Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 October 2020 | 12(14): 17060–17062
ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print)
#6815 | Received 19 October 2020
Erratum and addenda to the article ‘A history of primatology in India’
Mewa Singh 1, Mridula Singh 2, Honnavalli N. Kumara 3, Dilip Chetry 4 & Santanu Mahato 5
1,5 Biopsychology Laboratory, Institution of Excellence, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysuru, Karnataka 570006, India.
1 Zoo Outreach Organization, No. 12, Thiruvannamalai Nagar, Saravanampatti - Kalapatti Road, Saravanampatti, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641035, India.
2 Department of Psychology, Maharaja’s College, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka 570005, India.
3 Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Anaikatti P.O., Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641108, India.
4 Aaranyak, 13 Tayab Ali Byelane, Guwahati, Assam 781028, India.
1 email@example.com (corresponding author), 2 firstname.lastname@example.org, 3 email@example.com, 4 firstname.lastname@example.org, 5 email@example.com
Suraj Mal Mohnot should be read as Surendra Mal Mohnot.
In 1968, Robert H. Horwich of the Chicago Zoological Society, USA, came to India and studied the devastating impact of replacing Eucalyptus trees in the place of natural forest in the evergreen shola areas of the Nilgiri Mountains, causing the decline of indigenous fauna such as Nilgiri Langur (Horwich 1972). After that, he joined the Golden Langur Conservation Project to extend the work of the Indo-US Primate Project of 1994–2001, and was involved in community-based conservation programs in the Manas Biosphere Reserve (Horwich et al. 2010, 2013).
Awadhesh Pratap Singh University
Shivesh Pratap Singh (Singh 1984) carried out studies in Mand Reserve Forest, Madhya Pradesh, on habitat use and feeding by Hanuman Langurs and Rhesus Macaques. Later, his students worked on langurs and Rhesus Macaques in various parts of Satna District of Madhya Pradesh. Ravish Vachaspati Gautam (Gautam 2003) studied the feeding ecology and habitat utilization of langurs and Chetna Sharma (Sharma 2018) studied habitat utilization and feeding habits of Rhesus Macaques. A population survey was conducted from 2014 to 2015 in which a population density of 34.5 per km2 was estimated in 2014, while 37.5 per km2 was estimated in 2015 in Kardmeshwerdham Hill and 23.2 per km2 was estimated in 2014, and finally 24.8 per km2 was estimated in 2015 in Babupur Kaniyari. The adult male-female sex ratio of the Babupur Kaniyari group ranged from 1:3 to 1:3.5, while the Kardmeshwerdham group was found with an adult male-female sex ratio of 1:2.75 to 1:3.25.
S.F. Wesley Sunderraj (Sunderraj 1998) studied the ecology of Nilgiri Langur in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Groups were uni-male with an average size of 18.5. Births peaked in May and November. These langurs fed on 219 food items from 102 plant species.
Arizona State University
Kaberi Kar-Gupta (Kar-Gupta 2008 (http://copus.org/meet-kaberi-kar-gupta/)) studied the ecology of Slender Loris Loris tardigradus in Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR), India. She observed that males have different mating strategies that include roamers with large ranges and with access to many females, and settlers either without any female or associated with a female as a pair. These observation dispelled the previous notion that Slender Loris had a simple mating system.
Anup Dey (Dey 2015) studied the status and distribution of Hoolock Gibbon in select reserve forest of Karimganj District, Assam. The level of anthropogenic disturbance (poaching, logging, jhum cultivation, and agricultural encroachment) had a significant impact on gibbon population. The study identified that the Patharia Reserve Forest was a better site for gibbon survival among all the forests in the district.
Mitrajit Deb (Deb 2018 (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mitrajit_Deb)) reported that Western Hoolock Gibbons that are known to be frugivores are consuming more leaves due to a dearth of fruiting trees. Loss of fruiting trees diminish habitat quality, and this may lead to severe nutritional stress in future. The study recommends taking up conservation programmes at a village council level (gram panchayats) to arrive at a participatory biodiversity conservation plan.
S. Rajeshkumar (Rajeshkumar 2017) reported that Nicobar Long-tailed Macaques inhabit natural habitats much of the time and consume food from a wide variety of plant species, but human settlements and agricultural activities often lead to numerous human-macaque hostilities that can enhance agonistic activities leading to severe fatality among individuals.
North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Nirjuli, India
Parimal Chandra Ray (Ray 2017 (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Parimal_Ray4)) identified the population structure of 10 preferred food tree species of the Western Hoolock Gibbon, of which only two, Chukrasia velutina and Alianthus integrifolia, had a reasonably good population structure. The level of anthropogenic disturbance had a significant impact on the variation of the population and regeneration status of those food plants of the gibbon.
Diana Ethel Amonge (Amonge 2019) studied various reproductive aspects of Eastern Hoolock Gibbon in Conservation Breeding Centre, Biological Park, Itanagar. She documented 94 mating attempts in which there were maximum attempts in January and minimum attempts in July. The estimated duration of each copulation was 28.4±1.2 seconds. The period of gestation was 189±0.92 days (n=14) and the average interval of birth for females whose infants survived or died after birth was 3.1±0.3 years and 1.5±0.2 years, respectively.
Bidyut Sarania (Sarania 2019 (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bidyut_Sarania3)) recorded a total of 969 individuals comprising 41 troops (mean troop size was 23.63±1.21) of Macaca munzala from western Arunachal Pradesh within the altitudinal range of 1,400–3,000 m. The behavioral activities and the ranging pattern of M. munzala are significantly influenced by the seasonal availability of food items. It was found that only 2.4% of the landmass of the state was the possible habitat of the species.
Anindita Chakravarty (Chakravarty 2020 (http://www.bijnicollege.ac.in/Departments/Science/Employee%20Profile.aspx?did=12&eid=54)) studied the habitat utilization pattern, feeding, and population ecology of the Golden Langur in Kakoijana Reserve Forest, Assam. A total of 121 plant species comprising trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers used by Golden Langur as food items were recorded. Langurs were found to feed actively on Cyathea gigantea (Tree fern) along with Diplazium esculentum (Dhekia, a well-known edible fern of Assam), and mature leaves of Lygodium microphyllum.
Abinash Parida (Parida 2020 (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Abinash_Parida2)) found that Phayre’s Leaf Monkeys feed on eight different plants spending ≥90% of their feeding time on Musa ornata, Melacanna baccifera, and Dendrocalamus longispathus and about ≥80% Musa balbisiana, Gmelina arborea, and Buettneria pilosa. The male-female ratio was 1:7 and the group size was 15.1±1.1.
Phoebe Laremruati (Laremruati 2020 (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Phoebe_Lalremruati)) studied the behavior of the Pig-tailed Macaques Macaca leonina in captivity. Adult females spent most of their time grooming, followed by juvenile females, juvenile males, and adult males. The male infants attain independence earlier than the female infants. The rate of infection with gastrointestinal parasites was 61.82% in spite of all the anthelmintic treatments given. The monkeys breed during October and March.
Amonge, D.E. (2019). Ethology and reproductive biology of Eastern Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) in Conservation Breeding Centre, Biological Park, Itanagar. PhD Thesis. North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), Nirjuli.
Chakravarty, A. (2020). Habitat utilization pattern, feeding and population ecology of Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei Khajuria, 1956) in Kakoijana Reserve Forest, Assam, India. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, Guwahati.
Deb, M. (2018). Evaluation of nutrition of Endangered Western Hoolock Gibbon in Cachar District of Assam,India. PhD Thesis. Assam University, Silchar.
Dey, A. (2015). Studies on habitat analysis, status & distribution of Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in selected Reserve forest of Karimganj District, Assam, India. PhD Thesis. Assam University, Silchar.
Gautam, R.V. (2003). Studies on feeding ecology and habitat utilization of common Indian langurs of Satna district. PhD Thesis. Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa.
Horwich, R.H. (1972). Home range and food habits of the Nilgiri langur, Presbytis johnii. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 69: 255–267.
Horwich, R.H., R. Islari, A. Bose, B. Dey, M. Moshahary, N.K. Dey, R. Das & J. Lyon (2010). Community protection of the Manas Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India, and the endangered golden langur Trachypithecus geei. Oryx 44: 252–260.
Horwich, R.H., R. Das & A. Bose (2013).Conservation and the current status of the golden langur in Assam, India, with reference to Bhutan. Primate Conservation 27: 77–83.
Kar-Gupta, K. (2008). Sociology and conservation of the Slender Loris (Loris tardigradus) in southern India. PhD Thesis. Arizona State University, Tempe.
Laremruati, P. (2020). Studies of behaviour and molecular characterization of Northern Pigtailed Macaque (Macaca leonina Blyth, 1863) in Mizoram, India. PhD Thesis. Mirozam University, Aizawl.
Parida, A. (2020). Studies on status and ecology of primate communities with special references to Phayre’s Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus phayre phayre Blyth, 1847) in Dampa Tiger Reserve, Mizoram, India. PhD Thesis. Mizoram University, Aizawl.
Rajeshkumar, S. (2017). Bionomics of endemic Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus Miller, 1902 from Great Nicobar Island, India. PhD Thesis. Pondicherry University, Pondicherry.
Ray, P.C. (2017). Ecology of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) and regeneration status of most preferred food plant species in Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India. PhD Thesis. North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), Nirjuli.
Sarania, B. (2019). Population distribution, behavioural ecology and morphomentry of Macaca munzala, Arunachal Pradesh, India. PhD Thesis. Tezpur University, Tezpur.
Sharma, C. (2018). Studies on habitat utilization and feeding habits of Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) in different areas of Satna district, Madhya Pradesh. PhD Thesis. Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa.
Singh, S.P. (1984). Some studies of habitat utilization and feeding by the monkeys Presbytis entellus and Macaca mulatta in Mand Reserve Forest, Rewa. MPhil Thesis. Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa.
Sunderraj, S.F.W. (1998). The ecology of the endangered Nilgiri Langur (Presbytis johnii) on Mundanthurai Plateau, Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, South India. PhD Thesis. Saurashtra University, Rajkot.