Knobel, L. Tallents, D.W. Macdonald & M. Laurenson (2006). An integrated disease management strategy for the control of rabies in Ethiopian wolves. Biological Conservation 131(2): 151–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.04.004

Reiczigel, J., M. Marozzi, I. Fabian & L. Rozsa (2019). Biostatistics for parasitologists –a primer to Quantitative Parasitology. Trends in Parasitology 35(4): 277–281.

Seimon, T.A., D.G. Miquelle & T.Y. Chang (2013). Canine Distemper Virus : an Emerging Disease in Wild Endangered Amur Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). ASM Journals | mBIO 4(4): e00410-13. https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00410-13

Sidhu, N., J. Borah, S. Shah, N. Rajput & K.K. Jadav (2019). Is canine distemper virus (CDV) a lurking threat to large carnivores? A case study from Ranthambhore landscape in Rajasthan, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(9): 14220–14223. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4569.11.9.14220-14223

Suryawanshi, K.R., Y.V. Bhatnagar, S. Redpath & C. Mishra (2013). People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves. Journal of Applied Ecology 50(3): 550–560. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12061

Tiwari, H.K., A.T. Vanak, M. O’Dea, J. Gogoi-Tiwari & I.D. Robertson (2018). A Comparative Study of Enumeration Techniques for Free-Roaming Dogs in Rural Baramati, District Pune, India. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5 (104): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00104

Truyen, U., T. Müller, R. Heidrich, K. Tackmann & L.E. Carmichael (1998). Survey on viral pathogens in wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Germany with emphasis on parvoviruses and analysis of a DNA sequence from a Red Fox parvovirus. Epidemiology and Infection 121(2): 433–440.

Van De Bildt, M.W.G., T. Kuiken, A.M. Visee, S. Lema, T.R. Fitzjohn & A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (2002). Distemper outbreak and its effect on African Wild Dog conservation. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(2): 211–213. https://doi.org/10.3201%2Feid0802.010314

Vanak, A.T. & M.E. Gompper (2009). Dogs canis familiaris as carnivores: Their role and function in intraguild competition. Mammal Review 39(4): 265–283. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2009.00148.x

Vanak, A.T. & M.E. Gompper (2010). Interference competition at the landscape level: the effect of free-ranging dogs on a native mesocarnivore. Journal of Applied Ecology 47(6): 1225–1232. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01870.x

Vanak, A.T., C.R. Dickman, E. Silva-Rodríguez, J. Butler & E.G. Ritchie (2014). Top dogs and under dogs: competition between dogs and sympatric carnivores pp. 69–93. In: Gompper, M.E (ed.). Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press.

Waner, T., A. Naveh, I. Wudovsky & L. Carmichael (1996). Assessment of maternal antibody decay and response to canine parvovirus vaccination using a clinic-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 8(4): 427–432.

Waner, T., A. Naveh, N. Meir, Z. Babichev & L. Carmichael (1998). Assessment of immunization response to caninedistemper virus vaccination in puppies using a clinic-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The Veterinary Journal 155(2): 171–175.