Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 August 2021 | 13(9): 19274–19292

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6843.13.9.19274-19292

#6843 | Received 30 October 2020 | Final received 12 July 2021 | Finally accepted 04 August 2021

 

 

On the high bird diversity in the non-protected regions of Trashiyangtse District in Bhutan

 

Lam Norbu 1, Phuntsho Thinley 2, Tandin Wangchuck 3, Ugyen Dechen 4, Lekey Dorji 5, Tshering Choephel 6  & Pasang Dorji 7

 

1,3,4,5,7 Tashigang Forest Division, Department of Forest and Park Services, Trashigang 42001, Bhutan.

2 Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Conservation and Environmental Research, Department of Forest and Park Services, Lamai Goenpa, Bumthang 32001, Bhutan.

2 Ecosystem Management, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia.

6 Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary, Department of Forest and Park Services, Trashiyangtse 46001, Bhutan.

1 lam.norbu@ymail.com (corresponding author), 2 chetsho78@gmail.com, 3 twangchoks@gmail.com, 4 udechen@moaf.gov.bt, 5 lekid1308@gmail.com, 6  tsherichobhel@gmail.com, 7 pasangdorjiks@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: Birds are ecological indicators of ecosystem health. Baseline information on bird diversity are, therefore, important for ecological monitoring. Such information is, however, sorely lacking for many areas outside the protected areas. Here, we explore the avian diversity and present a comprehensive checklist for the non-protected regions of Trashiyangtse District in northeastern Bhutan. We also categorise the bird species by their residency pattern, feeding guilds, abundance, and IUCN Red List status. We conducted an avifauna exploration for a period of four years from 2017 to 2020, mostly through opportunistic encounters coinciding with regular field visits. We recorded a total of 273 bird species belonging to 173 genera, 69 families and 19 orders. Passeriformes was the most dominant order with 41 families and 174 species and Muscicapidae was the most dominant family with 12 genera and 32 species. Most birds were altitudinal migrants (39%), insectivorous (45%), and occasional (44%) in terms of residency pattern, feeding guild, and abundance, respectively. Only one species (Ardea insignis) was listed as Critically Endangered and one (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) as Endangered. Our study identified the non-protected regions of Trashiyangtse District as an important bird diversity area in Bhutan.

 

Keywords: Avifauna, bird diversity, nonprotected area, northeastern Bhutan, threatened birds.

 

 

 

Editor: Carol Inskipp, Bishop Auckland Co., Durham, UK.             Date of publication: 26 August 2021 (online & print)

 

Citation: Norbu, L., P. Thinley, T. Wangchuck, U. Dechen, L. Dorji, T. Choephel & P. Dorji (2021). On the high bird diversity in the non-protected regions of Trashiyangtse District in Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(9): 19274–19292. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6843.13.9.19274-19292

 

Copyright: © Norbu et al. 2021. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Lam Norbu works as the Range Officer of Yangtse Range under Tashigang Territorial Forest Division of the Department of Forests and Park Services within the Royal Government of Bhutan. He takes ardent interest in studying lesser-known taxa to improve understanding of their ecology and distribution. Phuntsho Thinley is a wildlife biologist currently working as a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of New England in Australia. He focusses on understanding the distribution, ecology, and human dimensions of threatened wildlife. Tandin Wangchuck is a Forest Ranger at Doksum Range under Tashigang Territorial Forest Division.  He specialises in plant taxonomy and wildlife photography. Ugyen Dechen oversees the Nature Conservation Section at the head office of Trashigang Territorial Forest Division. He deals with biodiversity conservation. Lekey Dorji is a Senior Forester at Khamdang Forest Beat under Yangtse Range. He is passionate about exploring butterflies, birds, and orchids. Tshering Choephel is a Senior Forester at Dungzam Range under Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary. He is an avid birder and a wildlife photographer. Pasang Dorji is a Forest Ranger at Yangtse Range. Recently, he developed interests in knowing about butterflies, moths, herpetofauna, and orchids.

 

Author contributions: LN and PT:  Conceptualisation, study design, data collection, analysis, drafting and revision of the manuscript. TW and TC: data collection and species identification.  UD, LD and PD: data collection.

 

Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Mr. Karma Leki, chief forestry officer of Trashigang Forest Division under the Department of Forest and Park Services for his support and motivation.  We are also indebted to the staff of Yangtse and Doksum Range, and Dongdichu Forest Management Unit for their help and information sharing. Mr. Tandin Wangdi, teacher of Trashiyangtse Lower Secondary School is also well acknowledged for allowing us to use his pictures of the Common Kingfisher, Yellow-rumped Honeyguide, Egret, Red Crossbill, Rufescent Prinia, Oriental Turtle Dove, Speckled-wood Pigeon, and Common Stonechat. We are also extremely grateful to all the anonymous reviewers for their invaluable comments and suggestions in improving this manuscript.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Birds are the best known group of animal taxa at the global level, with the most extended time series data available (James et al. 2017). Their distribution is ubiquitous across all continents (Nyffeler et al. 2018), enabled by their preference to live in heterogeneous environments. Assessment of avifaunal communities is essential because they can serve as effective indicators of ecosystem status and health, in both qualitative and quantitative terms. This is because birds perform diverse ecological roles, ranging from disease regulation and, biomass recycling to environmental sanitation, seed dispersal, and pollination (James et al. 2017; Mukhopadhyay & Mazumdar 2017; Kiros et al. 2018). Birds are also sources of food and, spiritual inspiration, in addition to being important components of tourism industries (Kiros et al. 2018). Therefore, baseline information on birds of a particular locality, such as a species checklist, is vital for ecological monitoring, environmental assessments, conservation planning (Kandel et al. 2018; Sharma et al. 2018), and exploring eco-tourism potentials.

The first exploration of avifauna in Bhutan was conducted in 1837 by a British team (Gyeltshen et al. 2020). Later, several avifaunal expeditions and studies have been done in the country by Bhutanese nationals and foreign researchers, resulting in numerous online literature in the form of published articles, notes, and guidebooks. The number of publications on birds is expected to surge in the next few years with the current improvements in the institutional and personnel capacity and the concurrent emergence of citizen science that helps in building databases and species inventories.

Despite its small geographical size ~38,394km2 (Thinley et al. 2021), Bhutan is a hotspot for bird diversity in the Himalaya with 23 important bird areas (IBA) (Banerjee & Bandopadhyay 2016) and is also part of the eastern Himalaya endemic bird area (Stattersfield et al. 1998; Bishop 1999). The latest record of confirmed bird species in the country stands at 748 species (Dendup et al. 2020; Gyeltshen et al. 2020) of which 31 are globally threatened and 18 are part of the 37 endemic bird species in eastern Himalaya (DoFPS 2020). This makes Bhutan a stronghold for bird diversity (Kandel et al. 2018). Currently, bird databases exist for most of the protected areas (PAs) in Bhutan. For instance, Avibase, the world bird database (Lepage 2020) has a checklist of 469 bird species for Trashiyangtse District which is inclusive of the areas falling inside the Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary (BWS). However, PAs occupy half of the country (Thinley et al. 2020; 2021) and databases are yet to be developed for the remaining half, which consists of the state reserved forests (SRF) administered by Territorial Forest Divisions.  The areas outside the PAs are equally important for biodiversity conservation due to presence of vast tracts of relatively undisturbed forests that provide ideal habitats for a wide range of bird species. Thus, high bird diversity can be expected in some areas situated outside the PAs. 

Here in this study, we explore the avian diversity and present a comprehensive bird checklist for the non-protected region of Trashiyangtse District, located in northeastern Bhutan.  We also categorise the bird species by their residency pattern, feeding guilds, abundance, and conservation status.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Study area description

The non-protected region of Trashiyangtse District (Figure 1; between 27.61160N and 91.4980E) is bordered by the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh in the east. The district experiences a temperate climate, featured by warm & wet summers and cold & relatively dry winters, with an average annual temperature of 20.2 °C and precipitation of 1,065 mm (Norbu et al. 2019). Two major rivers, Kholongchu and Drangmechu, flow through the district and make it an important water catchment. Covering an area of approximately 1,449 km2, the elevation ranges 800–6,000 m (FRMD 2017), and approximately 59% lies inside the BWS while the remaining 41% (600 km2) is unprotected but managed as SRF land. The land cover in the non-protected region of Trashiyangtse is dominated by forest cover (70%) which is composed of major forest types of fir forest, mixed conifer forest (MCF), pine forest, mixed pine-cool broadleaved forest, chirpine forest, cool broadleaved forest (CBF), alpine shrubs, alpine meadows, and a few plantations (Koirala et al. 2021; FRMD 2017). Cool broadleaved forest is the most dominant forest type (44%) in this region, followed by MCF (15%). Although, several studies have been conducted on various taxonomic groups inside the protected region of the district, little is known about the biodiversity in the non-protected region which has potential for biodiversity conservation and ecotourism development.

 

Data collection and organization

We conducted an avifauna exploration for a period of four years (2017–2020) to maintain baseline data in the non-protected region of Trashiyangtse District. The data was collected mostly through opportunistic encounters coinciding with regular field visits to various locations in different seasons, including incidental rapid biodiversity surveys, site inspections, anti-poaching patrols, timber allotments, environmental impact assessments, anti-fishing patrols along the rivers, and forest inventories (for local forest management planning, heritage forests and community forests). The survey site covers all forest types and bird habitats, ranging from river sides, roadsides, and human settlements (rural and urban) to agriculture fields, plantations, meadows, rocky outcrops, and mountain tops, all within an elevation range of 800 m (at Jamkhardrang) to 4,050 m (at Dribla). In this way, terrestrial and water birds from lowland to high altitude uplands have been covered in the study. The birds were observed using binoculars (Nikon 10 x 40 mm) and were photographed using a digital camera (Cannon DC 18–135 mm lens). Bird photographs were compared with those on the latest guidebooks by Grimmett et al. 2011, 2019; Praveen et al. 2016, 2020) for species identification and species nomenclature. Additionally, bird calls were recorded (using an android phone) wherever possible and compared with the pre-recorded bird songs (e.g., Avibase bird call 2020) to further authenticate species identity. Online data bases (e.g., www.inaturalist.org/projects/birds-of-Bhutan) were also referred for species identification. For those in doubt, consultations were made with avian experts via email and social media.

We followed the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species for global conservation status of the recorded bird species. They were further categorized according to their residency pattern as residents, altitudinal migrants, summer visitors, winter visitors, and passage migrants, following Ali et al. (1996), Feijen & Feijen (2008), and Grimmett et al. (2019). Moreover, feeding guilds were assigned according to field observations (Kumar & Sharma 2018; Sharma et al. 2018; Singh et al. 2020), such that birds feeding on grains were categorized as granivorous, fruits as frugivorous, nectars as nectivorous, insects as insectivorous, vertebrates (amphibians, snakes, lizards, small mammals, small birds, and fishes) and invertebrates (crustaceans and micro invertebrates) as carnivorous, and both plants and animals as omnivorous. Furthermore, birds were categorized as common, frequent, occasional and rare based on abundance and frequency of sightings during field investigation following Ali et al. (1996), Feijen & Feijen (2008), and Grimmett et al. (2019).  Subsequently, the relative diversity (RDi) of families was calculated using the formula used by Singh et al. (2020): RDi= (Number of species in a family/Total number of species) x 100.

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

We recorded a total of 273 bird species belonging to 173 genera, 69 families, and 19 orders in the outside protected region of Trashiyangtse District (Table 1). The occurrence of diverse bird species in the non-protected region of Trashiyangtse District is because of the rich forest cover with diverse mosaic habitats (marshy areas, artificial ponds, and irrigated crop fields along the bank of Kholongchu and Drangmechu rivers) supporting high diversity of food resources for birds in different seasons. However, our species richness was comparatively lower than in the remaining areas of the district encompassed by BWS where a total of 355 species have been recorded (BWS 2018). Further studies are needed to understand the factors driving the difference in bird diversity within and outside the protected regions.

Among the total of 19 orders (Figure 2; Table 1), Passeriformes was the most dominant, comprising 63.7% (174 species in 41 families) of the total species count, followed by Piciformes (14 species in three families) which constituted only 5.1% of the total species count. Buceriformes, Caprimulgiformes, Falconiformes, Podicipediformes, and Suliformes were the least represented orders each having a single species. Overall, passerines dominated (64%, n= 174) the avian diversity as compared to non-passerines (36%, n= 99) which was also the trend observed in the adjoining BWS (BWS 2018) because of the similar forest types prevalent in both the cases. Dominance of Passeriformes was also reported elsewhere in Bhutan, particularly the SRF Land of Trongsa district (Gyeltshen et al. 2020), along the Bindu River in Samtse district (Pasang 2018), Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary (Wangyel et al. 2018), and Phrumshingla National Park (Inskipp et al. 2000). A similar pattern of Passerine dominance was reported from some areas in the eastern Himalayan region, such as in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Landscape, which is a transboundary complex shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal (Kandel et al. 2018). This makes sense because Passerines are globally the largest and most diverse order of birds (Koli 2014).

Comparing by families, Muscicapidae with RDi of 11.7% (32 species in 12 genera) was the most dominant of the total of 69 families (Figure 3; Table 1) documented in our study area, followed by Leiothrichidae (6.2%; 17/8), Accipitridae (4.0%; 11/9), Fringillidae (4.0%; 11/7), Picidae (3.6%; 10/7), Phylloscopidae (3.3%; 9/1), Anatidae (3.3%; 9/7), and Cuculidae (2.9%; 8/6). Similarly, many other investigators such as Pasang (2018), Wangyel et al. (2018), Tobgay (2016), and Inskipp et al. (2000) have also found Muscicapidae to be the dominant family in their respective study areas. Similar observations were made from the Kangchengjunga Conservation Landscape (Kandel et al. 2018) and India (Koli 2014).  Muscicapidae, indeed, is the largest family of birds restricted to the Old World (Europe, Africa, and Asia) with 322 species (Daniels 2020). In contrast, Gyeltshen et al. (2020) found Timaliidae to be the dominant family in the SRF Land of Trongsa District in central Bhutan. This variation could be attributed to the differences in habitat conditions occurring in different longitudes and elevation gradients.

Classifying by residency pattern, our data revealed the majority 39% (n= 106) were altitudinal migrants (Figure 4; Table 1) which was closely followed by residents (36%; n= 98). Constituting minor proportions were summer visitors (11%; n= 31), and winter visitors and passage migrants (7%; n= 19 each). Similarly, Gyeltshen et al. (2020) also reported that 36.7% (n= 121) of bird species recorded in the SRF region of Trongsa District were residents, followed by 34.5% (n= 114) altitudinal migrants, 15.2% (n= 50) summer visitors, 8.2% (n= 27) winter visitors, 4.8% (n= 16) passage migrants, and only two vagrants. Overall, in the entire Trashiyangtse District, a number of winter visitors and passage migratory species are observed annually across Kholongchu and Drangmechu river basins.  This is because Bhutan lies on the Oriental Zoogeographic Realm and the Central Asian Flyways (CAF) which supports approximately 279 migratory water birds for wintering, stopover and even breeding (CMS 2019). Moreover, the major river basins of the country also provide shortest transit corridor or migratory routes connecting the significant bird habitat of Indo-Malayan Zoogeographic realms and Palearctic realms (DoFPS 2020).

When bird species were grouped by six major feeding guilds (Figure 5; Table 1), a maximum number of species (45%; n= 124) was insectivorous, followed by omnivorous (27%; n= 74), carnivorous (13%; n= 36), granivorous (9%; n= 24), frugivorous (4%; n= 10), and nectivorous (2%; n= 5). This representation of major trophic guilds indicates that the area holds a wide spectrum of food resources for birds due to the presence of a wide range of food niches, which reduces food competition among different species (Kumar & Sharma 2018). Most bird species are insectivorous, and the predominance of insectivore as a feeding style among birds is provisioned by diversity of insects prevalent in the agroecosystem mosaic comprised by croplands, settlements, grazing pastures, wetlands, and developed areas which represent a highly predictable food resources and diverse niches to birds (Nyffeler et al. 2018).

Upon classifying by abundance, the majority (44%; n= 121) of birds belonged to the occasional, exhibiting seasonal or altitudinal migration in the district while 30% (n= 82) were common, whereas 24% (n= 65) and 2% (n= 5) were rare and frequent respectively (Table 1). Among the rare bird species encountered, the White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis and Indian Paradise Flycatcher Terpsihone paradisi sighted were only once in the study area. The former was sighted in 2019 behind the Dongtidzong and along the Dongdichu stream that feeds in to the Kholongchu River and later in 2018 near Yangtse town.  

Finally, when bird species were categorized as per their IUCN Red List, only one species (White-bellied Heron) was listed as ‘Critically Endangered’, one (Palla’s Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus) as ‘Endangered’, one (Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis) as ‘Vulnerable’, and five (Himalayan Griffon Vulture Gyps himalayensis, River Lapwing Vanellus duvaucelii, Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra, Yellow-rumped Honeyguide Indicator xanthonotus, and Ward’s Trogon Harpactes wardi) as ‘Near Threatened’ (Table 1).  Additionally, Himalayan Griffon Vulture, Black-necked Crane, and Palla’s Fish Eagle are included in Appendix I and II of CITES (2019).  Seven species (Palla’s Fish Eagle, River Lapwing, White-bellied Heron, Yellow-rumped Honeyguide, Ward’s Trogon, Black-necked Crane, and Himalayan Monal) are nationally protected and listed under Schedule I of the Forest and Nature Conservation Act 1995 (RGoB 1995) and Schedule II of the Forest and Nature Conservation Rules and Regulation of Bhutan 2017 (RGoB 2017). 

Our study represents one of the few documented cases of complete bird inventory in areas adjoining a protected area in the eastern Himalayan region. Our data can be used as a baseline for future monitoring and survey. Aside from providing a comprehensive bird checklist along with their conservation status, our findings suggest the areas lying outside the protected areas with heterogeneous and mosaic landscapes of varying topography, elevation, weather, climate, and vegetation pattern offer ideal habitats and alternative conservation areas for birds. This bodes well with the current drive to identify and support conservation outside the protected areas (Kullberg et al. 2019; Kshettry et al. 2020). However, the current massive clearing of forests along the Kholongchu River for a 600 megawatts hydro power construction, new power transmission lines, highway widening and also the increasing number of new farm road and trail constructions and increased resource collections, mainly due to less restrictions as opposed to a protected area, pose significant threats to the bird community in Trashiyangtse District.

We recommend conservation donors and wildlife managers to include non-protected areas such as ours as conservation priorities and accordingly provide funds to initiate bird conservation work for overall biodiversity conservation and eco-tourism. We also suggest similar studies to be conducted in other areas adjacent to protected areas in Bhutan as well as in the region.

 

Table 1. The avifauna checklist for the non-protected region of Trashiyangtse District in north-eastern Bhutan | categorized into feeding guild (Gra—Granivorous | Fru—Frugivorous | Nec—Nectivorous | Ins—Insectivorous | Car—Carnivorous | and Omn—Omnivorous) | residency pattern (R—Residents | AM—Altitudinal Migrants | SV—Summer Visitors | WV—Winter Visitors | and PM—Passage Migrants) | IUCN Red List status (CE—Critically Endangered | E—Endangered | VU—Vulnerable | NT—Near Threatened | and L—Least Concern) | and abundance (C—Common | F—Frequent | O—Occasional | R—Rare).

Order/ Family (no. of species)/

Common name

Scientific name

Feeding guild

Residency pattern

IUCN Red List

status

Abundance

Accipitriformes

 

 

 

 

 

Accipitridae (11)

 

 

 

 

 

Shikra

Accipiter badius (Gmelin, JF, 1788)

Car

R

LC

O

Eurasian Sparrowhawk

Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Car

AM

LC

R

Himalyan Buzzard

Buteo burmanicus (Hume, 1875)

Car

WV

LC

R

Common Buzzard

Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758)

Car

AM

LC

O

Hen Harrier

Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Car

AM

LC

R

Himalayan Griffon Vulture

Gyps himalayensis (Hume, 1869)

Car

R

NT

O

Pallas's Fish Eagle

Haliaeetus leucoryphus, (Pallas, 1771)

Car

R

EN

R

Black Eagle

Ictinaetus malaiensis (Temminck, 1822)

Car

R

LC

O

Black-eared Kite

Milvus migrans (Boddaert, 1783)

Car

PM

LC

R

Mountain Hawk Eagle

Nisaetus nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836)

Car

R

LC

R

Crested Serpent Eagle

Spilornis cheela (Latham, 1790)

Car

SV

LC

O

Pandionidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Osprey

Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Car

WV

LC

R

Anseriformes

 

 

 

 

 

Anatidae (9)

 

 

 

 

 

Mandarin Duck

Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

PM

LC

R

Northern Pintail

Anas acuta (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

PM

LC

R

Common Teal

Anas crecca (Linneaus, 1758)

Omn

PM

LC

R

Mallard Duck

Anas platyrhynchos (Linnaeus, 1758)

Gra

PM

LC

R

Bar-headed Goose

Anser indicus (Latham, 1790)

Gra

PM

LC

R

Eurasian Wigeon

Mareca penelope (Linnaeus, 1758)

Gra

PM

LC

R

Goosander

Mergus merganser (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

PM

LC

R

Red-crested Pochard

Netta rufina (Pallas, 1773)

Omn

PM

LC

R

Northern Shoveler

Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Gra

PM

LC

R

Apodiformes

 

 

 

 

 

Apodidae (5)

 

 

 

 

 

House swift

Apus nipalensis (Hodgson, 1837)

Ins

R

LC

O

Fork-tailed Swift

 Apus pacificus (Latham, 1801)

Ins

SV

LC

O

Himalayan Swiftlet

Collocalia brevirostris (Horsfield, 1840)

Ins

R

LC

O

Asian Palm Swift

Cypsiurus balasiensis (Gray, JE, 1829)

Ins

R

LC

O

White-throated Needletail

Hirundapus caudacutus (Latham, 1801)

Ins

SV

LC

O

Buceriformes

 

 

 

 

 

Upupidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Eurasian Hoopoe

Upupa epops (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

AM

LC

C

Caprimulgiformes

 

 

 

 

 

Caprimulgidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Grey Nightjar

Caprimulgus indicus (Latham, 1790)

Ins

R

LC

O

Charadriiformes

 

 

 

 

 

Charadriidae (4)

 

 

 

 

 

Little Ringed Plover

Charadrius dubius (Scopoli, 1786)

Omn

WV

LC

R

Long-billed Plover

Charadrius placidus (Gray, JE & Gray, GR, 1863)

Omn

WV

LC

R

River Lapwing 

Vanellus duvaucelii  (Lesson, 1826)

Ins

R

NT

R

Red-wattled Lapwing

Vanellus indicus (Roddaert, 1783)

Ins

SV

LC

R

Ibidorhynchidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Ibisbill

Ibidorhyncha struthersii (Vigors, 1832)

Ins

WV

LC

R

Laridae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Brown-headed Gull

Chroicocephalus  brunnicephalus (Jerdon, 1840)

Omn

PM

LC

R

Scolopacidae (3)

 

 

 

 

 

Common Sandpiper

Actitis hypoleucos (Linnaeus, 1758)

Car

PM

LC

R

Solitary Snipe

Gallinago solitaria (Hodgson, 1831)

Car

WV

LC

R

Green Sandpiper

Tringa ochropus (Linneaus, 1758)

Car

PM

LC

R

Tunicidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Barred Buttonquail

Turnix suscitator (Gmelin, JF, 1789)

Gra

R

LC

R

Columbiformes

 

 

 

 

 

Columbidae (6)

 

 

 

 

 

Barred Cuckoo Dove

Macropygia unchall (Wagler, 1827)

Gra

SV

LC

O

Speckled Wood Pigeon

Columba hodgsonii (Vigors, 1832)

Gra

AM

LC

O

Snow Pigeon

Columba leuconota (Vigors, 1831)

Gra

AM

LC

R

Spotted Dove

Spilopelia chinensis (Scopoli, 1786)

Gra

SV

LC

C

Oriental Turtle Dove 

Streptopelia orientalis (Latham, 1790)

Gra

R

LC

C

Wedge-tailed Green Pigeon

Treron sphenurus (Vigors, 1832)

Gra

AM

LC

O

Coraciiformes

 

 

 

 

 

Alcedinidae (3)

 

 

 

 

 

Common Kingfisher

Alcedo atthis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Car

AM

LC

O

White-throated Kingfisher

Halcyon smyrnensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Car

AM

LC

R

Crested Kingfisher

Megaceryle lugubris (Temminck, 1834)

Car

AM

LC

O

Coraciidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Roller

Coracias benghalensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ins

AM

LC

R

Cuculiformes

 

 

 

 

 

Cuculidae (8)

 

 

 

 

 

Common Hawk Cuckoo

Hierococcyx varius (Vahl, 1797)

Ins

SV

LC

O

Lesser Coucal

Centropus bengalensis (Gmelin, JF, 1788)

Ins

R

LC

O

Eurasian Cuckoo

Cuculus canorus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ins

SV

LC

O

Indian Cuckoo

Cuculus micropterus (Gould, 1838) 

Ins

SV

LC

C

Himalayan Cuckoo

Cuculus saturatus (Blyth, 1843)

Ins

SV

LC

C

Large Hawk Cuckoo

Hierococcyx sparverioides (Vigors, 1832)

Ins

SV

LC

O

Green-billed Malkoha

Phaenicophaeus tristis (Lesson, 1830)

Ins

R

LC

R

Square-tailed Drongo-cuckoo

Surniculus lugubris (Horsfield, 1821)

Ins

SV

LC

O

Falconiformes

 

 

 

 

 

Falconidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Common Kestrel

Falco tinnunculus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Car

R

LC

O

Galliformes

 

 

 

 

 

Phasianidae (7)

 

 

 

 

 

Blood Pheasant

Ithaginis cruentus (Hardwicke, 1821)

Omn

R

LC

R

Rufous-throated Partridge

Arborophila rufogularis (Blyth, 1849)

Omn

R

LC

R

Hill Partridge

Arborophila torqueola (Valenciennes, 1825)

Omn

R

LC

C

Common Quail

Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

R

LC

R

Himalayan Monal

Lophophorus impejanus (Latham, 1790)

Omn

R

LC

R

Kalij Pheasant

Lophura leucomelanos (Latham, 1790)

Omn

R

LC

C

Satyr Tragopan

Tragopan satyra (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

R

NT

O

Gruiformes

 

 

 

 

 

Gruidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Black-necked Crane

Grus nigricollis (Przhevalsky, 1876)

Omn

WV

VU

R

Rallidae (4)

 

 

 

 

 

White-breasted Waterhen

Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769)

Omn

R

LC

R

Eurasian Coot

Fulica atra (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

PM

LC

R

Slaty-breasted Rail

Lewinia striata (Linnaeus, 1766)

Omn

WV

LC

R

Black-tailed Crake

Zapornia bicolor (Walden, 1872)

Omn

R

LC

R

Passeriformes

 

 

 

 

 

Aegithalidae (2)

 

 

 

 

 

Black-throated Bush tit

 Aegithalos   concinnus (Gould, 1855)

Ins

R

LC

C

Rufous-fronted Bush tit

Aegithalos iouschistos (Blyth,1845)

Ins

AM

LC

C

Alaudidae (2)

 

 

 

 

 

Oriental Skylark

Alauda gulgula (Franklin, 1831)

Omn

WV

LC

R

Horned Lark

Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

WV

LC

R

Alcippeidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Nepal Fulvetta

Alcippe nipalensis (Hodgson, 1837)

Ins

R

LC

O

Calcariidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Lapland Longspur

Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

AM

LC

R

Campephagidae (2)

 

 

 

 

 

Long-tailed Minivet

Pericrocotus ethologus (Bangs & Phillips, 1914)

Ins

R

LC

O

Scarlet Minivet

Pericrocotus fammeus (Forster, JR, 1781)

Ins

AM

LC

O

Certhiidae (3)

 

 

 

 

 

Brown-throated Treecreeper

Certhia discolor (Blyth, 1845)

Ins

AM

LC

O

Hodgson's Treecreeper

Certhia hodgsoni (Brooks, WE, 1871)

Ins

AM

LC

O

Rusty-flanked Treecreeper

Certhia nipalensis (Blyth, 1845)

Ins

AM

LC

F

Cettiidae (5)

 

 

 

 

 

Yellow-bellied Warbler

Abroscopus superciliaris (Blyth, 1859)

Ins

AM

LC

C

Chestnut-headed Tesia

Cettia castaneocoronata (Burton, E, 1836)

Ins

AM

LC

O

Aberrant Bush Warbler

Horornis flavolivaceus (Blyth, 1845)

Ins

AM

LC

C

Brown-flanked Bush Warbler

Horornis fortipes (Hodgson, 1845)

Ins

AM

LC

C

Grey-bellied Tesia

Tesia cyaniventer (Hodgson, 1837)

Ins

AM

LC

O

Chloropseidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Orange-bellied Leaf bird

Chloropsis hardwickii (Jardine & Selby, 1830)

Fru

R

LC

O

Cinclidae (2)

 

 

 

 

 

White-throated Dipper

Cinclus cinclus (Linneaus, 1758)

Ins

AM

LC

O

Brown Dipper

Cinclus pallasii (Temminck, 1820)

Ins

AM

LC

C

Cisticolidae (4)

 

 

 

 

 

Common Tailorbird

Orthotomus sutorius (Pennant, 1769)

Ins

R

LC

C

Black-throated Prina

Prinia atrogularis (Moore, F, 1854)

Ins

R

LC

C

Striated Prina

Prinia crinigera (Hodgson, 1836)

Ins

R

LC

C

Rufescent Prinia

Prinia rufescens (Blyth, 1847)

Ins

R

LC

C

Corvidae (6)

 

 

 

 

 

Grey Treepie

Dendrocitta formosae (Swinhoe, 1863)

Omn

R

LC

C

Large-billed Crow

Corvus macrorhynchos (Wagler, 1827)

Omn

R

LC

C

Eurasian Jay

Garrulus glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

AM

LC

O

Red-billed Chough

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ins

AM

LC

R

Spotted Nutcracker

Nucifraga caryocatactes (Linnaeus, 1758)

Omn

R

LC

O

Yellow-billed Blue Magpie

Urocissa flavirostris (Blyth, 1846)

Omn

R

LC

C

Dicaeidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Fire-breasted  Flowerpecker

Dicaeum ignipectus (Blyth,1843)

Fru

AM

LC

O

Dicruridae (3)

 

 

 

 

 

Ashy Drongo

Dicrurus leucophaeus (Vieillot, 1817)

Ins

AM

LC

C

Black Drongo

Dicrurus macrocercus (Vieillot, 1817)

Ins

AM

LC

O

Hair-crested Drongo

Dicrurus hottentottus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Ins

SV

LC

O

Elachuridae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Spotted Wren Babbler

Elachura formosa (Walden, 1874)

Ins

LC

LC

Emberizidae (2)

 

 

 

 

 

Crested Bunting

Emberiza lathami (Gray, JE, 1831)

Omn

SV

LC

O

Little Bunting

Emberiza pusilla (Pallas, 1776)

Omn

PM

LC

O

Estrildidae (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Scaly-breasted Munia

Lonchura punctulata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Gra

AM

LC

R

Fringillidae (11)

 

 

 

 

 

Common Rosefinch

Carpodacus erythrinus (Pallas, 1770)

Gra

AM

LC

O

Pink-browed Rosefinch

Carpodacus rodochroa (Vigors, 1831)

Gra

SV

LC

O

White-browed Rosefinch

Carpodacus thura (Bonaparte & Schlegel, 1850)

Gra

AM

LC

C

Yellow-breasted Greenfinch

Chloris spinoides (Vigors, 1831)

Gra

AM

LC

F

Scarlet Finch

Carpodacus sipahi (Hodgson, 1836)

Gra

AM

LC

O

Red Crossbill

Loxia curvirostra  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Gra

SV

LC

O

White-winged Grosbeak

Mycerobas carnipes (Hodgson, 1836)

Fru

AM

LC

O

Spot-winged Grosbeak

Mycerobes melanozanthos (Hodgson, 1836)

Fru

AM

LC

O

Dark-breasted Rosefinch

Procarduelis nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836)

Gra

AM

LC

F

Red-headed Bullfinch

Pyrrhula erythrocephala (Vigors, 1832)

Gra

AM